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odorant receptor

Satoshi Tsuzuki, Yusaku Kimoto, Shinhye Lee, Tatsuya Sugawara, Yuki Manabe, Kazuo Inoue
Class B scavenger receptors, scavenger receptor B1 (SR-B1) and cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), are broadly expressed cell-surface proteins and are believed to serve as multifaceted players in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in mammals. Because of its ability to recognise distinct odour-active volatile compounds and its presence in murine olfactory epithelium, CD36 has recently emerged as a participant in the detection of odorants within the nasal cavity. However, there have been no attempts to assess whether SR-B1 has such a role...
2018: Biomedical Research
Jothi Kumar Yuvaraj, Martin N Andersson, Jacob A Corcoran, Olle Anderbrant, Christer Löfstedt
The odorant receptors (ORs) of insects are crucial for host and mate recognition. In moths (Lepidoptera), specialized ORs are involved in male detection of the sex pheromone produced by females. Most moth sex pheromones are C10 -C18 acetates, alcohols, and aldehydes (Type I pheromones), and most pheromone receptors (PRs) characterized to date are from higher Lepidoptera (Ditrysia), responding to these types of compounds. With few exceptions, functionally characterized PRs fall into what has been called the "PR-clade", which also contains receptors that have yet to be characterized...
June 9, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Masami Ikeda, Minoru Sugihara, Makiko Suwa
We report the development of the SEVENS database, which contains information on G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) genes that are identified with high confidence levels (A, B, C, and D) from various eukaryotic genomes, by using a pipeline comprising bioinformatics softwares, including a gene finder, a sequence alignment tool, a motif and domain assignment tool, and a transmembrane helix predictor. SEVENS compiles detailed information on GPCR genes, such as chromosomal mapping position, phylogenetic tree, sequence similarity to known genes, and protein function described by motif/domain and transmembrane helices...
2018: Biophysics and Physicobiology
Florence Courtens, Jean-Louis Demangeat, Mourad Benabdallah
Homeopathic remedies (HRs) contain odorant molecules such as flavonoids or terpenes and can lose their efficiency in presence of some competitive odors. Such similarities, along with extreme sensitivity of the olfactory system, widespread presence of olfactory receptors over all organic tissues (where they have metabolic roles besides perception of odors), and potential direct access to the brain through olfactory nerves (ONs) and trigeminal nerves, may suggest the olfactory system as target for HRs. Recent works highlighted that HRs exist in a dual form, that is, a still molecular form at low dilution and a nanoparticulate form at high dilution, and that remnants of source remedy persist in extremely high dilutions...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
Tanya Josek, Kimberly K O Walden, Brian F Allan, Marianne Alleyne, Hugh M Robertson
Little is known about the molecular basis for the olfactory capabilities of the sensory Haller's organ on the forelegs of ticks. We first expanded the known repertoire of Ionotropic Receptors (IRs), a variant lineage of the ionotropic glutamate receptors, encoded by the black-legged Ixodes scapularis genome from 15 to 125. We then undertook a transcriptome study of fore- and hind-legs of this tick in an effort to identify candidate chemoreceptors differentially expressed in forelegs as likely to be involved in Haller's organ functions...
May 26, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Alan Gelperin
Olfactory information processing and learning are highly developed computational abilities of rodents. These attributes can be exploited to ask questions at several levels of complexity, from aspects of odorant binding by olfactory receptors to higher order learning about the predictive consequences of odorant stimulus presentation. Quantitative understanding of rodent odorant sampling patterns, both baseline nasal breathing and odorant-stimulated sniffing, is critical to elucidating mechanisms of olfactory information processing, from primary olfactory receptors to cortical centers that synthesize olfactory percepts from preprocessed multimodal inputs...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Xavier Grosmaitre, Minghong Ma
Electrophysiological recording and optical imaging enable the characterization of membrane and odorant response properties of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in the nasal neuroepithelium. Here we describe a method to record the responses of mammalian OSNs to odorant stimulations in an ex vivo preparation of intact olfactory epithelium. The responses of individual OSNs with defined odorant receptor types can be monitored via patch-clamp recording or calcium imaging.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Michele Dibattista, Johannes Reisert
The first step to perceive molecules in the air as odors is their detection by the olfactory receptors (ORs) present in the cilia of the olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in the nasal cavity. The binding of the odorant molecule to the OR triggers a series of biochemical events that lead to the opening of ion channels, creating at first a generator potential that, if the latter reaches threshold, leads to action potential firing. New insights into olfactory transduction introduced new key players and highlighted the necessity to study OSN physiology in an OR-dependent fashion...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Xiaoyang Serene Hu, Hiroaki Matsunami
We describe an approach for the high-throughput surveying of odorant receptors (ORs) expressed in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) that have been activated by specific odorants. When OSNs are activated, there is a molecular signature in the form of a phosphorylated-S6 (pS6) ribosomal subunit. By the immunoprecipitation of the protein-RNA complex containing pS6, we identify the OR mRNA species expressed in these activated OSNs. The one neuron - one receptor rule (mature OSN expresses a single unique OR) allows for the identification of the collection of ORs that responded toward the tested odorant...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Caroline Bushdid, Claire A de March, Hiroaki Matsunami, Jérôme Golebiowski
Unraveling the sense of smell relies on understanding how odorant receptors recognize odorant molecules. Given the vastness of the odorant chemical space and the complexity of the odorant receptor space, computational methods are in line to propose rules connecting them. We hereby propose an in silico and an in vitro approach, which, when combined are extremely useful for assessing chemogenomic links. In this chapter we mostly focus on the mining of already existing data through machine learning methods. This approach allows establishing predictions that map the chemical space and the receptor space...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Artur G Leme Silva, Maíra H Nagai, Bettina Malnic
