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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161412/fluid-dynamics-in-heart-development-effects-of-hematocrit-and-trabeculation
#1
Nicholas A Battista, Andrea N Lane, Jiandong Liu, Laura A Miller
Recent in vivo experiments have illustrated the importance of understanding the haemodynamics of heart morphogenesis. In particular, ventricular trabeculation is governed by a delicate interaction between haemodynamic forces, myocardial activity, and morphogen gradients, all of which are coupled to genetic regulatory networks. The underlying haemodynamics at the stage of development in which the trabeculae form is particularly complex, given the balance between inertial and viscous forces. Small perturbations in the geometry, scale, and steadiness of the flow can lead to changes in the overall flow structures and chemical morphogen gradients, including the local direction of flow, the transport of morphogens, and the formation of vortices...
November 16, 2017: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161383/basal-forebrain-gating-by-somatostatin-neurons-drives-prefrontal-cortical-activity
#2
Nelson Espinosa, Alejandra Alonso, Cristian Morales, Pedro Espinosa, Andrés E Chávez, Pablo Fuentealba
The basal forebrain provides modulatory input to the cortex regulating brain states and cognitive processing. Somatostatin-expressing neurons constitute a heterogeneous GABAergic population known to functionally inhibit basal forebrain cortically projecting cells thus favoring sleep and cortical synchronization. However, it remains unclear if somatostatin cells can regulate population activity patterns in the basal forebrain and modulate cortical dynamics. Here, we demonstrate that somatostatin neurons regulate the corticopetal synaptic output of the basal forebrain impinging on cortical activity and behavior...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161362/the-hierarchical-organization-of-the-default-dorsal-attention-and-salience-networks-in-adolescents-and-young-adults
#3
Yuan Zhou, Karl J Friston, Peter Zeidman, Jie Chen, Shu Li, Adeel Razi
An important characteristic of spontaneous brain activity is the anticorrelation between the core default network (cDN) and the dorsal attention network (DAN) and the salience network (SN). This anticorrelation may constitute a key aspect of functional anatomy and is implicated in several brain disorders. We used dynamic causal modeling to assess the hypothesis that a causal hierarchy underlies this anticorrelation structure, using resting-state fMRI of healthy adolescent and young adults (N = 404). Our analysis revealed an asymmetric effective connectivity, such that the regions in the SN and DAN exerted an inhibitory influence on the cDN regions; whereas the cDN exerted an excitatory influence on the SN and DAN regions...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161351/echoes-of-affective-stimulation-in-brain-connectivity-networks
#4
Viola Borchardt, Yan Fan, Marie Dietz, Ana Lucia Herrera Melendez, Malek Bajbouj, Matti Gärtner, Meng Li, Martin Walter, Simone Grimm
Affective experience has effects on subjective feelings, physiological indices, entails immediate activity changes in the brain, and even influences brain networks in a protracted manner. However, it is still unclear, how the functional connectivity (FC) interplay between major intrinsic connectivity networks upon affective stimulation depends on affective valence, and whether this is specific for affective experience, i.e., can be distinguished from cognitive task execution. Our study included fMRI scans during and after affective stimulation with sad and neutral movies and a working memory task complemented with measures of cardiovascular activity and mood...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161187/network-mapping-with-gimme
#5
Adriene M Beltz, Kathleen M Gates
Network science is booming! While the insights and images afforded by network mapping techniques are compelling, implementing the techniques is often daunting to researchers. Thus, the aim of this tutorial is to facilitate implementation in the context of GIMME, or group iterative multiple model estimation. GIMME is an automated network analysis approach for intensive longitudinal data. It creates person-specific networks that explain how variables are related in a system. The relations can signify current or future prediction that is common across people or applicable only to an individual...
November 2017: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161091/dealing-with-stress-defective-metabolic-adaptation-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-pathogenesis
#6
Charalambos Michaeloudes, Pankaj K Bhavsar, Sharon Mumby, Kian Fan Chung, Ian M Adcock
The mitochondrion is the main site of energy production and a hub of key signaling pathways. It is also central in stress-adaptive response due to its dynamic morphology and ability to interact with other organelles. In response to stress, mitochondria fuse into networks to increase bioenergetic efficiency and protect against oxidative damage. Mitochondrial damage triggers segregation of damaged mitochondria from the mitochondrial network through fission and their proteolytic degradation by mitophagy. Post-translational modifications of the mitochondrial proteome and nuclear cross-talk lead to reprogramming of metabolic gene expression to maintain energy production and redox balance...
