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Benjamin L Viglianti, Daniel J Wale, Ka Kit Wong, Timothy D Johnson, Christy Ky, Kirk A Frey, Milton D Gross
Purpose To examine the effect metabolic burden (tumor and/or cardiac myocyte uptake) has on fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) distribution in organs and tissues of interest. Materials and Methods Positron emission tomographic (PET)/computed tomographic (CT) scans at the Ann Arbor Veterans Affairs hospital from January to July 2015 were reviewed. A total of 107 scans (50 patients; mean age, 64.3 years ± 13.2 [standard deviation]) had metabolic tissue burden assessed by using total lesion glycolysis (TLG) obtained from autosegmentation of the tumor and/or cardiac tissue...
March 20, 2018: Radiology
Alison S Poulton, Bruce Armstrong, Ralph K Nanan
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common and may require treatment in adulthood. We aimed to investigate the treatment patterns and perinatal outcomes of women with any history of stimulant treatment for ADHD. METHODS: We used health records of the New South Wales (NSW, Australia) population to compare perinatal outcomes of women treated with stimulants (dexamphetamine or methylphenidate) for ADHD from 1982 to 2012 who gave birth between 1994 and 2012, with perinatal outcomes of women with no known ADHD or stimulant treatment (comparison cohort)...
March 19, 2018: CNS Drugs
Mohammad H Semreen, Mohammed I El-Gamal, Shifaa Abdin, Hajar Alkhazraji, Leena Kamal, Saba Hammad, Faten El-Awady, Dima Waleed, Layal Kourbaj
Antimicrobial peptides are group of proteins showing broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity that have been known to be powerful agents against a variety of pathogens. This class of compounds contributed to solving the microbial resistance dilemma that limited the use of many potent antimicrobial agents. The marine environment is known to be one of the richest sources for antimicrobial peptides, yet this environment is not fully explored. Hence, the scientific research attention should be directed toward the marine ecosystem as enormous amount of useful discoveries could be brought to the forefront...
March 2018: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
R S MacKay, J D Robinson
A Markov flow is a stationary measure, with the associated flows and mean first passage times, for a continuous-time regular jump homogeneous semi-Markov process on a discrete state space. Nodes in the state space can be eliminated to produce a smaller Markov flow which is a factor of the original one. Some improvements to the elimination methods of Wales are given. The main contribution of the paper is to present an alternative, namely a method to aggregate groups of nodes to produce a factor. The method can be iterated to make hierarchical aggregation schemes...
April 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Samah W Al-Jabi, Ansam Sous, Fatimah Jorf, Mahmoud Taqatqa, Mahdi Allan, Lamees Sawalha, Enas Lubadeh, Sa'ed H Zyoud, Waleed M Sweileh
BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of end-stage renal disease in the Palestinian population and the effect of the disease on the psychological status of the patient underlie the importance of increasing knowledge about the mental health status of patients with end-stage renal disease. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of depression in Palestinian patients treated with haemodialysis and its correlation with patients' clinical characteristics, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and adherence to medications...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Alicia Arnott, Qinning Wang, Nathan Bachmann, Rosemarie Sadsad, Chayanika Biswas, Cristina Sotomayor, Peter Howard, Rebecca Rockett, Agnieszka Wiklendt, Jon R Iredell, Vitali Sintchenko
Multidrug- and colistin-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype 4,[5],12:i:- sequence type 34 is present in Europe and Asia. Using genomic surveillance, we determined that this sequence type is also endemic to Australia. Our findings highlight the public health benefits of genome sequencing-guided surveillance for monitoring the spread of multidrug-resistant mobile genes and isolates.
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
C Raina MacIntyre, Valentina Costantino, Xin Chen, Eva Segelov, Abrar Ahmad Chughtai, Anthony Kelleher, Mohana Kunasekaran, John Michael Lane
We built a SEIR (susceptible, exposed, infected, recovered) model of smallpox transmission for New York, New York, USA, and Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, that accounted for age-specific population immunosuppression and residual vaccine immunity and conducted sensitivity analyses to estimate the effect these parameters might have on smallpox reemergence. At least 19% of New York's and 17% of Sydney's population are immunosuppressed. The highest smallpox infection rates were in persons 0-19 years of age, but the highest death rates were in those >45 years of age...
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Suman Lahiry, Christopher Levi, Joosup Kim, Dominique A Cadilhac, Andrew Searles
Background: In regional and rural Australia, patients experiencing ischemic stroke do not have equitable access to an intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Although thrombolysis with tPA is a clinically proven and cost-effective treatment for eligible stroke patients, there are few economic evaluations on pre-hospital triage interventions to improve access to tPA. Aim: To describe the potential cost-effectiveness of the pre-hospital acute stroke triage (PAST) protocol implemented to provide priority transfer of appropriate patients from smaller hospitals to a primary stroke center (PSC) in regional New South Wales, Australia...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Mohamed A Abdelgawad, Madlen B Labib, Waleed A M Ali, Gehan Kamel, Amany A Azouz, El-Shaymaa El-Nahass
A series of newly synthesized 4-aryl-hydrazonopyrazolones were designed and their structures were confirmed by spectral and elemental analyses. All synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro COXs, 5-LOX inhibition, in vivo analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Compounds 5d, 5f and 5i were found to be the most potent COX-2/5-LOX inhibitors with superior COX-2 selectivity index values (SI = 5.29-5.69) to reference standard celecoxib (SI = 3.52). Four compounds; 5b, 5c, 5d and 5f showed excellent anti-inflammatory activity (% edema inhibition = 72...
