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eccentric overload and injurie prevention

Per A Tesch, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalo, Tommy R Lundberg
In the quest for a viable non-gravity dependent method to "lift weights" in space, our laboratory introduced iso-inertial resistance (YoYo™) exercise using spinning flywheel(s), more than 25 years ago. After being thoroughly tested in individuals subjected to various established spaceflight analogs, a multi-mode YoYo™ exercise apparatus was eventually installed on the International Space Station in 2009. The method, applicable to any muscle group, provides accommodated resistance and optimal muscle loading through the full range of motion of concentric actions, and brief episodes of eccentric overload...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Matthew Scott, Stephen Taylor, Paul Chesterton, Stefan Vogt, Daniel Lloyd Eaves
PURPOSE: Rehabilitation professionals typically use motor imagery (MI) or action observation (AO) to increase physical strength for injury prevention and recovery. Here we compared hamstring force gains for MI during AO (AO + MI) against two pure MI training groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a 3-week intervention physically fit adults imagined Nordic hamstring exercises in both legs and synchronized this with a demonstration of the same action (AO + MI), or they purely imagined this action (pure MI), or imagined upper-limb actions (pure MI-control)...
March 21, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
Hans Hoppeler
Over the last 20 years a number of studies have been published using progressive eccentric exercise protocols on motorized ergometers or similar devices that allow for controlled application of eccentric loads. Exercise protocols ramp eccentric loads over an initial 3 weeks period in order to prevent muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness. Final training loads reach 400-500 W in rehabilitative settings and over 1200 W in elite athletes. Training is typically carried out three times per week for durations of 20-30 min...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Fernando Sanz-López, César Berzosa Sánchez, Fidel Hita-Contreras, David Cruz-Diaz, Antonio Martínez-Amat
Sanz-López, F, Berzosa Sánchez, C, Hita-Contreras, F, Cruz-Diaz, D, and Martínez-Amat, A. Ultrasound changes in Achilles tendon and gastrocnemius medialis muscle on squat eccentric overload and running performance. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2015-Previous studies have proven the adaptation to load in the Achilles tendon and gastrocnemius muscle after different types of exercise, such as running, heel drop training, and a variety of sports. These findings have been applied to improve performance and in the treatment and prevention of overuse injuries...
July 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Gabriel Gual, Azahara Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, Daniel Romero-Rodríguez, Per A Tesch
Gual, G, Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, A, Romero-Rodríguez, D, and Tesch, PA. Effects of in-season inertial resistance training with eccentric overload in a sports population at risk for patellar tendinopathy. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1834-1842, 2016-Volleyball and basketball players can be considered as a population at risk for patellar tendinopathy. Given the paradox that eccentric training elicits therapeutic benefits yet might provoke such injury, we investigated the influence of a weekly bout of inertial squat resistance exercise offering eccentric overload on lower limb muscle power and patellar tendon complaints...
July 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Moisés de Hoyo, Marco Pozzo, Borja Sañudo, Luis Carrasco, Oliver Gonzalo-Skok, Sergio Domínguez-Cobo, Eduardo Morán-Camacho
PURPOSE: To analyze the effect of an eccentric-overload training program (ie, half-squat and leg-curl exercises using flywheel ergometers) with individualized load on muscle-injury incidence and severity and performance in junior elite soccer players. METHODS: Thirty-six young players (U-17 to U-19) were recruited and assigned to an experimental (EXP) or control group (CON). The training program consisted of 1 or 2 sessions/wk (3-6 sets with 6 repetitions) during 10 wk...
January 2015: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Michael Vogt, Hans H Hoppeler
The aim of the current review is to discuss applications and mechanism of eccentric exercise in training regimes of competitive sports. Eccentric muscle work is important in most sports. Eccentric muscle contractions enhance the performance during the concentric phase of stretch-shortening cycles, which is important in disciplines like sprinting, jumping, throwing, and running. Muscles activated during lengthening movements can also function as shock absorbers, to decelerate during landing tasks or to precisely deal with high external loading in sports like alpine skiing...
June 1, 2014: Journal of Applied Physiology
S Grau, C Maiwald, I Krauss, D Axmann, P Janssen, T Horstmann
Patellar-tendinopathy (PT) is a common overuse injury in long distance runners, especially in women. Until today, no definite combinations of clinical, biomechanical, or training variables, or causative factors in the development of PT have been found. This study focused on assessing the differences in biomechanical characteristics between healthy runners (CO) and runners with PT only. We examined a total of 42 women. 21 CO and 21 PT. 3D kinematics of barefoot running was used in the biomechanical setup. Both groups were matched with respect to height and weight...
2008: Journal of Biomechanics
C O Tibesku, H H Pässler
Jumper's knee has been defined as painful chronic overuse injury of the extensor mechanism of the knee joint. The disease has a high incidence in jumping sports and depends on training frequency and level of performance. Its natural course is protracted, repetitive, and often bilaterally occurring. Its etiology is a chronic overload of the knee extensor mechanism which is triggered by jumping sports (volleyball, basketball etc.) as well as different intrinsic (ligamentous laxity, Q-angle, patella height, tenderness, pattern of force development) and extrinsic dispositions (frequency of training, level of performance, hardness of underground)...
June 2005: Sportverletzung Sportschaden: Organ der Gesellschaft Für Orthopädisch-Traumatologische Sportmedizin
W J Kraemer, N D Duncan, J S Volek
The skepticism surrounding the potential benefits of resistance exercise training prevalent just decades ago has evolved over the years to an understanding of the integral nature muscular overload plays in the training programs for athletes. The science of training elite athletes is progressing rapidly, as insights into the physiological adaptations resulting from varying program configurations become available. Resistance training impacts several body systems, including muscular, endocrine, skeletal, metabolic, immune, neural, and respiratory...
August 1998: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
K D Plancher, R Litchfield, R J Hawkins
The tennis player places unique demands on the shoulder by creating a high risk for overuse and overloading of the soft tissues. Tennis requires concentric work to position and move the arm, eccentric work to stabilize the shoulder, effective depression of the humeral head to avoid impingement in the overhead position, and normal stability to prevent secondary impingement. The tennis serve produces enormous angular velocities about the shoulder joint. A comprehensive rehabilitation program has been described in which the therapist, trainer, player, and physician alike need to have an understanding of the basic biomechanics of this sport...
January 1995: Clinics in Sports Medicine
P Renström, R J Johnson
Because knowledge of overuse syndromes is limited, the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions are a challenge to sports medicine physicians. Trial and error methods of treatment and too little attention to basic research have resulted in less than optimum solutions. We do know that these maladies most frequently result from overload or repetitive microtrauma stemming from extrinsic factors such as training errors, poor performance, poor techniques and inappropriate surfaces or intrinsic factors including malalignment and muscle imbalance...
September 1985: Sports Medicine
R B Armstrong
Intensive training for and competition in endurance events like the marathon are accompanied by injury to fibres in the active skeletal muscles. Evidence for the injury comes from the increases in intramuscular enzymes and myoglobin found in the blood following the exercise, from the subjective sensation of soreness in the muscles in the post-exercise period, and from direct histological examination of samples of the damaged muscles. Histological studies demonstrate that some muscle fibres undergo degenerative changes following the exercise; the necrosis is accomplished by macrophages and other phagocytic cells that invade the injured cells and the adjacent interstitium...
September 1986: Sports Medicine
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