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Maria Romano, Antonio Fratini, Gaetano D Gargiulo, Mario Cesarelli, Luigi Iuppariello, Paolo Bifulco
This study provides a definitive analysis of the spectrum of a motor unit action potential train (MUAPT) elicited by mechanical vibratory stimulation via a detailed and concise mathematical formulation. Experimental studies demonstrated that MUAPs are not exactly synchronized with the vibratory stimulus but show a variable latency jitter, whose effects have not been investigated yet. Synchronized action potential train was represented as a quasi-periodic sequence of a given MU waveform. The latency jitter of action potentials was modeled as a Gaussian stochastic process, in accordance to the previous experimental studies...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Robert K Katzschmann, Brandon Araki, Daniela Rus
This paper presents ALVU (Array of Lidars and Vibrotactile Units), a contactless, intuitive, hands-free, and discreet wearable device that allows visually impaired users to detect low- and high-hanging obstacles, as well as physical boundaries in their immediate environment. The solution allows for safe local navigation in both confined and open spaces by enabling the user to distinguish free space from obstacles. The device presented is composed of two parts: a sensor belt and a haptic strap. The sensor belt is an array of time-of-flight distance sensors worn around the front of a user's waist, and the pulses of infrared light provide reliable and accurate measurements of the distances between the user and surrounding obstacles or surfaces...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Alejandro Bustos, Higinio Rubio, Cristina Castejón, Juan Carlos García-Prada
An efficient maintenance is a key consideration in systems of railway transport, especially in high-speed trains, in order to avoid accidents with catastrophic consequences. In this sense, having a method that allows for the early detection of defects in critical elements, such as the bogie mechanical components, is a crucial for increasing the availability of rolling stock and reducing maintenance costs. The main contribution of this work is the proposal of a methodology that, based on classical signal processing techniques, provides a set of parameters for the fast identification of the operating state of a critical mechanical system...
March 6, 2018: Sensors
Hossein Ehsani, Jane Mohler, Vladimir Marlinski, Ehsan Rashedi, Nima Toosizadeh
Fall prevention has an indispensable role in enhancing life expectancy and quality of life among older adults. The first step to prevent falls is to devise reliable methods to identify individuals at high fall risk. The purpose of the current study was to assess alterations in local postural muscle and central sensory balance control mechanisms due to low-frequency externally applied vibration among elders at high fall risk, in comparison with healthy controls, as a potential tool for assessing fall risk. Three groups of participants were recruited: healthy young (n = 10; age = 23 ± 2 years), healthy elders (n = 10; age = 73 ± 3 years), and elders at high fall risk (n = 10; age = 84 ± 9 years)...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Xin Ning, Heling Wang, Xinge Yu, Julio A N T Soares, Zheng Yan, Kewang Nan, Gabriel Velarde, Yeguang Xue, Rujie Sun, Qiyi Dong, Haiwen Luan, Chan Mi Lee, Aditya Chempakasseril, Mengdi Han, Yiqi Wang, Luming Li, Yonggang Huang, Yihui Zhang, John Rogers
Microelectromechanical systems remain an area of significant interest in fundamental and applied research due to their wide ranging applications. Most device designs, however, are largely two-dimensional and constrained to only a few simple geometries. Achieving tunable resonant frequencies or broad operational bandwidths requires complex components and/or fabrication processes. The work presented here reports unusual classes of three-dimensional (3D) micromechanical systems in the form of vibratory platforms assembled by controlled compressive buckling...
April 11, 2017: Advanced Functional Materials
Ana Olivera, Michael A Beaven, Dean D Metcalfe
FcεRI is the primary receptor in mast cells that mediate allergic reactions by inducing rapid release of mediators, an adaptive immune response that may have evolved as a host defense against parasites and venoms. Yet, it is apparent that mast cells are also activated via non-IgE receptors whose significance is just beginning to be understood. This includes the Mas-related GPCRs (MRGPRX2) that may contribute to reactions to diverse antimicrobials and polybasic compounds, and ADGRE2, an adhesion GPCR which is activated by mechanical vibration and whose variants are associated with familial vibratory urticaria...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Keiichi Maniwa, Haruyoshi Yamashita, Hiroaki Tsukano, Ryuichi Hishida, Naoto Endo, Minoru Shibata, Katsuei Shibuki
To understand the neural mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of crossing nerve transfer for brachial plexus injuries in human patients, we investigated the cortical responses after crossing nerve transfer in mice using conventional and tomographic optical imaging. The distal cut ends of the left median and ulnar nerves were connected to the central cut ends of the right median and ulnar nerves with a sciatic nerve graft at 8 weeks of age. Eight weeks after the operation, the responses in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) elicited by vibratory stimulation applied to the left forepaw were visualized based on activity-dependent flavoprotein fluorescence changes...