November 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161039/x-ray-emission-spectrum-of-liquid-ethanol-origin-of-split-peaks
#7
Osamu Takahashi, Mathias P Ljungberg, Lars G M Pettersson
The X-ray emission spectrum of liquid ethanol was calculated using density functional theory and a semi-classical approximation to the Kramers-Heisenberg formula including core-hole-induced dynamics. Our spectrum agrees well with the experimental spectrum. We found that the intensity ratio between the two peaks at 526 and 527 eV assigned as 10a' and 3a" depends not only on the hydrogen bonding network around the target molecule, but also on the intramolecular conformation. This effect is absent in liquid methanol and demonstrates the high sensitivity of X-ray emission to molecular structure...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161020/deformation-drives-alignment-of-nanofibers-in-framework-for-inducing-anisotropic-cellulose-hydrogels-with-high-toughness
#8
Dongdong Ye, Qiaoyun Cheng, Qianlei Zhang, Yixiang Wang, Chunyu Chang, Liangbin Li, Haiyan Peng, Lina Zhang
Deformation driven alignment of molecules or nanofibers leading to anisotropy is a challenge in functional soft materials. Here, high toughness hydrogels with deformation-induced anisotropy are fabricated from cellulose solution in LiOH/urea, relying on successively designing a loose chemical crosslinking network and a dense physical network containing nanofibers and submicrobundles formed through parallel self-aggregation in dilute acid. The loose network acts as a large framework, whereas relatively dense physical networks are integrated inside, jointly constituting the hierarchical architecture...
November 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160744/modulation-of-neural-oscillatory-activity-during-dynamic-face-processing
#9
Elaine Foley, Gina Rippon, Carl Senior
Various neuroimaging and neurophysiological methods have been used to examine neural activation patterns in response to faces. However, much of previous research has relied on static images of faces, which do not allow a complete description of the temporal structure of face-specific neural activities to be made. More recently, insights are emerging from fMRI studies about the neural substrates that underpin our perception of naturalistic dynamic face stimuli, but the temporal and spectral oscillatory activity associated with processing dynamic faces has yet to be fully characterized...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159360/integration-of-molecular-machines-into-supramolecular-materials-actuation-between-equilibrium-polymers-and-crystal-like-gels
#10
Giacomo Mariani, Antoine Goujon, Emilie Moulin, Michel Rawiso, Nicolas Giuseppone, Eric Buhler
In this article, the dynamic structure of complex supramolecular polymers composed of bistable [c2]daisy chain rotaxanes as molecular machines that are linked by ureidopyrimidinones (Upy) as recognition moieties was studied. pH actuation of the integrated mechanically active rotaxanes controls the contraction/extension of the polymer chains as well as their physical reticulation. Small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering were used to study in-depth the nanostructure of the contracted and extended polymer aggregates in toluene solution...
November 21, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159213/dataset-generated-for-dissection-of-mechanisms-of-trypanothione-reductase-and-tryparedoxin-peroxidase-through-dynamic-network-analysis-and-simulations-in-leishmaniasis
#11
Anurag Kumar, Bhaskar Saha, Shailza Singh
Leishmaniasis is the second largest parasitic killer disease caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania, transmitted by the bite of sand flies. It's endemic in the eastern India with 165.4 million populations at risk with the current drug regimen. Three forms of leishmaniasis exist in which cutaneous is the most common form caused by Leishmania major. Trypanothione Reductase (TryR), a flavoprotein oxidoreductase, unique to thiol redox system, is considered as a potential target for chemotherapy for trypanosomatids infection...
December 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159039/disruption-of-default-mode-network-dynamics-in-acute-and-chronic-pain-states
#12
Z Alshelh, K K Marciszewski, R Akhter, F Di Pietro, E P Mills, E R Vickers, C C Peck, G M Murray, L A Henderson
It has been proposed that pain competes with other attention-demanding stimuli for cognitive resources, and many chronic pain patients display significant attention and mental flexibility deficits. These alterations may result from disruptions in the functioning of the default mode network (DMN) which plays a critical role in attention, memory, prospection and self-processing, and recent investigations have found alterations in DMN function in multiple chronic pain conditions. Whilst it has been proposed that these DMN alterations are a characteristic of pain that is chronic in nature, we recently reported altered oscillatory activity in the DMN during an acute, 5  minute noxious stimulus in healthy control subjects...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158879/changes-in-effective-connectivity-network-patterns-in-drug-abusers-treated-with-different-methods
#13
Arash Zare Sadeghi, Amir Homayoun Jafari, Mohammad Ali Oghabian, Hamid Reza Salighehrad, Seyed Amir Hossein Batouli, Samira Raminfard, Hamed Ekhtiari
Introduction: Various treatment methods for drug abusers will result in different success rates. This is partly due to different neural assumptions and partly due to various rate of relapse in abusers because of different circumstances. Investigating the brain activation networks of treated subjects can reveal the hidden mechanisms of the therapeutic methods. Methods: We studied three groups of subjects: heroin abusers treated with abstinent based therapy (ABT) method, heroin abusers treated with Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT) method, and a control group...
