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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300141/exercise-induced-physiological-arousal-biases-attention-toward-threatening-scene-details
#1
Tad T Brunyé, Caroline R Mahoney
The present experiment examined whether physiological arousal induced by acute bouts of aerobic exercise would influence attention and memory for scenes depicting or not depicting weapons. In a repeated-measures design, participants exercised at either low or high exertion levels. During exercise, they were presented with images, some of which depicted weapons; immediately following exercise, they completed a recognition test for portions of central and peripheral scene regions. Two primary results emerged...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288636/the-effect-of-aggression-i-the-increases-of-metabolic-cost-and-mobilization-of-fat-reserves-in-male-striped-hamsters
#2
Xiao-Ming Xu, Qing-Sheng Chi, Jing Cao, Zhi-Jun Zhao
Aggression can benefit individuals by enhancing their dominance and thereby their ability to acquire and retain resources that increase survival or fitness. Engaging in aggressive behavior costs energy and how animals manage their energy budget to accommodate aggression remains unclear. We conducted three experiments to examine changes in physiological, behavioral and hormonal markers indicative of energy budget in male striped hamsters subject to resident-intruder aggression tests. Body temperature, metabolic rate and serum corticosterone levels significantly increased in resident hamsters immediately after the introduction of intruders...
December 27, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284283/temporal-effects-of-acute-walking-exercise-on-learning-and-memory-function
#3
Eveleen Sng, Emily Frith, Paul D Loprinzi
PURPOSE: To evaluate the temporal effects of acute exercise on episodic memory. DESIGN: A quasi-experimental study. SAMPLE: Eighty-eight college students (N = 22 per group). MEASURES: Four experimental groups were evaluated, including a control group, exercising prior to memory encoding, exercising during encoding, and exercising during memory consolidation. The exercise stimulus consisted of a 15-minute moderate-intensity walk on a treadmill...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273705/high-intensity-exercise-acutely-increases-substantia-nigra-and-prefrontal-brain-activity-in-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Neil A Kelly, Kimberly H Wood, Jane B Allendorfer, Matthew P Ford, C Scott Bickel, Jon Marstrander, Amy W Amara, Thomas Anthony, Marcas M Bamman, Frank M Skidmore
BACKGROUND Pathologic alterations in resting-state brain activity patterns exist among individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Since physical exercise alters resting-state brain activity in non-PD populations and improves PD symptoms, we assessed the acute effect of exercise on resting-state brain activity in exercise-trained individuals with PD. MATERIAL AND METHODS Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was collected twice for 17 PD participants at the conclusion of an exercise intervention...
December 23, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234916/do-acute-effects-of-exercise-on-vascular-function-predict-adaptation-to-training
#5
Ellen A Dawson, N Timothy Cable, Daniel J Green, Dick H J Thijssen
PURPOSE: No previous study has explored the importance of exercise-induced changes in vascular function to prolonged adaptations. Therefore, the purpose was to explore the within-subject relationship between the acute post-exercise change in brachial artery endothelial function (flow-mediated dilation, FMD) and the change in resting FMD after a 2-week exercise training in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Twenty one healthy, young men (24 ± 5 years) underwent assessment of brachial artery FMD using high-resolution ultrasound before and after 30-min of moderate-intensity cycle exercise (80% maximal heart rate)...
December 12, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232314/postexercise-fructose-maltodextrin-ingestion-enhances-subsequent-endurance-capacity
#6
Ed Maunder, Tim Podlogar, Gareth A Wallis
PURPOSE: Restoring skeletal muscle and hepatic glycogen content during short-term (<6 h) recovery from prolonged exercise is pertinent for athletes seeking to maximize performance in repeated exercise bouts. Previous research suggests co-ingestion of fructose-glucose carbohydrate sources augments hepatic and has equivalent effects on skeletal muscle glycogen storage during short-term recovery from prolonged exercise compared to isocaloric glucose ingestion. The aim of the present investigation was to determine if this has a discernible effect on subsequent exercise capacity...
