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JNK and exercise

Lewan Parker, Adam Trewin, Itamar Levinger, Christopher S Shaw, Nigel K Stepto
BACKGROUND: Stress and mitogen activated protein kinase (SAPK) signaling play an important role in glucose homeostasis and the physiological adaptation to exercise. However, the effects of acute high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) and sprint interval exercise (SIE) on activation of these signaling pathways are unclear. METHODS: Eight young and recreationally active adults performed a single cycling session of HIIE (5 x 4 minutes at 75% Wmax), SIE (4 x 30 second Wingate sprints), and continuous moderate-intensity exercise work-matched to HIIE (CMIE; 30 minutes at 50% of Wmax), separated by a minimum of 1 week...
2017: PloS One
James Matthew Hinkley, Adam R Konopka, Miranda K Suer, Matthew P Harber
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of short-term intense endurance training on cycling performance, along with the acute and chronic signaling responses of skeletal muscle stress and stability markers. Ten recreationally active subjects (25 ± 2 yr, 79 ± 3 kg, 47 ± 2 ml·kg·min-1) were studied before and after a 12-day cycling protocol to examine the effects of short-term intense (70-100% VO2max) exercise training on resting and exercise-induced regulation of molecular factors related to skeletal muscle cellular stress and protein stability...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Li-Na Sun, Xiao-Long Li, Fei Wang, Jun Zhang, Dan-Dan Wang, Li Yuan, Mei-Na Wu, Zhao-Jun Wang, Jin-Shun Qi
Although appropriate exercise is beneficial for enhancing brain functions, high-intensity exercise (HIE)-induced cognitive dysfunction is causing more and more concerns nowadays. In the present study, we observed the effects of high-intensity treadmill running on the spatial learning of the adult Sprague Dawley male rats in Y-maze (n = 16 per group), and investigated its possible electrophysiological and molecular mechanisms by examining in vivo hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), central inflammatory responses, and JNK/p38/ERK signal pathway...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Justin X Nicoll, Andrew C Fry, Andrew J Galpin, Adam J Sterczala, Donald B Thomason, Christopher A Moore, Lawrence W Weiss, Loren Z F Chiu
PURPOSE: Many physiological maladaptations persist after overreaching and overtraining resistance exercise (RE). However, no studies have investigated changes in mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) after overtraining in humans, despite their critical role regulating exercise-induced muscular adaptations. The purpose of this study was to describe the changes in total and resting phosphorylation status of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38-MAPK following a period of RE overreaching or overtraining...
December 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Lewan Parker, Nigel K Stepto, Christopher S Shaw, Fabio R Serpiello, Mitchell Anderson, David L Hare, Itamar Levinger
Background: Obesity and aging are associated with increased oxidative stress, activation of stress and mitogen activated protein kinases (SAPK), and the development of insulin resistance and metabolic disease. In contrast, acute exercise also increases oxidative stress and SAPK signaling, yet is reported to enhance insulin sensitivity and reduce the risk of metabolic disease. This study explored this paradox by investigating the effect of a single session of high-intensity interval-exercise (HIIE) on redox status, muscle SAPK and insulin protein signaling in eleven middle-aged obese men...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Yuhan Tang, Juan Li, Chao Gao, Yanyan Xu, Yanyan Li, Xiao Yu, Jing Wang, Liegang Liu, Ping Yao
The mechanisms underlying intense exercise-induced liver damage and its potential treatments remain unclear. We explored the hepatoprotection and mechanisms of quercetin, a naturally occurring flavonoid, in strenuous exercise-derived endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and inflammation. Intense exercise (28 m/min at a 5° slope for 90 min) resulted in the leakage of aminotransferases in the BALB/C mice. The hepatic ultrastructural malformations and oxidative stress levels were attenuated by quercetin (100 mg/kg·bw)...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
José D Botezelli, Andressa Coope, Ana C Ghezzi, Lucieli T Cambri, Leandro P Moura, Pedro P M Scariot, Rodrigo Stellzer Gaspar, Rania A Mekary, Eduardo Rochete Ropelle, José Rodrigo Pauli
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of aerobic, strength, and combined training on metabolic disorders induced by a fructose-rich diet. Wistar rats (120 days old) were randomized into five groups (n = 8-14): C (control diet and sedentary), F (fed the fructose-rich diet and sedentary), FA (fed the fructose-rich diet and subject to aerobic exercise), FS (fed the fructose-rich diet and subject to strength exercise), and FAS (fed the fructose-rich diet and subject to combined aerobic and strength exercises)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Adam M Gonzalez, Jay R Hoffman, Jeremy R Townsend, Adam R Jajtner, Carleigh H Boone, Kyle S Beyer, Kayla M Baker, Adam J Wells, Gerald T Mangine, Edward H Robinson, David D Church, Leonardo P Oliveira, David H Fukuda, Jeffrey R Stout
PURPOSE: To examine the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family of signaling proteins following typical high volume (HV) and high intensity (HI) lower body resistance exercise protocols in resistance-trained men. METHODS: Ten resistance-trained men (24.7 ± 3.4 year; 90.1 ± 11.3 kg; 176.0 ± 4.9 cm) performed each resistance exercise protocol in a random, counterbalanced order. The HV protocol utilized a load of 70 % 1-RM for sets of 10-12 repetitions with a 1-min rest period length between sets and exercises...
