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Shobini Jayaraman, Donald L Gantz, Christian Haupt, Marcus Fändrich, Olga Gursky
Serum amyloid A action in immune response and deposition in inflammation-linked amyloidosis involve SAA-lipid interactions. We show that SAA sequesters neutral and anionic phospholipids and their hydrolytic products to form nanoparticles, suggesting a synergy with phospholipase A2. The lipid charge and shape affect SAA protection from proteolysis, aggregation and fibrillogenesis.
March 22, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Ravit Malishev, Razan Abbasi, Raz Jelinek, Liraz Chai
Biofilms are aggregates of cells that form surface-associated communities. The cells in a biofilm are interconnected with an extracellular matrix, a network that is made mostly of polysaccharides, proteins and sometimes nucleic acids. Some extracellular matrix proteins form fibers, often termed functional amyloids or amyloid-like fibrils, to differentiate their constructive function from disease-related amyloid fibers. Recent studies of functional amyloid assembly have neglected their interaction with membranes, despite their native assembly in a cellular environment...
March 22, 2018: Biochemistry
Francesco Paciullo, Marco Proietti, Vanessa Bianconi, Alessandro Nobili, Matteo Pirro, Pier Mannuccio Mannucci, Gregory Y H Lip, Graziana Lupattelli
BACKGROUND: Among rate-control or rhythm-control strategies, there is conflicting evidence as to which is the best management approach for non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) in elderly patients. DESIGN: We performed an ancillary analysis from the 'Registro Politerapie SIMI' study, enrolling elderly inpatients from internal medicine and geriatric wards. METHODS: We considered patients enrolled from 2008 to 2014 with an AF diagnosis at admission, treated with a rate-control-only or rhythm-control-only strategy...
March 21, 2018: Drugs & Aging
Ander Regueiro, Ignacio Cruz-Gonzalez, Armando Bethencourt, Luis Nombela-Franco, Jean Champagne, Luis Asmarats, Pilar Jiménez-Quevedo, Tania Rodriguez-Gabella, Juan Carlos Rama-Merchan, Rishi Puri, Gilles O'Hara, Josep Rodés-Cabau
PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the late clinical outcomes of percutaneous LAA closure in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and contraindication to oral anticoagulation. METHODS: Consecutive AF patients with contraindications to oral anticoagulation who underwent successful LAA closure between December 2008 and March 2013 at four centers were included. RESULTS: A total of 101 patients (median age 76 [IQR 69-80] years, 48% women, mean CHA2 DS2 -VASc 5 ± 2; HAS-BLED 4 ± 1) were included...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing
Julio Flecha-Lescún, Begoña Calvo, Jesús Zurita, Miguel Ángel Ariza-Gracia
Keratoconus is an idiopathic, non-inflammatory and degenerative corneal disease characterised by a loss of the organisation in the corneal collagen fibrils. As a result, keratoconic corneas present a localised thinning and conical protrusion with irregular astigmatism and high myopia that worsen visual acuity. Intracorneal ring segments (ICRSs) are used in clinic to regularise the corneal surface and to prevent the disease from progressing. Unfortunately, the post-surgical effect of the ICRS is not explicitly accounted beforehand...
March 21, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Xin Xue, Lisheng Jiang, Erich Duenninger, Manuela Muenzel, Shaofeng Guan, Adam Fazakas, Fanzhou Cheng, Juergen Illnitzky, Thorsten Keil, Jiangtao Yu
The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is high in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) has been recognized as an efficient alternative to oral anticoagulation for the prevention of thromboembolic events in patients with non-valvular AF (NVAF); however, the long-term safety and efficacy of LAAC in patients with CKD remain unclear. This study was designed to provide data regarding the safety and efficacy of LAAC in NVAF patients with CKD. A real-world analysis of the safety and efficacy of LAAC was performed on a cohort of 300 NVAF patients with or without CKD who underwent LAAC using the Watchman (WM) device at our center...
March 22, 2018: Heart and Vessels
Marie-Isabel Murray, Ahran Arnold, Murad Younis, Swaroop Varghese, Andreas Michael Zeiher
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety outcomes of the treatment with cryoballoon (CB) compared to the treatment with traditional irrigated radiofrequency ablation (RF) for pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (pAF) and refractory to antiarrhythmic drug therapy (AAD). DESIGN: We conducted a systemic review to find and include more than two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with at least 20 patients in each of the CB and RF groups...