December 11, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216288/adaptations-in-antagonist-co-activation-role-in-the-repeated-bout-effect
#7
Robert E Hight, Travis W Beck, Debra A Bemben, Christopher D Black
Eccentric exercise results in an adaptation which attenuates muscle damage from subsequent exercise-termed the "repeated-bout effect (RBE)." PURPOSE: Study examined antagonist co-activation and motor-unit recruitment strategy, assessed via dEMG, concomitant to the RBE. METHODS: Nine participants performed 5 sub-maximal isometric trapezoid (ramp-up, hold, ramp-down) contractions at force levels corresponding to 50% and 80% of maximal isometric strength (MVC). Surface EMG signals of the biceps brachii were decomposed into individual motor-unit action potential trains...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210957/the-physiological-and-performance-effects-of-caffeine-gum-consumed-during-a-simulated-half-time-by-professional-academy-rugby-union-players
#8
Russell M, Reynolds N A, Crewther B T, Cook C J, Kilduff L
Despite the prevalence of caffeine as an ergogenic aid, few studies have examined the use of caffeinated gums, especially during half-time in team sports. The physiological (blood lactate, salivary hormone concentrations) and performance (repeated sprints, cognitive function) effects of consuming caffeine gum during a simulated half-time were examined. Professional academy rugby union players (n=14) completed this double-blind, randomized, counterbalanced study. Following pre-exercise measurements , players chewed a placebo (PL) gum for five min before a standardized warm-up and completing repeated sprint testing (RSSA1)...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208688/the-impact-of-acute-bouts-of-interval-and-continuous-walking-on-energy-intake-and-appetite-regulation-in-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes
#9
Ida A Müller, Anne-Sophie Wedell-Neergaard, Thomas P J Solomon, Kristian Karstoft
In healthy subjects, it has been suggested that exercise may acutely suppress energy-intake and appetite, with peak intensity being an important determinant for this effect. In subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D), the effect of exercise on appetite-related variables is, however, virtually unknown. We aimed to assess the effects of two exercise interventions, differing with regards to peak intensity, on energy-intake, satiety and appetite-related hormones in subjects with T2D. Thirteen subjects with T2D completed three 60-min interventions with continuous measurement of oxygen consumption in a randomized and counterbalanced order: (1) Control, (2) Continuous walking (CW; intended 73% of VO2peak), (3) Interval-walking (IW; repeated cycles of 3 min slow [54% of VO2peak] and 3 min fast walking [89% of VO2peak])...
December 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201383/an-autosomal-recessive-mutation-in-scl24a4-causing-enamel-hypoplasia-in-samoyed-and-its-relationship-to-breed-wide-genetic-diversity
#10
Niels C Pedersen, Bonnie Shope, Hongwei Liu
Background: Pure breeding of dogs has led to over 700 heritable disorders, of which almost 300 are Mendelian in nature. Seventy percent of the characterized mutations have an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance, indicative of positive selection during bouts of inbreeding primarily for new desired conformational traits. Samoyed suffer from several common complex genetic disorders, but up to this time only two X-linked and one autosomal dominant disorder have been identified. Previous studies based on pedigrees and SNP arrays have concluded that Samoyed breeders have done a good job in maintaining genetic diversity and avoiding excessive inbreeding...
2017: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189587/the-effect-of-cold-14-%C3%A2-c-versus-ice-5%C3%A2-c-water-immersion-on-recovery-from-intermittent-running-exercise
#11
Daniel Anderson, James Nunn, Christopher J Tyler
The purpose was to compare 14°C (CWI14°C) and 5°C (CWI5°C) cold water immersion following intermittent running. On three occasions, nine male team-sport players undertook 12 min of CWI14°C, CWI5°C or non-immersed seated recovery (CON) following 45 min of intermittent running exercise. Maximal cycling performance and markers of recovery were measured before and in the 0 - 72 h after exercise. Peak power output (PPO) was immediately reduced following all interventions (d = 1.8). CWI5°C was more effective at restoring PPO than CWI14°C (d = 0...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182431/impact-induced-muscle-damage-and-contact-sport-aetiology-effects-on-neuromuscular-function-and-recovery-and-the-modulating-effects-of-adaptation-and-recovery-strategies
#12
Mitchell Naughton, Joanna Miller, Gary J Slater
Athletes involved in contact-sports are habitually exposed to skeletal muscle damage as part of their training and performance environments. This often leads to exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) resulting from repeated eccentric and/or high-intensity exercise, and impact-induced muscle damage (IIMD) resulting from collisions with opponents and the playing surface. Whilst EIMD has been an area of extensive investigation, IIMD has received comparatively little research, with the magnitude and timeframe of alterations following IIMD not presently well understood...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180484/repeated-bouts-of-resistance-exercise-with-short-recovery-periods-activates-mtor-signaling-but-not-protein-synthesis-in-mouse-skeletal-muscle
#13
Junya Takegaki, Riki Ogasawara, Yuki Tamura, Ryo Takagi, Yuki Arihara, Arata Tsutaki, Koichi Nakazato, Naokata Ishii
The recovery period between bouts of exercise is one of the major factors influencing the effects of resistance exercise, in addition to exercise intensity and volume. However, the effects of shortening the recovery time between bouts of resistance exercise on subsequent protein synthesis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the consequences of shortening the recovery time between bouts of resistance exercise on protein synthesis and related processes in mouse skeletal muscles. Eighteen male C57BL/6J mice were randomly subjected to three bouts of resistance exercise with 72 (72H), 24 (24H), or 8 h (8H) of recovery periods between bouts...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140178/infraspinatus-cross-sectional-area-and-shoulder-range-of-motion-change-following-live-game-baseball-pitching
#14
Brett S Pexa, Eric D Ryan, Elizabeth E Hibberd, Elizabeth Teel, Terri Jo Rucinski, Joseph B Myers
CONTEXT: Following a baseball pitching bout, changes can occur to glenohumeral range of motion that could be linked to injury. These effects are in part due to the posterior shoulder's eccentric muscle activity, which can disrupt muscle contractile elements and lead to changes in muscle cross sectional area (CSA), as measured by ultrasound. OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in muscle CSA, and range of motion immediately before and after pitching, and days 1-5 following pitching...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112626/effects-of-ad-libitum-low-carbohydrate-high-fat-dieting-in-middle-age-male-runners
#15
Alexander J Heatherly, Lauren G Killen, Ashton F Smith, Hunter S Waldman, Angela Hollingsworth, Christie L Seltmann, Eric K O'Neal
PURPOSE: This study examined the effects of a 3-week ad libitum high fat (~70% of calories), low carbohydrate (<50 g/day) diet (LCHF) on markers of endurance performance in middle-aged, recreationally competitive male runners. METHODS: All subjects (n = 8) following their normal HC diet had anthropometric measures assessed and completed 5, 10-min running bouts at multiple individual race paces in the heat while physiological, metabolic variables and perceptual responses were recorded...
