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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334647/time-resolved-decoding-of-planned-delayed-and-immediate-prehension-movements
#1
Giacomo Ariani, Nikolaas N Oosterhof, Angelika Lingnau
Different contexts require us either to react immediately, or to delay (or suppress) a planned movement. Previous studies that aimed at decoding movement plans typically dissociated movement preparation and execution by means of delayed-movement paradigms. Here we asked whether these results can be generalized to the planning and execution of immediate movements. To directly compare delayed, non-delayed, and suppressed reaching and grasping movements, we used a slow event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design...
December 23, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334549/cost-effectiveness-of-alternative-strategies-for-provision-of-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-people-who-inject-drugs
#2
Rui Fu, Douglas K Owens, Margaret L Brandeau
BACKGROUND: Oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been recommended as a means of HIV prevention among people who inject drugs (PWID) but, at current prices, is unlikely to be cost-effective for all PWID. OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-effectiveness of alternative strategies for enrolling PWID in PrEP. DESIGN: Dynamic network model that captures HIV transmission and progression among PWID in a representative US urban center. OUTCOME MEASURES: HIV infections averted, discounted costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs)...
January 13, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334318/molecular-dynamics-perspective-on-the-thermal-stability-of-mandelate-racemase
#3
Jiali Gu, Hongfei Tong, Laiyu Sun, Zhijian Lin
Mandelate racemase from Pseudomonas putida is a promising candidate for the dynamic kinetic resolution of α-hydroxy carboxylic acids. In the present study, the thermal stability of mandelate racemase was investigated through molecular dynamics simulations in the temperature range of 303 K to 363 K, which can guide the design of mandelate racemase with higher stability. The basic features such as radius of gyration, surface accessibility, and secondary structure content suggested the instability of mandelate racemase at high temperatures...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334152/dynamic-coordination-of-eu-iminodiacetate-to-control-fluorochromic-response-of-polymer-hydrogels-to-multistimuli
#4
Gengsheng Weng, Srinivas Thanneeru, Jie He
New fluorochromic materials that reversibly change their emission properties in response to their environment are of interest for the development of sensors and light-emitting materials. A new design of Eu-containing polymer hydrogels showing fast self-healing and tunable fluorochromic properties in response to five different stimuli, including pH, temperature, metal ions, sonication, and force, is reported. The polymer hydrogels are fabricated using Eu-iminodiacetate (IDA) coordination in a hydrophilic poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) matrix...
January 15, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334105/specific-labeling-of-mitochondria-of-chlamydomonas-with-cationic-helicene-fluorophores
#5
Christoph Bauer, Romain Duwald, Geraldine Maria Labrador, Simon Pascal, Pau Moneva Lorente, Johann Bosson, Jérôme Lacour, Jean-David Rochaix
Twelve cationic helicenes and one triangulene were tested for the specific labeling of mitochondria from algal cells. Octyl ester derivative 5 readily penetrates algal cells and gives rise to clear fluorescence patterns when it is used at concentrations in the μM range. Under these conditions, cell structures are well preserved and cell survival is not compromised. Cationic helicene compounds such as 5 provide new useful tools for examining the mitochondrial network and its dynamics including fission and fusion events...
January 15, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333545/dynamic-changes-in-copper-homeostasis-and-post-transcriptional-regulation-of-atp7a-during-myogenic-differentiation
#6
Katherine E Vest, Amanda L Paskavitz, Joseph B Lee, Teresita Padilla-Benavides
Copper (Cu) is an essential metal required for activity of a number of redox active enzymes that participate in critical cellular pathways such as metabolism and cell signaling. Because it is also a toxic metal, Cu must be tightly controlled by a series of transporters and chaperone proteins that regulate Cu homeostasis. The critical nature of Cu is highlighted by the fact that mutations in Cu homeostasis genes cause pathologic conditions such as Menkes and Wilson diseases. While Cu homeostasis in highly affected tissues like the liver and brain is well understood, no study has probed the role of Cu in development of skeletal muscle, another tissue that often shows pathology in these conditions...