2018: PloS One
Xiang Chen, Fei-Xiang Wang, Chao Hu, Nian-Qin Yang, Ji-Can Dai
Penile hypersensitivity plays an important role in premature ejaculation (PE), but differences in penile sensitivity among subtypes of PE are unknown. Therefore, we compared penile sensory thresholds in PE subtypes of lifelong and acquired PE, PE with and without erectile dysfunction (ED), PE with an intravaginal ejaculation latency time ≤1 min and >1 min, and PE with and without orgasmic pleasure perceptual dysfunction. During August 2014 to January 2016, 136 patients with PE were included. Penile warm, cold, and vibratory thresholds were measured...
February 6, 2018: Asian Journal of Andrology
Fredrik Tjernström, Per-Anders Fransson, Babar Kahlon, Mikael Karlberg, Sven Lindberg, Peter Siesjö, Måns Magnusson
OBJECT: To evaluate post-surgical postural stability when treating patients with remaining vestibular function with intratympanic gentamicin (PREHAB) prior to schwannoma surgery. METHOD: 44 consecutive patients with some form remaining vestibular function scheduled for vestibular schwannoma surgery. 20 were medically deafferented with intratympanic gentamicin before surgery and 24 were not. Both groups were of the same age, had the same tumor size, same type of surgery, and same perioperative sensory rehabilitation (training exercises), and no surgical complications...
2018: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
Lana Hirai Gimber, Linda Garland, Elizabeth A Krupinski, Tyson S Chadaz, Michael Schwenk, Bijan Najafi, Mihra S Taljanovic
PURPOSE: Chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is seen in up to 75% of treated cancer patients and can drastically limit their medical management and affect quality of life. Clinical and electrodiagnostic testing for CIPN have many pitfalls. Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) is being increasingly used in the evaluation of peripheral nerves. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) shows promise in the workup of peripheral nerves. In this prospective pilot study, we investigated a possible relationship between DTI and peripheral neuropathy of the ankle and foot in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy...
January 6, 2018: Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
In-Ho Bae, Soo-Geun Wang, Jin-Choon Lee, Eui-Suk Sung, Seong-Tae Kim, Yeon-Woo Lee, Duck-Hoon Kang, Yong-Jin Wang
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of two-dimensional scanning digital kymography (2D DKG) in patients with vocal cord atrophy before and after treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the characteristics of vocal fold vibration in five patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis and five patients with presbyphonia. In patients with vocal cord paralysis, the status before and after intracordal injection was compared...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Dongjoo Kim, Songyi Lee, Jae-Yol Lim, Soonjo Kwon
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: This study was conducted to provide a vibrational culture model to investigate the effects of mechanical environments on cellular functions, and elucidate physiological characteristics of two different types of cells in vocal folds under static and vibrational conditions. STUDY DESIGN: In vitro study of human vocal fold fibroblasts (hVFFs) and human macula flava stellate cells (hMF-SCs). METHODS: hVFFs and hMF-SCs were exposed to a 2-second-on/2-second-off, 205 Hz vibration regime for 4 hours by using a vibrational culture model...
February 2, 2018: Laryngoscope
Brian K Branstetter, Victoria F Bowman, Dorian S Houser, Megan Tormey, Patchouly Banks, James J Finneran, Keith Jenkins
Vibratory pile drivers, used for marine construction, can produce sustained, high sound pressure levels (SPLs) in areas that overlap with dolphin habitats. Dolphins rely on echolocation for navigation, detecting predators and prey, and to coordinate group behavior. This study examined the effects of vibratory pile driver noise on dolphin sustained target detection capabilities through echolocation. Five dolphins were required to scan their enclosure and indicate the occurrences of phantom echoes during five different source levels of vibratory pile driver playback sound (no-playback control, 110, 120, 130, and 140 dB re 1 μPa)...