March 8, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
Waleed Brinjikji, Bongjae Chung, Ding Yong-Hong, John T Wald, Fernando Mut, Ramanathan Kadirvel, David F Kallmes, Aymeric Rouchaud, Giuseppe Lanzino, Juan R Cebral
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Vertebrobasilar dolichoectatic and fusiform aneurysms (VBDAs) are known to have a poor natural history, with high rates of growth, rupture, and stroke. The purpose of this study was to identify hemodynamic characteristics that differ between VBDAs associated with growth, rupture, and stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: VBDAs with CT angiography or MR angiography followed longitudinally without treatment were studied. Unstable aneurysms were defined as those that grew or ruptured during follow-up...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
Waleed K Mohammed, Natalio Krasnogor, Nicholas S Jakubovics
The ability of microorganisms to regulate gene expression is thought to be critical for survival and growth during the development of polymicrobial biofilms such as dental plaque. The commensal dental plaque colonizer, Streptococcus gordonii, responds to cell-cell contact (coaggregation) with Actinomyces oris by regulating > 20 genes, including those involved in arginine biosynthesis. We hypothesized that an S. gordonii extracellular protease is critical for sensing by providing amino acids that modulate gene expression...
March 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
James P Thompson, Jamie R R Mackenzie, Jeffrey K Dutschke, Matthew R J Baldock, Simon J Raftery, John Wall
In-vehicle collision avoidance technology (CAT) has the potential to prevent crash involvement. In 2015, Transport for New South Wales undertook a trial of a Mobileye 560 CAT system that was installed in 34 government fleet vehicles for a period of seven months. The system provided headway monitoring, lane departure, forward collision and pedestrian collision warnings, using audio and visual alerts. The purpose of the trial was to determine whether the technology could change the driving behaviour of fleet vehicle drivers and improve their safety...
March 12, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Raed M Almannie, Waleed H Alkhamis
Rectus sheath hematoma is a collection of blood in the sheath of rectus abdominis muscle due to an injury of one of the epigastric vessels or the muscle itself. It is a rare condition that could be caused by the use of anticoagulant injections. We report a 60-year-old lady who received enoxaparin injection on the lower abdomen. Subsequently, she developed bladder perforation secondary to rectus sheath hematoma and was diagnosed using CT angiography scan. Exploratory laparotomy was performed and bleeding was controlled with bladder wall repair...
March 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
Charlene Eliza Thornton, Hannah Grace Dahlen
OBJECTIVES: To determine incidence, associated factors, outcomes and geographical occurrence of born before arrival (BBA) in New South Wales, Australia. DESIGN: A linked population data study involving population-based surveillance systems was undertaken for the years 2000-2011. SETTING: New South Wales, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: All women who underwent BBA compared with women who birthed in hospital/birth centre settings...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Lucinda Hiam, Danny Dorling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Shannon M Melody, Veronica Martin-Gall, Ben Harding, Mark Gk Veitch
OBJECTIVES: To describe the retail availability of tobacco and to examine the association between tobacco outlet density and area-level remoteness and socio-economic status classification in Tasmania. DESIGN: Ecological cross-sectional study; analysis of tobacco retail outlet data collected by the Department of Health and Human Services (Tasmania) according to area-level (Statistical Areas Level 2) remoteness (defined by the Remoteness Structure of the Australian Statistical Geographical Standard) and socio-economic status (defined by the 2011 Australian Bureau of Statistics Index of Relative Socioeconomic Advantage and Disadvantage)...
March 19, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
Srividya Budithi, Richard Peevor, David Pugh, Emmanouil Papagiannakis, Amanda Durman, Nassera Banu, Aderemi Alalade, Simon Leeson
BACKGROUND: The diagnostic accuracy of colposcopy is poor for detecting precancerous cervical lesions. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the performance of colposcopy for identifying cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+), before and after including a dynamic spectral imaging (DSI) map that quantifies and maps acetowhitening to assist subsequent biopsy of suspicious lesions. METHODS: Four hundred and twenty-five women were examined at a multi-center setting in Wales, of which 393 women were included in the final analysis...
March 14, 2018: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
E Byrne, E Elliott, R Saltus, J Angharad
Background: We propose that arts based methodologies can be of value in the production and exchange of evidence in supporting public health related policy. This article reports on a collaborative piece of work resulting from two projects which took place in a former coal mining town in South Wales. Methods: We used a participatory framework whereby researchers, community members and artists co-produced 'evidence' through the creative arts to inform public policy...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Shabeeb Hussain, Mohammad Mahdi Tavakoli, Aashir Waleed, Umar Siddique Virk, Shihe Yang, Amir Waseem, Zhiyong Fan, Muhammad Arif Nadeem
We demonstrate for the first time the application of p-NiFe2 O4 /n-Fe2 O3 composite thin films as anode materials for light-assisted electrolysis of water. The p-NiFe2 O4 /n-Fe2 O3 composite thin films were deposited on planar fluorinated tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass as well as on 3D array of nanospike (NSP) substrates. The effect of substrate (planar FTO and 3D-NSP) and percentage change of each component (i.e., NiFe2 O4 and Fe2 O3 ) of composite was studied on photoelectrochemical (PEC) water oxidation reaction...
March 14, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Arti Nanda, Maitham A A Husain, Waleed Al-Herz, Adla Almekaimi, Humoud Al-Sabah, Mohammad Al-Otaibi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a treatment option for many life-threatening disorders in children. Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a significant complication of HSCT, and its treatment is challenging. Skin is the most common organ affected in cGVHD, with protean manifestations posing a challenge in diagnosis and management. The objective was to have a better understanding of the spectrum of chronic cutaneous GVHD (cc-GVHD) in children...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Dermatology
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