September 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Qinghua Wu, Lian Liu, Anca Miron, Blanka Klímová, Dan Wan, Kamil Kuča
Spirulina is a species of filamentous cyanobacteria that has long been used as a food supplement. In particular, Spirulina platensis and Spirulina maxima are the most important. Thanks to a high protein and vitamin content, Spirulina is used as a nutraceutical food supplement, although its other potential health benefits have attracted much attention. Oxidative stress and dysfunctional immunity cause many diseases in humans, including atherosclerosis, cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, and hypertension. Thus, the antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory activities of these microalgae may play an important role in human health...
August 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Marlon R Leite, José L Cechella, Simone Pinton, Cristina W Nogueira, Gilson Zeni
Aging is a process characterized by deterioration of the homeostasis of various physiological systems; although being a process under influence of multiple factors, the mechanisms involved in aging are not well understood. Here we investigated the effect of a (PhSe)2-supplemented diet (1ppm, 4weeks) and swimming exercise (1% of body weight, 20min per day, 4weeks) on proteins related to glial cells activation, apoptosis and neuroprotection in the hypothalamus of old male Wistar rats (27month-old). Old rats had activation of astrocytes and microglia which was demonstrated by the increase in the levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1) in hypothalamus...
September 2016: Experimental Gerontology
Neng Chen, Ting Lei, Lili Xin, Lingmei Zhou, Jinbo Cheng, Liqiang Qin, Shufen Han, Zhongxiao Wan
White adipose tissue (WAT) is a critical organ involved in regulating metabolic homeostasis under obese condition. Strategies that could positively affect WAT function would hold promise for fighting against obesity and its complications. The aim of the present study is to explore the effects of treadmill exercise training and rutin intervention on adipose tissue function from diet-induced obese (DIO) mice and whether fat depot-specific effects existed. In epididymal adipose tissue, high-fat diet (HFD) resulted in reduction in adiponectin mRNA expression, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)-γ and DsbA-L protein expression, elevation in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers including 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP-78), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and p-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)...
September 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Tommy R Lundberg, Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalo, Per A Tesch, Eric Rullman, Thomas Gustafsson
Recent reports suggest that aerobic exercise may boost the hypertrophic response to short-term resistance training. This study explored the effects of an acute aerobic exercise bout on the transcriptional response to subsequent resistance exercise. Ten moderately trained men performed ∼45 min cycling on one leg followed by 4 × 7 maximal knee extensions for each leg, 15 min later. Thus, one limb performed aerobic and resistance exercise (AE + RE) while the opposing leg did resistance exercise only (RE). Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of each leg 3 h after the resistance exercise bout...
June 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Ting Chen, Timothy M Moore, Mark T W Ebbert, Natalie L McVey, Steven R Madsen, David M Hallowell, Alexander M Harris, Robin E Char, Ryan P Mackay, Chad R Hancock, Jason M Hansen, John S Kauwe, David M Thomson
Skeletal muscle-specific liver kinase B1 (LKB1) knockout mice (skmLKB1-KO) exhibit elevated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling after treadmill running. MAPK activation is also associated with inflammation-related signaling in skeletal muscle. Since exercise can induce muscle damage, and inflammation is a response triggered by damaged tissue, we therefore hypothesized that LKB1 plays an important role in dampening the inflammatory response to muscle contraction, and that this may be due in part to increased susceptibility to muscle damage with contractions in LKB1-deficient muscle...