March 21, 2018: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
Maria Shoaib, Jacqueline J Kraus, Muhammad T Khan
Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE) is a medical emergency associated with high mortality and morbidity. Definitive diagnosis is established by history, clinical examination, neuroimaging studies, supportive electroencephalogram (EEG) findings, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. We report a case of HSVE presenting as a stroke mimic in a 76-year-old female with a history of atrial fibrillation on warfarin. She was admitted to our medical intensive care unit with intermittent fever, lethargy, and new onset left-sided hemiparesis...
January 15, 2018: Curēus
Wasl Al-Adsani, Ali Ahmad, Mohammad Al-Mousa
Background: Brucellosis is a bacterial infection, caused by the nonmotile gram-negative aerobic coccobacilli. The clinical manifestation of brucellosis is variable, ranging from mild disease to severe disease. The gold standard test to confirm the diagnosis of brucellosis is assaying blood, bone marrow, or other body fluids or by tissue culture. Preferred first-line treatment in adults with uncomplicated, nonlocalized disease consists of doxycycline-aminoglycoside combination. The recommended duration of treatment is 6 weeks...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Takuya Hirose, Ippei Suzuki, Naoki Takahashi, Toshiyuki Fukada, Prasarn Tangkawattana, Kazushige Takehana
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a group of hereditary diseases caused by mutation of extracellular matrix-related genes. Recently, spondylodysplastic EDS-Zip13 (spEDS-Zip13: OMIM 612350) was recognized as a new EDS type. This current study could reveal various morphometric differences of collagenous population in the proper substance of cornea between the wild type and spEDS-Zip13-knockout (Zip13-KO) mice. Blockade of Smad-signaling pathway might initiate these alterations. Predilected dissimilarity in level of transcriptional activity probably dictated morphology of keratocyte and shape and electron density of its nucleus...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Kei Takayama, Hitoshi Hachiya, Yoshito Iesaka, Kenzo Hirao, Mitsuaki Isobe
Early recurrence (ER) of atrial fibrillation (AF) is common after ablation of longstanding persistent AF. However, optimal timing for repeat ablation has yet to be established.Two-hundred-four patients (mean age 62 ± 9 years) with longstanding persistent AF underwent catheter ablation including pulmonary vein (PV) isolation and substrate modification. ER defined as AF recurrence within 60 days, occurred in 115 patients (56.4%) 9 ± 1 days after the procedure. Analysis showed optimal blanking period to be 15 days...
March 20, 2018: International Heart Journal
Wilfred Ifeanyi Umeojiako, Ritesh Kanyal
BACKGROUND: Stroke is a recognized clinical course of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. This interesting case showed notable difference on the electrocardiogram of a patient 4 months prior to suffering a stroke and 10 days after suffering a stroke. The pre-stroke electrocardiogram showed atrial fibrillation with a narrow QRS complex, while the post-stroke electrocardiogram showed marked left ventricular hypertrophy. Left ventricular hypertrophy was diagnosed using the Sokolow-Lyon indices...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Isaac Fernández-Gómez, Marquiza Sablón-Carrazana, Alberto Bencomo-Martínez, Guadalupe Domínguez, Reyna Lara-Martínez, Nelly F Altamirano-Bustamante, Luis Felipe Jiménez-García, Karina Pasten-Hidalgo, Rosa Angélica Castillo-Rodríguez, Perla Altamirano, Suchitil Rivera Marrero, Cristina Revilla-Monsalve, Peter Valdés-Sosa, Fabio Salamanca-Gómez, Eulalia Garrido-Magaña, Chryslaine Rodríguez-Tanty, Myriam M Altamirano-Bustamante
Human islet amyloid peptide (hIAPP1-37 ) aggregation is an early step in Diabetes Mellitus. We aimed to evaluate a family of pharmaco-chaperones to act as modulators that provide dynamic interventions and the multi-target capacity (native state, cytotoxic oligomers, protofilaments and fibrils of hIAPP1-37 ) required to meet the treatment challenges of diabetes. We used a cross-functional approach that combines in silico and in vitro biochemical and biophysical methods to study the hIAPP1-37 aggregation-oligomerization process as to reveal novel potential anti-diabetic drugs...
March 19, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jan Steffel, Peter Verhamme, Tatjana S Potpara, Pierre Albaladejo, Matthias Antz, Lien Desteghe, Karl Georg Haeusler, Jonas Oldgren, Holger Reinecke, Vanessa Roldan-Schilling, Nigel Rowell, Peter Sinnaeve, Ronan Collins, A John Camm, Hein Heidbüchel
The current manuscript is the Executive Summary of the second update to the original Practical Guide, published in 2013. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are an alternative for vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) to prevent stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), and have emerged as the preferred choice, particularly in patients newly started on anticoagulation. Both physicians and patients are becoming more accustomed to the use of these drugs in clinical practice. However, many unresolved questions on how to optimally use these agents in specific clinical situations remain...
