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Oncolytic viral therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525366/mesenchymal-stem-cell-carriers-enhance-antitumor-efficacy-of-oncolytic-adenoviruses-in-an-immunocompetent-mouse-model
#1
Esther Rincón, Teresa Cejalvo, Deepak Kanojia, Arantzazu Alfranca, Miguel Ángel Rodríguez-Milla, Raul Andrés Gil Hoyos, Yu Han, Lingjiao Zhang, Ramón Alemany, Maciej S Lesniak, Javier García-Castro
Oncolytic virotherapy represents a promising alternative for cancer treatment; however, viral delivery to the tumor represents a major challenge. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) chemotax to tumors, and can serve as a viral delivery tool. Previously, we demonstrated antitumor therapeutic efficacy for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) infected with the oncolytic human adenovirus ICOVIR5 (Celyvir) for treatment of neuroblastoma patients. Given the lack of suitable immunocompetent preclinical models, the mechanism underlying Celyvir antitumor activity remains unknown...
May 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507788/adaptive-t-cell-responses-induced-by-oncolytic-herpes-simplex-virus-granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-therapy-expanded-by-dendritic-cell-and-cytokine-induced-killer-cell-adoptive-therapy
#2
Jun Ren, William R Gwin, Xinna Zhou, Xiaoli Wang, Hongyan Huang, Ni Jiang, Lei Zhou, Pankaj Agarwal, Amy Hobeika, Erika Crosby, Zachary C Hartman, Michael A Morse, Kevin H Eng, H Kim Lyerly
Purpose: Although local oncolytic viral therapy (OVT) may enhance tumor lysis, antigen release, and adaptive immune responses, systemic antitumor responses post-therapy are limited. Adoptive immunotherapy with autologous dendritic cells (DC) and cytokine-induced killer cells (DC-CIK) synergizes with systemic therapies. We hypothesized that OVT with Herpes Simplex Virus-granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (HSV-GM-CSF) would induce adaptive T cell responses that could be expanded systemically with sequential DC-CIK therapy...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488122/the-potential-of-cellular-and-viral-based-immunotherapies-for-malignant-glioma-dendritic-cell-vaccines-adoptive-cell-transfer-and-oncolytic-viruses
#3
REVIEW
Russell Maxwell, Andrew S Luksik, Tomas Garzon-Muvdi, Michael Lim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Malignant gliomas, including glioblastoma and anaplastic astrocytoma, are the most frequent primary brain tumors and present with many treatment challenges. In this review, we discuss the potential of cellular- and viral-based immunotherapies in the treatment of malignant glioma, specifically focusing on dendritic cell vaccines, adoptive cell therapy, and oncolytic viruses. RECENT FINDINGS: Diverse cellular- and viral-based strategies have been engineered and optimized to generate either a specific or broad antitumor immune response in malignant glioma...
June 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480327/humanized-mice-with-subcutaneous-human-solid-tumors-for-immune-response-analysis-of-vaccinia-virus-mediated-oncolysis
#4
Desislava Tsoneva, Boris Minev, Alexa Frentzen, Qian Zhang, Anja K Wege, Aladar A Szalay
Oncolytic vaccinia virus (VACV) therapy is an alternative cancer treatment modality that mediates targeted tumor destruction through a tumor-selective replication and an induction of anti-tumor immunity. We developed a humanized tumor mouse model with subcutaneous human tumors to analyze the interactions of VACV with the developing tumors and human immune system. A successful systemic reconstitution with human immune cells including functional T cells as well as development of tumors infiltrated with human T and natural killer (NK) cells was observed...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Therapy Oncolytics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480304/viral-vector-based-innovative-approaches-to-directly-abolishing-tumorigenic-pluripotent-stem-cells-for-safer-regenerative-medicine
#5
REVIEW
Kaoru Mitsui, Kanako Ide, Tomoyuki Takahashi, Ken-Ichiro Kosai
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are a promising source of regenerative material for clinical applications. However, hPSC transplant therapies pose the risk of teratoma formation and malignant transformation of undifferentiated remnants. These problems underscore the importance of developing technologies that completely prevent tumorigenesis to ensure safe clinical application. Research to date has contributed to establishing safe hPSC lines, improving the efficiency of differentiation induction, and indirectly ensuring the safety of products...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465492/oncolytic-efficacy-of-thymidine-kinase-deleted-vaccinia-virus-strain-guang9
#6
Lili Deng, Jun Fan, Yuedi Ding, Jue Zhang, Bin Zhou, Yi Zhang, Biao Huang
Oncolytic virotherapy is being developed as a promising platform for cancer therapy due to its ability to lyse cancer cells in a tumor-specific manner. Vaccinia virus has been used as a live vaccine in the smallpox eradication program and now is being potential in cancer therapy with a great safety profile. Vaccinia strain Guang9 (VG9) is an attenuated Chinese vaccinia virus and its oncolytic efficacy has been evaluated in our previous study. To improve the tumor selectivity and oncolytic efficacy, we here developed a thymidine kinase (TK)-deleted vaccinia virus based on Guang9 strain...