April 15, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Anne-Sophie Rousseau, Brigitte Sibille, Joseph Murdaca, Isabelle Mothe-Satney, Paul A Grimaldi, Jaap G Neels
We hypothesized that α-lipoic acid (α-LA) might interact with the transcriptional control of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)β in skeletal muscle. Molecular mechanisms were investigated using differentiated C2C12 myotubes treated with α-LA and/or PPARβ agonist GW0742. In vivo studies with 3-mo-old C57Bl6 mice were realized: voluntary wheel running (VWR) training (7 wk), and a 6 wk diet containing (or not) α-LA (0.25% wt/wt). This last condition was combined with (or not) 1 bout of treadmill exercise (18 m/min for 1 h)...
March 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
B C Pereira, A L da Rocha, J R Pauli, E R Ropelle, C T de Souza, D E Cintra, M R Sant'Ana, A S R da Silva
Low body weight gain and food intake are related to exhaustive training and overtraining; however, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these alterations remain unknown. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of running overtraining (OT) protocols performed downhill, uphill and without inclination on the inflammatory pathway in the mouse hypothalamus. The rodents were randomized into the control (C), overtrained by downhill running (OTR/down), overtrained by uphill running (OTR/up) and overtrained by running without inclination (OTR) groups...
December 17, 2015: Neuroscience
Yi Ding, Lan Xie, Cun-Qing Chang, Zhi-Min Chen, Hua Ai
BACKGROUND: Our previous study has confirmed that one bout of exhaustion (Ex) can cause hippocampus neurocyte damage, excessive apoptosis, and dysfunction. Its initial reason is intracellular calcium overload in hippocampus triggered by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) over-activation. NMDAR activation can be suppressed by γ-aminobutyric acid (A) receptor (GABAAR). Whether GABAAR can prevent intense exercise-induced hippocampus apoptosis, damage, or dysfunction will be studied in this study...
September 5, 2015: Chinese Medical Journal
Jeong-Seok Kim, Young-Hee Lee, Do-Yourl Choi, Ho-Keun Yi
The skeletal muscle in aged rats adapts rapidly following a period of exercise. This adaptation includes structural remodeling and biochemical changes such as an up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes, content of stress and heat shock proteins (HSPs). However, the associated molecular mechanisms mediating different types of exercise training-induced adaptations are not yet completely understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of duration and frequency exercise on the expression of HSPs, antioxidant enzymes, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) in the skeletal muscles of aged rats...
June 2015: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
E Passos, C D Pereira, I O Gonçalves, S Rocha-Rodrigues, N Silva, J T Guimarães, D Neves, A Ascensão, J Magalhães, M J Martins
AIMS: Pro-inflammatory mediators, glucocorticoids and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β are implicated in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-related insulin resistance. As physical activity is beneficial against NASH, we analyzed the voluntary physical activity (VPA) and endurance training (ET) (preventive and therapeutic strategies) effects on hepatic insulin, pro-inflammatory and glucocorticoid signaling regulators/mediators in high-fat (Lieber-DeCarli) diet (HFD)-induced NASH...
February 15, 2015: Life Sciences
Jianping Ye
In obesity, chronic inflammation is believed to induce insulin resistance and impairs adipose tissue function. Although this view is supported by a large body of literature, it has been challenged by growing evidence that pro-inflammatory cytokines may favor insulin sensitivity through induction of energy expenditure. In this review article, interleukin 15 (IL-15) is used as a new example to explain the beneficial effects of the proinflammatory cytokines. IL-15 is secreted by multiple types of cells including macrophages, neutrophils and skeletal muscle cells...
June 2015: Frontiers of Medicine
Sabeur Touati, Augusto C I Montezano, Fayçal Meziri, Catherine Riva, Rhian M Touyz, Pascal Laurant
Exercise training reverses atherosclerotic risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome and obesity. The aim of the present study was to determine the molecular anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-atherogenic effects in aorta from rats with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on a high-fat (HFD) or control (CD) diet for 12 weeks. The HFD rats were then divided into four groups: (i) sedentary HFD-fed rats (HFD-S); (ii) exercise trained (motor treadmill 5 days/week, 60 min/day, 12 weeks) HFD-fed rats (HFD-Ex); (iii) modified diet (HFD to CD) sedentary rats (HF/CD-S); and (iv) an exercise-trained modified diet group (HF/CD-Ex)...
February 2015: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
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