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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909225/recovery-of-the-immune-system-after-exercise
#1
Jonathan M Peake, Oliver Neubauer, Neil P Walsh, Richard J Simpson
The notion that prolonged, intense exercise causes an 'open window' of immunodepression during recovery after exercise is well accepted. Repeated exercise bouts or intensified training without sufficient recovery may increase the risk of illness. However, except for salivary IgA, clear and consistent markers of this immunodepression remain elusive. Exercise increases circulating neutrophil and monocyte counts, and reduces circulating lymphocyte count during recovery. This lymphopenia results from preferential egress of lymphocyte subtypes with potent effector functions (e...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893481/the-effect-of-exercise-induced-muscle-damage-after-a-bout-of-accentuated-eccentric-load-drop-jumps-and-the-repeated-bout-effect
#2
Lee A Bridgeman, Nicholas D Gill, Deborah K Dulson, Michael R McGuigan
Although previous studies have investigated exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD) after a bout of unloaded drop jumps (DJ) none have investigated the effects of accentuated eccentric load (AEL) DJs on EIMD. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 30 and 50 AEL DJs on strength, jump performance, muscle soreness and blood markers. Eight resistance trained athletes participated in this study. In week 1 baseline countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), concentric and eccentric peak force (PF), creatine kinase (CK) and muscle soreness (SOR) were assessed...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882611/chronic-lactate-supplementation-does-not-improve-blood-buffering-capacity-and-repeated-high-intensity-exercise
#3
L F Oliveira, V de Salles Painelli, K Nemezio, L S Gonçalves, G Yamaguchi, B Saunders, B Gualano, G G Artioli
Since there is conflicting data on the buffering and ergogenic properties of calcium lactate (CL), we investigated the effect of chronic CL supplementation on blood pH, bicarbonate, and high-intensity intermittent exercise performance. Sodium bicarbonate (SB) was used as a positive control. Eighteen athletes participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover, fully counterbalanced study. All participants underwent three different treatments: placebo (PL), CL, and SB. The dose was identical in all conditions: 500 mg/kg BM divided into four daily individual doses of 125 mg/kg BM, for five consecutive days, followed by a 2-7-day washout period...
November 23, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852613/vitamin-c-enriched-gelatin-supplementation-before-intermittent-activity-augments-collagen-synthesis
#4
Gregory Shaw, Ann Lee-Barthel, Megan Lr Ross, Bing Wang, Keith Baar
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal injuries are the most common complaint in active populations. More than 50% of all injuries in sports can be classified as sprains, strains, ruptures, or breaks of musculoskeletal tissues. Nutritional and/or exercise interventions that increase collagen synthesis and strengthen these tissues could have an important effect on injury rates. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to determine whether gelatin supplementation could increase collagen synthesis...
November 16, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814325/fatal-cardiac-arrest-in-2-children-possible-role-of-ondansetron
#5
Scott M Brenner, Jenny Boucher
INTRODUCTION: Ondansetron is commonly used to treat vomiting in gastroenteritis, but has a United States Food and Drug Administration black box warning for risk of Q wave to T wave time interval (QT) prolongation. We report 2 pediatric cases of fatal refractory cardiac arrest after administration of ondansetron. CASES: A 10-year-old previously healthy boy presented to the emergency room with gastroenteritis symptoms. After intravenous fluids, morphine, antibiotics, and 2 doses of ondansetron, the patient became unresponsive with agonal respirations and a wide complex tachycardia consistent with ventricular tachycardia...
November 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806011/do-fencers-require-a-weapon-specific-approach-to-strength-and-conditioning-training
#6
Anthony N Turner, Chris Bishop, Jon Cree, Michael Edwards, Shyam Chavda, Paul Read, David Kirby
There are three types of weapon used in Olympic fencing: the épée, foil, and sabre. The aim of this study was to determine if fencers exhibited different physical characteristics across weapons. Seventy-nine male (n = 46) and female (n = 33) national standard fencers took part in this study. Fencers from each weapon (male and female), i.e., épée (n = 19 and 10), foil (n = 22 and 14), and sabre (n = 13 and 10) were (mean ± SD) 15.9 ± 0.7 years of age, 178.5 ± 7.9 cm tall, 67.4 ± 12.2 kg in mass and had 6...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798634/influence-of-fatigue-on-tackling-ability-in-rugby-league-players-role-of-muscular-strength-endurance-and-aerobic-qualities
#7
Tim J Gabbett
This study investigated the influence of repeated high-intensity effort exercise on tackling ability in rugby league players, and determined the relationship between physical qualities and tackling ability under fatigued conditions in these athletes. Eleven semi-professional rugby league players underwent measurements of speed (10 m and 40 m sprint), upper-body strength (4 repetition maximum [RM] bench press and weighted chin-up), upper-body muscular endurance (body mass maximum repetition chin-up, body mass maximum repetition dips), lower-body strength (4RM squat), and estimated maximal aerobic power (multi-stage fitness test)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798349/impact-of-commonly-prescribed-exercise-interventions-on-platelet-activation-in-physically-inactive-and-overweight-men
#8
Andrew Haynes, Matthew D Linden, Elisa Robey, Gerald F Watts, Hugh Barrett, Louise H Naylor, Daniel J Green
The exercise paradox infers that, despite the well-established cardioprotective effects of repeated episodic exercise (training), the risk of acute atherothrombotic events may be transiently increased during and soon after an exercise bout. However, the acute impact of different exercise modalities on platelet function has not previously been addressed. We hypothesized that distinct modalities of exercise would have differing effects on in vivo platelet activation and reactivity to agonists which induce monocyte-platelet aggregate (MPA) formation...