April 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465158/measles-virus-hemagglutinin-epitopes-immunogenic-in-natural-infection-and-vaccination-are-targeted-by-broad-or-genotype-specific-neutralizing-monoclonal-antibodies
#7
Miguel Angel Muñoz-Alía, José M Casasnovas, María Luisa Celma, Juan Carabaña, Paloma B Liton, Rafael Fernandez-Muñoz
Measles virus (MV) remains a leading cause of vaccine-preventable deaths in children. Protection against MV is associated with neutralizing antibodies that preferentially recognize the viral hemagglutinin (MV-H), and to a lesser extent, the fusion protein (MV-F). Although MV is serologically monotypic, 24 genotypes have been identified. Here we report three neutralization epitopes conserved in the more prevalent circulating MV genotypes, two located in the MV-H receptor binding site (RBS) (antigenic site III) and a third in MV-H/MV-F interphase (antigenic site Ia)...
April 29, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459041/advancing-cancer-therapy-with-present-and-emerging-immuno-oncology-approaches
#8
REVIEW
Jeff Kamta, Maher Chaar, Anusha Ande, Deborah A Altomare, Sihem Ait-Oudhia
Immuno-oncology (I-O) is a young and growing field on the frontier of cancer therapy. Contrary to cancer therapies that directly target malignant cells, I-O therapies stimulate the body's immune system to target and attack the tumor, which is otherwise invisible to, or inhibiting the immune response. To this end, several methods have been developed: First, passive therapies that enable T-cells to fight the tumor without direct manipulation, typically through binding and modifying the intracellular signaling of surface receptors...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441138/employing-rna-viruses-to-fight-cancer-novel-insights-into-oncolytic-virotherapy
#9
Dörthe Masemann, Yvonne Boergeling, Stephan Ludwig
Within the last decades, viruses that specifically target tumor cells have emerged as novel therapeutic agents against cancer. These viruses do not only act via their cell-lytic properties, but also harbor immunostimulatory features to re-direct the tumor-microenvironment and stimulate tumor-directed immune responses. Furthermore, oncolytic viruses are considered to be superior to classical cancer therapies due to higher selectivity towards tumor cell destruction and, consequently, less collateral damage of non-transformed healthy tissue...
April 25, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420939/oncolytic-viral-therapy
#10
Syed Inam Ur Rehma, Syed Muhammad Haaris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407327/oncolytic-viral-therapy-for-pancreatic-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Ahmad Rahal, Benjamin Musher
Outcomes of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDA) remain dismal despite extensive clinical investigation. Combination chemotherapy provides modest improvements in survival above best supportive care, and immunotherapy has thus far not proven effective. Nevertheless, growing insight into antitumor immunity and the tumor microenvironment has inspired the discovery of novel agents targeting PDA. Oncolytic viruses represent an emerging class of immunotherapeutic agents that have undergone extensive preclinical investigation and warrant further investigation in well-designed clinical trials...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392162/oncolytic-virotherapy-a-contest-between-apples-and-oranges
#12
REVIEW
Stephen J Russell, Kah-Whye Peng
Viruses can be engineered or adapted for selective propagation in neoplastic tissues and further modified for therapeutic transgene expression to enhance their antitumor potency and druggability. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) can be administered locally or intravenously and spread to a variable degree at sites of tumor growth. OV-infected tumor cells die in situ, releasing viral and tumor antigens that are phagocytosed by macrophages, transported to regional lymph nodes, and presented to antigen-reactive T cells, which proliferate before dispersing to kill uninfected tumor cells at distant sites...