January 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Munjed M Al Muderis, William Y Lu, Jiao Jiao Li, Kenton Kaufman, Michael Orendurff, M Jason Highsmith, Paul A Lunseth, Jason T Kahle
OBJECTIVES: The current standard of care for an amputee is a socket-based prostheses. An osseointegrated implant (OI) is an alternative for prosthetic attachment. Osseointegration addresses reported problems related to wearing a socket interface, such as skin issues, discomfort, diminished function, quality of life, prosthetic use, and abandonment. The purpose of this report is to systematically review current literature regarding OI to identify and categorize the reported clinically relevant outcome measures, rate the quality of available evidence, and synthesize the findings...
February 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
Muhammad Uzair Lodhi, Aaron R Kuzel, Intekhab Askari Syed, Mustafa Rahim
Syringomyelia classically presents as a bilateral sensory loss of the dissociated type which includes the loss of pain and temperature with the preservation of fine touch, vibratory sensation, and proprioception in the shoulder, arm, and hand. Eventually, weakness of the legs, muscle wasting, and ataxia can also be seen due to the involvement of the corticospinal tracts and the posterior columns of the spinal cord. We present the case of a 64-year-old patient with an atypical presentation of post-traumatic syringomyelia...
November 16, 2017: Curēus
Hadrien Ceyte, Jean-Marie Beis, Mathilde Simon, Ariane Rémy, René Anxionnat, Jean Paysant, Sébastien Caudron
PURPOSE: Beyond promising experimental results of sensory passive stimulations in spatial cognition disorders, some questions still remain regarding interests of these stimulations during the daily activities in neglect. The aim of this case-study was to evaluate the effects of a protocol combining left neck-muscle vibration with daily simple movements, like arm pointing movements, on perceptivo-locomotor deficits in a left spatial neglect patient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two neuropsychological tests, one subjective straight-ahead pointing (SSA) test and one wheelchair navigation test were carried out before the combination protocol, immediately after, 1 h later, and 24 h later...
January 22, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Junhong Zhou, On-Yee Lo, Lewis A Lipsitz, Jue Zhang, Jing Fang, Brad Manor
Foot-sole somatosensation is critical for safe mobility in older adults. Somatosensation arises when afferent input activates a neural network that includes the primary somatosensory cortex. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), as a strategy to increase somatosensory cortical excitability, may, therefore, enhance foot-sole somatosensation. We hypothesized that a single session of tDCS would improve foot-sole somatosensation, and thus mobility, in older adults. Twenty healthy older adults completed this randomized, double-blinded, cross-over study consisting of two visits separated by one week...
January 15, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Ibrahim A Abdel-Hamid, Omar I Ali
Delayed ejaculation (DE) is a poorly defined and uncommon form of male sexual dysfunction, characterized by a marked delay in ejaculation or an inability to achieve ejaculation. It is often quite concerning to patients and their partners, and sometimes frustrates couples' attempts to conceive. This article aims to review the pathophysiology of DE and anejaculation (AE), to explore our current understanding of the diagnosis, and to present the treatment options for this condition. Electronic databases were searched from 1966 to October 2017, including PubMed (MEDLINE) and Embase...
January 2018: World Journal of Men's Health
Jin-Choon Lee, Soo-Geun Wang, Eui-Suk Sung, In-Ho Bae, Seong-Tae Kim, Yeon-Woo Lee
BACKGROUND: A digital kymogram shows real images of vocal fold vibration. However, DKG is difficult to use in clinical practice because the recorded image cannot be seen instantaneously after examination, as considerable encoding time is required to visualize a digital kymogram. In addition, frame-by frame analysis should be implemented to evaluate high-speed videoendoscopy data, but is time- and labor-intensive. PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to validate the clinical practicability of a real-time multislice digital kymographic system developed by the authors...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Marcalee Alexander, Lesley Marson
STUDY DESIGN: narrative review OBJECTIVES: To determine the percentage of persons with SCI able to achieve orgasm and ejaculation, the associations between ejaculation and orgasm and the subjective and autonomic findings during these events, and the potential benefits with regards to spasticity. SETTING: Two American medical centers METHODS: Data bases were searched for the terms orgasm and SCI and ejaculation and SCI. Search criteria were human studies published in English from 1990 to 12/2/2016...
December 20, 2017: Spinal Cord
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