October 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784630/minimally-invasive-biomarkers-of-general-anesthetic-induced-developmental-neurotoxicity
#9
X Zhang, F Liu, W Slikker, C Wang, M G Paule
The association of general anesthesia with developmental neurotoxicity, while nearly impossible to study in pediatric populations, is clearly demonstrable in a variety of animal models from rodents to nonhuman primates. Nearly all general anesthetics tested have been shown to cause abnormal brain cell death in animals when administered during periods of rapid brain growth. The ability to repeatedly assess in the same subjects adverse effects induced by general anesthetics provides significant power to address the time course of important events associated with exposures...
October 23, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782911/mechanisms-and-mediators-of-the-skeletal-muscle-repeated-bout-effect
#10
Robert D Hyldahl, Trevor C Chen, Kazunori Nosaka
Skeletal muscle adapts to exercise-induced damage by orchestrating several, but still poorly understood mechanisms that endow protection from subsequent damage. Known widely as the repeated bout effect, we propose that neural adaptations, alterations to muscle mechanical properties, structural remodeling of the extracellular matrix, and biochemical signaling work in concert to coordinate the protective adaptation.
October 25, 2016: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780769/effect-of-backpack-strap-patterns-on-gait-parameters-in-young-adults-at-self-selected-normal-and-fast-walking-speeds
#11
Ukachukwu Okoroafor Abaraogu, Wisdom Onyedikachi Ugwa, Osita Nnodim, Elochukwu Fortune Ezenwankwo
BACKGROUND: The effects of backpack load on young adults' gait parameters have received little attention. We previously reported that with a backpack load within 15% body weight, young adults maintain their gait parameters at the expense of increased exertion during a 6-minute walk at self-selected normal walking speed. However, the effect of backpack strap pattern on gait parameters during faster walking or longer stride length has not been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of different backpack strap patterns on gait parameters during a 12-minute walk test in young adults at self-selected normal and fast walking speeds...
October 22, 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779438/effects-of-consecutive-days-of-match-play-on-technical-performance-in-tennis
#12
Danielle T Gescheit, Rob Duffield, Melissa Skein, Neil Brydon, Stuart J Cormack, Machar Reid
Elite tennis is characterised by repeated bouts of up to 5-set match play, yet little is known about the technical requirements of shots played. This study therefore investigated technical performance changes over consecutive days of prolonged, simulated tennis match play. A total of 7 well-trained men tennis players performed 4 consecutive days of competitive 4-h match play. Matches were notated to determine between-day changes in groundstroke and serve performance, as well as point and match durations. Changes ≥75% likely to exceed the smallest important effect size (0...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770706/nrf2-mediates-redox-adaptations-to-exercise
#13
Aaron J Done, Tinna Traustadóttir
The primary aim of this review is to summarize the current literature on the effects of acute exercise and regular exercise on nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activity and downstream targets of Nrf2 signaling. Nrf2 (encoded in humans by the NFE2L2 gene) is the master regulator of antioxidant defenses, a transcription factor that regulates expression of more than 200 cytoprotective genes. Increasing evidence indicates that Nrf2 signaling plays a key role in how oxidative stress mediates the beneficial effects of exercise...
October 14, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757386/effects-of-high-intensity-swimming-training-on-the-bones-of-ovariectomized-rats
#14
Taewoong Oh, Sakura Tanaka, Tatsuki Naka, Shoji Igawa
PURPOSE: This study was performed to assess the effects of high-intensity intermittent swimming training(HIT) on bone in ovariectomized rats. METHODS: Six-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either sham operation or bilateral ovariectomy. After surgery, they were divided into the following four groups: 1) sham-operated sedentary (S), 2) sham-operated exercise training (SE), 3) OVX sedentary (O), 4) OVX exercise training (OE) 5) OVX given 17β-estradiol (OE2) and 6) OVX exercise training and given 17β-estradiol (OEE)...