March 19, 2018: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Jan Steffel, Peter Verhamme, Tatjana S Potpara, Pierre Albaladejo, Matthias Antz, Lien Desteghe, Karl Georg Haeusler, Jonas Oldgren, Holger Reinecke, Vanessa Roldan-Schilling, Nigel Rowell, Peter Sinnaeve, Ronan Collins, A John Camm, Hein Heidbüchel
The current manuscript is the second update of the original Practical Guide, published in 2013 [Heidbuchel et al. European Heart Rhythm Association Practical Guide on the use of new oral anticoagulants in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Europace 2013;15:625-651; Heidbuchel et al. Updated European Heart Rhythm Association Practical Guide on the use of non-vitamin K antagonist anticoagulants in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Europace 2015;17:1467-1507]. Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are an alternative for vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) to prevent stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and have emerged as the preferred choice, particularly in patients newly started on anticoagulation...
March 17, 2018: European Heart Journal
Jade-Emmanuelle Deshaies, Lulzim Shkreta, Alexander J Moszczynski, Hadjara Sidibé, Sabrina Semmler, Aurélien Fouillen, Estelle R Bennett, Uriya Bekenstein, Laurie Destroismaisons, Johanne Toutant, Quentin Delmotte, Kathryn Volkening, Stéphanie Stabile, Anaïs Aulas, Yousra Khalfallah, Hermona Soreq, Antonio Nanci, Michael J Strong, Benoit Chabot, Christine Vande Velde
The RNA binding proteins TDP-43 (encoded by TARDBP) and hnRNP A1 (HNRNPA1) are each mutated in certain amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases and are often mislocalized in cytoplasmic aggregates within motor neurons of affected patients. Cytoplasmic inclusions of TDP-43, which are accompanied by a depletion of nuclear TDP-43, are observed in most amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases and nearly half of frontotemporal dementia cases. Here, we report that TDP-43 binds HNRNPA1 pre-mRNA and modulates its splicing, and that depletion of nuclear TDP-43 results in increased inclusion of a cassette exon in the HNRNPA1 transcript, and consequently elevated protein levels of an isoform containing an elongated prion-like domain, referred to as hnRNP A1B...
March 19, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Nicholas P van der Munnik, Md Symon Jahan Sajib, Melissa A Moss, Tao Wei, Mark J Uline
Amyloid-β (Aβ) protein aggregates through a complex pathway to progress from monomers to soluble oligomers and ultimately insoluble fibrils. Due to the dynamic nature of aggregation, it has proven exceedingly difficult to determine the precise interactions that lead to the formation of transient oligomers. Here, a statistical thermodynamic model has been developed to elucidate these interactions. Aβ1-42 was simulated using fully-atomistic replica exchange molecular dynamics. We use an ensemble of approximately 5×105 configurations taken from simulation as input in a self-consistent field theory that explicitly accounts for the size, shape and charge distribution of both the amino acids comprising Aβ and all molecular species present in solution...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Geoffrey H Tison, José M Sanchez, Brandon Ballinger, Avesh Singh, Jeffrey E Olgin, Mark J Pletcher, Eric Vittinghoff, Emily S Lee, Shannon M Fan, Rachel A Gladstone, Carlos Mikell, Nimit Sohoni, Johnson Hsieh, Gregory M Marcus
Importance: Atrial fibrillation (AF) affects 34 million people worldwide and is a leading cause of stroke. A readily accessible means to continuously monitor for AF could prevent large numbers of strokes and death. Objective: To develop and validate a deep neural network to detect AF using smartwatch data. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this multinational cardiovascular remote cohort study coordinated at the University of California, San Francisco, smartwatches were used to obtain heart rate and step count data for algorithm development...
March 21, 2018: JAMA Cardiology
Mintu P Turakhia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2018: JAMA Cardiology
Natalia Lorenzo, Irene Mendez, Mikel Taibo, Gianfranco Martinis, Sara Badia, Guillermo Reyes, Rio Aguilar
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation frequently affects patients with valvular heart disease. Ablation of atrial fibrillation during valvular surgery is an alternative for restoring sinus rhythm. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate mid-term results of successful atrial fibrillation surgical ablation during valvular heart disease surgery, to explore left atrium post-ablation mechanics and to identify predictors of recurrence. METHODS: Fifty-three consecutive candidates were included...
March 19, 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
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