July 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158553/the-architecture-of-mutualistic-networks-as-an-evolutionary-spandrel
#14
Sergi Valverde, Jordi Piñero, Bernat Corominas-Murtra, Jose Montoya, Lucas Joppa, Ricard Solé
Mutualistic networks have been shown to involve complex patterns of interactions among animal and plant species, including a widespread presence of nestedness. The nested structure of these webs seems to be positively correlated with higher diversity and resilience. Moreover, these webs exhibit marked measurable structural patterns, including broad distributions of connectivity, strongly asymmetrical interactions and hierarchical organization. Hierarchical organization is an especially interesting property, since it is positively correlated with biodiversity and network resilience, thus suggesting potential selection processes favouring the observed web organization...
November 20, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158531/non-criticality-of-interaction-network-over-system-s-crises-a-percolation-analysis
#15
Amir Hossein Shirazi, Abbas Ali Saberi, Ali Hosseiny, Ehsan Amirzadeh, Pourya Toranj Simin
Extraction of interaction networks from multi-variate time-series is one of the topics of broad interest in complex systems. Although this method has a wide range of applications, most of the previous analyses have focused on the pairwise relations. Here we establish the potential of such a method to elicit aggregated behavior of the system by making a connection with the concepts from percolation theory. We study the dynamical interaction networks of a financial market extracted from the correlation network of indices, and build a weighted network...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158202/dynamic-effective-connectivity-in-resting-state-fmri
#16
REVIEW
Hae-Jeong Park, Karl Friston, Chongwon Pae, Bumhee Park, Adeel Razi
Context-sensitive and activity-dependent fluctuations in connectivity underlie functional integration in the brain and have been studied widely in terms of synaptic plasticity, learning and condition-specific (e.g., attentional) modulations of synaptic efficacy. This dynamic aspect of brain connectivity has recently attracted a lot of attention in the resting state fMRI community. To explain dynamic functional connectivity in terms of directed effective connectivity among brain regions, we introduce a novel method to identify dynamic effective connectivity using spectral dynamic causal modelling (spDCM)...
November 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158177/granger-causal-connectivity-dissociates-navigation-networks-that-subserve-allocentric-and-egocentric-path-integration
#17
Chin-Teng Lin, Te-Cheng Chiu, Yu-Kai Wang, Chun-Hsiang Chuang, Klaus Gramann
Studies on spatial navigation demonstrate a significant role of the retrosplenial complex (RSC) in the transformation of egocentric and allocentric information into complementary spatial reference frames (SRFs). The tight anatomical connections of the RSC with a wide range of other cortical regions processing spatial information support its vital role within the human navigation network. To better understand how different areas of the navigational network interact, we investigated the dynamic causal interactions of brain regions involved in solving a virtual navigation task...
November 17, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157446/dynamic-visualization-of-multi-level-molecular-data-the-director-package-in-r
#18
Katherine Icay, Chengyu Liu, Sampsa Hautaniemi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: High-throughput measurement technologies have triggered a rise in large-scale cancer studies containing multiple levels of molecular data. While there are a number of efficient methods to analyze individual data types, there are far less that enhance data interpretation after analysis. We present the R package Director, a dynamic visualization approach to linking and interrogating multiple levels of molecular data after analysis for clinically meaningful, actionable insights...
January 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157246/inferring-gene-regulatory-networks-from-single-cell-data-a-mechanistic-approach
#19
Ulysse Herbach, Arnaud Bonnaffoux, Thibault Espinasse, Olivier Gandrillon
BACKGROUND: The recent development of single-cell transcriptomics has enabled gene expression to be measured in individual cells instead of being population-averaged. Despite this considerable precision improvement, inferring regulatory networks remains challenging because stochasticity now proves to play a fundamental role in gene expression. In particular, mRNA synthesis is now acknowledged to occur in a highly bursty manner. RESULTS: We propose to view the inference problem as a fitting procedure for a mechanistic gene network model that is inherently stochastic and takes not only protein, but also mRNA levels into account...
November 21, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156070/medical-crowdfunding-for-patients-undergoing-orthopedic-surgery
#20
Wesley M Durand, Joseph R Johnson, Adam E M Eltorai, Alan H Daniels
Crowdfunding for medical expenses is growing in popularity. Through several websites, patients create public campaign profiles to which donors can contribute. Research on medical crowdfunding is limited, and there have been no studies of crowdfunding in orthopedics. Active medical crowdfunding campaigns for orthopedic trauma, total joint arthroplasty, and spine surgery were queried from a crowdfunding website. The characteristics and outcomes of crowdfunding campaigns were abstracted and analyzed. For this study, 444 campaigns were analyzed, raising a total of $1,443,528...
November 20, 2017: Orthopedics
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