September 2016: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757289/sixty-seconds-of-foam-rolling-does-not-affect-functional-flexibility-or-change-muscle-temperature-in-adolescent-athletes
#15
Andrew M Murray, Thomas W Jones, Cosmin Horobeanu, Anthony P Turner, John Sproule
BACKGROUND: Physiotherapists and other practitioners commonly prescribe foam rolling as an intervention, but the mechanistic effects of this intervention are not known. PURPOSE: The aim of this investigation was to establish if a single bout of foam rolling affects flexibility, skeletal muscle contractility and reflected temperature. METHODS: Twelve adolescent male squash players were evaluated on two separate occasions (treatment and control visits) and were tested on both legs for flexibility of the hip flexors and quadriceps, muscle contractility (as measured by tensiomyography) and temperature of the quadriceps (assessed via thermography) at repeated time points pre- and post a 60s rolling intervention (pre-, immediately post, 5, 10, 15, and 30 minutes post)...
October 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749311/isoflurane-anesthesia-has-long-term-consequences-on-motor-and-behavioral-development-in-infant-rhesus-macaques
#16
Kristine Coleman, Nicola D Robertson, Gregory A Dissen, Martha D Neuringer, L Drew Martin, Verginia C Cuzon Carlson, Christopher Kroenke, Damien Fair, Ansgar M Brambrink
BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence correlates anesthetic exposure during early development with neuronal and glial injury and death, as well as behavioral and cognitive impairments, in young animals. Several, although not all, retrospective human studies of neurocognitive and behavioral disorders after childhood exposure to anesthesia suggest a similar association. Few studies have specifically investigated the effects of infant anesthesia exposure on subsequent neurobehavioral development...
October 5, 2016: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676142/post-exercise-neurovascular-control-in-chronic-heart-failure-patients
#17
T S Nobre, R V Groehs, L F Azevedo, L M Antunes-Correa, D G Martinez, M J N N Alves, C E Negrao
It remains unknown whether or not a reduction in muscle sympathetic nerve activity in heart failure patients is associated over time with the effects of long- or short-term repeated exercise. 10 chronic heart failure patients, age 49±3 years old, functional class I-III NYHA, ejection fraction <40% were randomly submitted to either an acute bout of moderate continuous exercise OR high-intensity interval exercise. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (microneurography) and forearm blood flow (venous occlusion plethysmography) were evaluated pre- and post-exercise sessions...
December 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643952/acute-aerobic-activity-enhances-response-inhibition-for-less-than-30min
#18
Yael Netz, Mona Abu-Rukun, Sharon Tsuk, Tzvi Dwolatzky, Raffi Carasso, Oron Levin, Ayelet Dunsky
Acute exercise appears to facilitate certain aspects of cognitive processing. The possibility that exercise may lead to more efficient inhibitory processes is of particular interest, owing to the wide range of cognitive and motor functions that inhibition may underlie. The purpose of the present study was to examine the immediate and the delayed effect of acute aerobic exercise on response inhibition, motor planning, and eye-hand coordination in healthy active adults. Forty healthy and active participants (10 females) with a mean age of 51...
September 16, 2016: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636206/ingestion-of-high-molecular-weight-carbohydrate-enhances-subsequent-repeated-maximal-power-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Jonathan M Oliver, Anthony L Almada, Leighsa E Van Eck, Meena Shah, Joel B Mitchell, Margaret T Jones, Andrew R Jagim, David S Rowlands
Athletes in sports demanding repeat maximal work outputs frequently train concurrently utilizing sequential bouts of intense endurance and resistance training sessions. On a daily basis, maximal work within subsequent bouts may be limited by muscle glycogen availability. Recently, the ingestion of a unique high molecular weight (HMW) carbohydrate was found to increase glycogen re-synthesis rate and enhance work output during subsequent endurance exercise, relative to low molecular weight (LMW) carbohydrate ingestion...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633397/intermittent-walking-but-not-standing-improves-postprandial-insulin-and-glucose-relative-to-sustained-sitting-a-randomised-cross-over-study-in-inactive-middle-aged-men
#20
Richard M Pulsford, James Blackwell, Melvyn Hillsdon, Katarina Kos
OBJECTIVES: Interrupting prolonged periods of sitting may improve postprandial insulin and glucose although it is unclear whether interruptions need to involve physical activity or simply a change in posture (from sitting to standing) to benefit adults without metabolic impairment. This study examined effects of interrupting sitting with intermittent walking, and intermittent standing on dynamic insulin and glucose responses in men without known metabolic impairment. DESIGN: A randomised three-arm, cross-over experimental study comprising three seven-hour days of sustained sitting...
August 27, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
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