January 15, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333483/how-heart-rate-variability-affects-emotion-regulation-brain-networks
#7
Mara Mather, Julian Thayer
Individuals with high heart rate variability tend to have better emotional well-being than those with low heart rate variability, but the mechanisms of this association are not yet clear. In this paper, we propose the novel hypothesis that by inducing oscillatory activity in the brain, high amplitude oscillations in heart rate enhance functional connectivity in brain networks associated with emotion regulation. Recent studies using daily biofeedback sessions to increase the amplitude of heart rate oscillations suggest that high amplitude physiological oscillations have a causal impact on emotional well-being...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332400/multiscale-kinetic-modeling-reveals-ensemble-of-cl-h-exchange-pathways-in-clc-ec1-antiporter
#8
Heather B Mayes, Sangyun Lee, Andrew D White, Gregory A Voth, Jessica M J Swanson
Despite several years of research, the ion exchange mechanisms in chloride/proton antiporters and many other coupled transporters are not yet understood at the molecular level. Here, we present a novel approach to kinetic modeling and apply it to ion exchange in ClC-ec1. Our multiscale kinetic model (MKM) is developed by 1) calculating the state-to-state rate coefficients with reactive and polarizable molecular dynamics simulations, 2) optimizing these rates in a global kinetic network, and 3) predicting new electrophysiological results...
January 14, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331767/lessons-from-simple-marine-models-on-the-bacterial-regulation-of-eukaryotic-development
#9
REVIEW
Arielle Woznica, Nicole King
Molecular cues from environmental bacteria influence important developmental decisions in diverse marine eukaryotes. Yet, relatively little is understood about the mechanisms underlying these interactions, in part because marine ecosystems are dynamic and complex. With the help of simple model systems, including the choanoflagellate Salpingoeca rosetta, we have begun to uncover the bacterial cues that shape eukaryotic development in the ocean. Here, we review how diverse bacterial cues-from lipids to macromolecules-regulate development in marine eukaryotes...
January 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331233/a-biophysical-modelling-platform-of-the-cochlear-nucleus-and-other-auditory-circuits-from-channels-to-networks
#10
Paul B Manis, Luke Campagnola
Models of the auditory brainstem have been an invaluable tool for testing hypotheses about auditory information processing and for highlighting the most important gaps in the experimental literature. Due to the complexity of the auditory brainstem, and indeed most brain circuits, the dynamic behavior of the system may be difficult to predict without a detailed, biologically realistic computational model. Despite the sensitivity of models to their exact construction and parameters, most prior models of the cochlear nucleus have incorporated only a small subset of the known biological properties...
December 28, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331134/coarse-grained-model-of-nanoscale-segregation-water-diffusion-and-proton-transport-in-nafion-membranes
#11
Aleksey Vishnyakov, Runfang Mao, Ming-Tsung Lee, Alexander V Neimark
We present a coarse-grained model of the acid form of Nafion membrane that explicitly includes proton transport. This model is based on a soft-core bead representation of the polymer implemented into the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulation framework. The proton is introduced as a separate charged bead that forms dissociable Morse bonds with water beads. Morse bond formation and breakup artificially mimics the Grotthuss hopping mechanism of proton transport. The proposed DPD model is parameterized to account for the specifics of the conformations and flexibility of the Nafion backbone and sidechains; it treats electrostatic interactions in the smeared charge approximation...
January 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331126/binding-branched-and-linear-dna-structures-from-isolated-clusters-to-fully-bonded-gels
#12
J Fernandez-Castanon, F Bomboi, F Sciortino
The proper design of DNA sequences allows for the formation of well-defined supramolecular units with controlled interactions via a consecution of self-assembling processes. Here, we benefit from the controlled DNA self-assembly to experimentally realize particles with well-defined valence, namely, tetravalent nanostars (A) and bivalent chains (B). We specifically focus on the case in which A particles can only bind to B particles, via appropriately designed sticky-end sequences. Hence AA and BB bonds are not allowed...