November 6, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106812/whey-protein-hydrolysate-supplementation-accelerates-recovery-from-exercise-induced-muscle-damage-in-females
#16
Meghan A Brown, Emma J Stevenson, Glyn Howatson
A number of different forms of protein and their analogues have been investigated for their efficacy in ameliorating exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and recovery. Preliminary data regarding whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) supplementation are promising. However, its efficacy beyond acute eccentric/resistance exercise bouts or longer-term training programmes are limited and all investigations have been conducted in male or mixed-sex groups. This study sought to elucidate whether the benefits of WPH previously reported can be demonstrated in females following repeated-sprint exercise...
November 6, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091464/effect-of-four-weeks-ingestion-of-tomato-based-carotenoids-on-exercise-induced-inflammation-muscle-damage-and-oxidative-stress-in-endurance-runners
#17
David C Nieman, Courtney L Capps, Christopher R Capps, Zack L Shue, Jennifer E McBride
This double blind, randomized, placebo controlled crossover trial determined if ingestion of a supplement containing a tomato extract with 11 mg lycopene, phytoene, and phytofluene (T-LPP) for 4 weeks would attenuate inflammation, muscle damage, and oxidative stress post-exercise and during recovery from a 2-h running bout that included 30 minutes of -10% downhill running. Study participants ingested the T-LPP supplement or placebo with the evening meal for 4 weeks prior to running 2 h at high intensity. Blood samples and delayed-onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) ratings were taken pre- and post-4-weeks supplementation, and immediately following the 2-h run, and then 1-h-, 24-h-, and 48-h post-run...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084097/differential-effects-of-different-warm-up-protocols-on-repeated-sprints-induced-muscle-damage
#18
Che-Hsiu Chen, Xin Ye, Yi-Tse Wang, Yung-Sheng Chen, Wei-Chin Tseng
The purpose of this investigation was to examine whether adding a set of hamstring resistance exercise or dynamic stretching to a regular running-based warm-up before a bout of repeated sprints provides protective effects against the sprinting-induced muscle damage. Twelve elite tennis players participated in this study. After the familiarization, subjects completed 3 separate randomly sequenced experimental visits, during which 3 different warm-up interventions were performed before the muscle-damaging protocol (12 sets of 30-m maximal repeated sprints): 5 minutes of running (control); control with single leg slide curl (SLC); and control with active hamstring stretching (AHS)...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077637/contralateral-repeated-bout-effect-of-the-knee-flexors
#19
Trevor C Chen, Ming-Ju Lin, Hsin-Lian Chen, Hui-Yi Yu, Kazunori Nosaka
PURPOSE: Eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors (EF) confers protective effect against muscle damage of the same exercise performed by the opposite arm at 1, 7 or 28 days later. This is known as the contralateral repeated bout effect (CL-RBE), but it is not known whether CL-RBE is evident for the knee flexors (KF). The present study tested the hypothesis that KF CL-RBE would be observed at 1, 7 and 28 days after the initial bout. METHODS: Young untrained men were assigned to a control or one of three experimental groups (n=13/group)...
October 26, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063376/recurrent-heat-shock-impairs-the-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-c2c12-myoblasts
#20
Daniel J Bolus, Gobinath Shanmugam, Madhusudhanan Narasimhan, Namakkal S Rajasekaran
Heat-related illness and injury are becoming a growing safety concern for the farmers, construction workers, miners, firefighters, manufacturing workers, and other outdoor workforces who are exposed to heat stress in their routine lives. A primary response by a cell to an acute heat shock (HS) exposure is the induction of heat-shock proteins (HSPs), which chaperone and facilitate cellular protein folding and remodeling processes. While acute HS is well studied, the effect of repeated bouts of hyperthermia and the sustained production of HSPs in the myoblast-myotube model system of C2C12 cells are poorly characterized...
October 24, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
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