May 3, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356525/microrna-mir-27-inhibits-adenovirus-infection-by-suppressing-the-expression-of-snap25-and-txn2
#13
M Machitani, F Sakurai, K Wakabayashi, K Nakatani, M Tachibana, H Mizuguchi
Recent studies have reported that host microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate infection with several types of viruses via various mechanisms, and that inhibition of the miRNA processing factors enhances or prevents viral infection. However, it has not been clarified whether these effects of miRNAs extend to adenovirus (Ad) infection. Here we show that miR-27a/b efficiently inhibit infection with an Ad via the down-regulation of SNAP25 and TXN2, which are members of the SNARE proteins and the thioredoxin family, respectively...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344872/intravenously-usable-fully-serotype-3-oncolytic-adenovirus-coding-for-cd40l-as-an-enabler-of-dendritic-cell-therapy
#14
Sadia Zafar, Suvi Parviainen, Mikko Siurala, Otto Hemminki, Riikka Havunen, Siri Tähtinen, Simona Bramante, Lotta Vassilev, Hongjie Wang, Andre Lieber, Silvio Hemmi, Tanja de Gruijl, Anna Kanerva, Akseli Hemminki
Vaccination with dendritic cells (DCs), the most potent professional antigen-presenting cells in the body, is a promising approach in cancer immunotherapy. However, tumors induce immunosuppression in their microenvironment that suppresses and impairs the function of DCs. Therefore, human clinical trials with DC therapy have often been disappointing. To improve the therapeutic efficacy and to overcome the major obstacles of DC therapy, we generated a novel adenovirus, Ad3-hTERT-CMV-hCD40L, which is fully serotype 3 and expresses hCD40L for induction of antitumor immune response...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315557/oncolytic-viruses-treatment-and-implications-for-patients-with-gliomas%C3%A2
#15
Cheryl Martin
BACKGROUND: Oncolytic viral therapies are increasingly being explored for the treatment of diverse cancer types, most notably melanoma. However, advances in the treatment of high-grade gliomas, and specifically glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), are the result of novel oncolytic viral therapies. Delta-24-RGD is one such therapy that has demonstrated promising results in phase 1 trials.
. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this article is to provide an overview of Delta-24-RGD, highlighting considerations for nurses in diverse clinical, research, and advanced practice roles...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315552/cancer-immunotherapy-an-evidence-based-overview-and-implications-for-practice
#16
Virginia Bayer, Beau Amaya, Diane Baniewicz, Colleen Callahan, Lisa Marsh, Asia S McCoy
BACKGROUND: Significant research progress has been made in immunotherapies since the mid-1990s, and this rapid evolution necessitates evidence-based education on immunotherapies, their pathophysiology, and their toxicities to provide safe, effective care.
. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this article is to provide an evidence-based overview, with implications for practice, of checkpoint inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, oncolytic viral therapies, and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapies...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300077/translational-reprogramming-in-tumour-cells-can-generate-oncoselectivity-in-viral-therapies
#17
Eneko Villanueva, Pilar Navarro, Maria Rovira-Rigau, Annarita Sibilio, Raúl Méndez, Cristina Fillat
Systemic treatment of cancer requires tumour-selective therapies that eliminate cancer cells yet preserve healthy tissues from undesired damage. Tumoral transformation is associated with profound effects in translational reprogramming of gene expression, such that tumour-specific translational regulation presents an attractive possibility for generating oncoselective therapies. We recently discovered that mRNA translational control by cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding proteins (CPEBs) is reactivated in cancer...
March 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287517/microrna-based-regulation-of-picornavirus-tropism
#18
Autumn J Ruiz, Stephen J Russell
Cell-specific restriction of viral replication without concomitant attenuation can benefit vaccine development, gene therapy, oncolytic virotherapy, and understanding the biological properties of viruses. There are several mechanisms for regulating viral tropism, however they tend to be virus class specific and many result in virus attenuation. Additionally, many viruses, including picornaviruses, exhibit size constraints that do not allow for incorporation of large amounts of foreign genetic material required for some targeting methods...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274139/immune-and-viral-therapies-for-malignant-primary-brain-tumors
#19
Andrew M Gardeck, Jordan Sheehan, Walter C Low
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a primary brain tumor with great lethality. Current standard of care with surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy are ineffective in curing this disease. Recent advancements in biological therapies show promise in treating brain tumors. Areas covered: This article provides a review of: the peripheral activation of antigen presenting cells such as dendritic cells to stimulate T cells to recognize and destroy tumor cells within the brain; the ex vivo expansion and transfer of dendritic cells, T cells, and engineered T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors to target cells bearing specific tumor antigens as well as monoclonal antibodies as immune check point inhibitors...
April 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265902/oncolytic-virotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-malignant-glioma
#20
REVIEW
Paul M Foreman, Gregory K Friedman, Kevin A Cassady, James M Markert
Malignant glioma is the most common primary brain tumor and carries a grim prognosis, with a median survival of just over 14 months. Given the poor outcomes with standard-of-care treatments, novel treatment strategies are needed. The concept of virotherapy for the treatment of malignant tumors dates back more than a century and can be divided into replication-competent oncolytic viruses and replication-deficient viral vectors. Oncolytic viruses are designed to selectively target, infect, and replicate in tumor cells, while sparing surrounding normal brain...
April 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
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