January 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330787/mass-spectrometry-and-bioinformatic-analysis-of-hydroxylation-dependent-protein-protein-interactions
#13
Javier Rodriguez, Alex von Kriegsheim
Characterization of how a stimulus regulates the dynamics of protein-protein interaction is critical for understanding how a particular protein is regulated in an intracellular signaling network. Protein hydroxylation, which is a posttranslational modification catalyzed by oxygen-dependent enzymes, is a crucial regulator of protein-protein interactions. Under low oxygen conditions, the activity of many hydroxylases is inhibited, which results in a reduction of substrate hydroxylation. These changes alter the interactome of the substrate, and this dynamic rewiring of signaling networks explains crucial aspects of the adaptive response to hypoxia...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330773/mechanistic-regulation-of-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-through-ras-signaling-pathway-and-therapeutic-implications-in-human-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Kiran Tripathi, Minal Garg
RAS effector signaling instead of being simple, unidirectional and linear cascade, is actually recognized as highly complex and dynamic signaling network. RAF-MEK-ERK cascade, being at the center of complex signaling network, links to multiple scaffold proteins through feed forward and feedback mechanisms and dynamically regulate tumor initiation and progression. Three isoforms of Ras harbor mutations in a cell and tissue specific manner. Besides mutations, their epigenetic silencing also attributes them to exhibit oncogenic activities...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330551/autapses-promote-synchronization-in-neuronal-networks
#15
Huawei Fan, Yafeng Wang, Hengtong Wang, Ying-Cheng Lai, Xingang Wang
Neurological disorders such as epileptic seizures are believed to be caused by neuronal synchrony. However, to ascertain the causal role of neuronal synchronization in such diseases through the traditional approach of electrophysiological data analysis remains a controversial, challenging, and outstanding problem. We offer an alternative principle to assess the physiological role of neuronal synchrony based on identifying structural anomalies in the underlying network and studying their impacts on the collective dynamics...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330480/anti-correlated-cortical-networks-arise-from-spontaneous-neuronal-dynamics-at-slow-timescales
#16
Nathan X Kodama, Tianyi Feng, James J Ullett, Hillel J Chiel, Siddharth S Sivakumar, Roberto F Galán
In the highly interconnected architectures of the cerebral cortex, recurrent intracortical loops disproportionately outnumber thalamo-cortical inputs. These networks are also capable of generating neuronal activity without feedforward sensory drive. It is unknown, however, what spatiotemporal patterns may be solely attributed to intrinsic connections of the local cortical network. Using high-density microelectrode arrays, here we show that in the isolated, primary somatosensory cortex of mice, neuronal firing fluctuates on timescales from milliseconds to tens of seconds...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330362/dynamic-modelling-of-the-mtor-signalling-network-reveals-complex-emergent-behaviours-conferred-by-deptor
#17
Thawfeek M Varusai, Lan K Nguyen
The mechanistic Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) signalling network is an evolutionarily conserved network that controls key cellular processes, including cell growth and metabolism. Consisting of the major kinase complexes mTOR Complex 1 and 2 (mTORC1/2), the mTOR network harbours complex interactions and feedback loops. The DEP domain-containing mTOR-interacting protein (DEPTOR) was recently identified as an endogenous inhibitor of both mTORC1 and 2 through direct interactions, and is in turn degraded by mTORC1/2, adding an extra layer of complexity to the mTOR network...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330134/a-supplementary-functional-connectivity-microstate-attached-to-the-default-mode-network-in-depression-revealed-by-resting-state-magnetoencephalography
#18
Siqi Zhang, Shui Tian, Mohammad Ridwan Chattun, Hao Tang, Rui Yan, Kun Bi, Zhijian Yao, Qing Lu
Default mode network (DMN) has discernable involvement in the representation of negative, self-referential information in depression. Both increased and decreased resting-state functional connectivity between the anterior and posterior DMN have been observed in depression. These conflicting connectivity differences necessitated further exploration of the resting-state DMN dysfunction in depression. Hence, we investigated the time-varying dynamic interactions within the DMN via functional connectivity microstates in a sub-second level...
January 9, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329686/highlighting-priority-areas-for-bovine-viral-diarrhea-control-in-italy-a-phylogeographic-approach
#19
Erika Ebranati, Stefania Lauzi, Francesco Cerutti, Claudio Caruso, Loretta Masoero, Ana Moreno, Gian Mario De Mia, Simone Peletto, Gianguglielmo Zehender, Camilla Luzzago
The prevalence and genetic diversity of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a geographic area are largely influenced by live animal trade and management practices. Despite control and eradication programs currently underway in several European countries, the risk of BVDV spread within and among countries is still present. BVDV-1 is the predominant type circulating in European cattle population. In this study, a phylogeographic analysis was applied to the BVDV-1 highest prevalent subtypes in Italy to reconstruct the origin and spatial-temporal distribution and to trace main viral flows between different locations to highlight priority areas for BVDV control...
January 9, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329401/morphological-and-functional-characterization-of-non-fast-spiking-gabaergic-interneurons-in-layer-4-microcircuitry-of-rat-barrel-cortex
#20
Vishalini Emmenegger, Guanxiao Qi, Haijun Wang, Dirk Feldmeyer
GABAergic interneurons are notorious for their heterogeneity, despite constituting a small fraction of the neuronal population in the neocortex. Classification of interneurons is crucial for understanding their widespread cortical functions as they provide a complex and dynamic network, balancing excitation and inhibition. Here, we investigated different types of non-fast-spiking (nFS) interneurons in Layer 4 (L4) of rat barrel cortex using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings with biocytin-filling. Based on a quantitative analysis on a combination of morphological and electrophysiological parameters, we identified 5 distinct types of L4 nFS interneurons: 1) trans-columnar projecting interneurons,2) locally projecting non-Martinotti-like interneurons, 3) supra-granular projecting Martinotti-like interneurons,4) intra-columnar projecting VIP-like interneurons,and5) locally projecting neurogliaform-like interneurons...
January 10, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
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