The mouse olfactory epithelium is composed of a heterogeneous population of olfactory sensory neurons, where each neuron expresses one single type of odorant receptor gene, out of a repertoire of ~1000 different genes. Fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS) is a powerful technique, which can be used to isolate a cellular subpopulation from a heterogeneous tissue. The sorted neurons can then be used in gene expression studies, or analyzed for the presence of different DNA epigenetic modification marks. Here we describe a method to separate a subpopulation of olfactory sensory neurons expressing the odorant receptor Olfr17...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Qian Li
Olfaction is the primary sense used by most animals to perceive the external world. The mouse olfactory system is composed of several sensory structures, the largest of which is the main olfactory epithelium (MOE). Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) located within the MOE detect odors and pheromones using dedicated seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Two families of GPCRs are expressed in the MOE and are conserved in humans and other vertebrates: odorant receptors (ORs) and trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs)...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
André Machado Xavier, Isaias Glezer
CD36 scavenger receptor is expressed in a subpopulation of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). These neurons express canonical olfactory signaling machinery; however, not all odorant receptors (ORs) are coexpressed with CD36. In situ hybridization (ISH) enables the detection of nucleic acids in tissues, cells, or isolated chromosomes. The development of nonradioactive and stable labeling probes almost 30 years ago, allowed to routinely perform this technique employing different labeling strategies in one experiment...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Tanwee Das De, Tina Thomas, Sonia Verma, Deepak Singla, Charu Chauhan, Vartika Srivastava, Punita Sharma, Seena Kumari, Sanjay Tevatiya, Jyoti Rani, Yasha Hasija, Kailash C Pandey, Rajnikant Dixit
Decoding the molecular basis of host seeking and blood feeding behavioral evolution/adaptation in the adult female mosquitoes may provide an opportunity to design new molecular strategy to disrupt human-mosquito interactions. Although there is a great progress in the field of mosquito olfaction and chemo-detection, little is known about the sex-specific evolution of the specialized olfactory system of adult female mosquitoes that enables them to drive and manage the complex blood-feeding associated behavioral responses...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Nao Utashiro, Claire R Williams, Jay Z Parrish, Kazuo Emoto
Animal responses to their environment rely on activation of sensory neurons by external stimuli. In many sensory systems, however, neurons display basal activity prior to the external stimuli. This prior activity is thought to modulate neural functions, yet its impact on animal behavior remains elusive. Here, we reveal a potential role for prior activity in olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in shaping larval olfactory behavior. We show that prior activity in larval ORNs is mediated by the olfactory receptor complex (OR complex)...
June 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fuqiang Zhao, Marie A Holahan, Xiaohai Wang, Jason M Uslaner, Andrea K Houghton, Jeffrey L Evelhoch, Christopher T Winkelmann, Catherine D G Hines
Studies in rodents show that olfactory processing in the principal neurons of olfactory bulb (OB) and piriform cortex (PC) is controlled by local inhibitory interneurons, and glutamate NMDA receptor plays a role in this inhibitory control. It is not clear if findings from studies in rodents translate to olfactory processing in nonhuman primates (NHPs). In this study, the effect of the glutamate NMDA receptor antagonist MK801 on odorant-induced olfactory responses in the OB and PC of anesthetized NHPs (rhesus monkeys) was investigated by cerebral blood volume (CBV) fMRI...
2018: PloS One
Alja Lüdke, Georg Raiser, Johannes Nehrkorn, Andreas V M Herz, C Giovanni Galizia, Paul Szyszka
Animals can form associations between temporally separated stimuli. To do so, the nervous system has to retain a neural representation of the first stimulus until the second stimulus appears. The neural substrate of such sensory stimulus memories is unknown. Here, we search for a sensory odor memory in the insect olfactory system and characterize odorant-evoked Ca2+ activity at three consecutive layers of the olfactory system in Drosophila : in olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) and projection neurons (PNs) in the antennal lobe, and in Kenyon cells (KCs) in the mushroom body...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Murugan Mukilan, David Mary Rajathei, Edwin Jeyaraj, Nagarajan Kayalvizhi, Koilmani Emmanuvel Rajan
Earlier, we showed that micro RNA-132 (miR-132) regulate the immediate early genes (IEGs) in the olfactory bulb (OB) of fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx during olfactory learning. This study was designed to examine whether the miR-132 regulate other proteins in OB during olfactory learning. To test this, miR-132 anti-sense oligodeoxynucleotide (AS-ODN) was delivered to the OB and then trained to novel odor. The 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis showed that inhibition of miR-132 altered olfactory training induced expression of 321 proteins...
May 30, 2018: Gene
Izabela Sówka, Yaroslav Bezyk, Agnieszka Grzelka, Urszula Miller, Łukasz Pachurka
On-site odor measurements and mathematical modeling are useful for identifying the odor impact at the source and receptors located in areas adjacent to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Impact of open area sources can be significant and may influence air quality both at the WWTP area and downwind in the surrounding areas. In this work, results of the odor measurements carried out in the spring and summer season for sources within three different mechanical-biological WWTPs in Poland are presented. The odor impact assessment was completed using a Polish reference model...
May 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Ji-Xin Pang, Xin Zeng, Jia-Ying Zhu, Nai-Yong Liu
The coffee white stemborer, Xylotrechus quadripes Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), feeds primarily on Coffea arabica L. (Gentianales: Rubiaceae) with its egg, larva, and pupa being developed within the trunk. The detection of chemosensory-related cues linked to adult mating, host seeking, and recognition is driven by three chemoreceptor gene repertoires of odorant (ORs), gustatory (GRs), and ionotropic (IRs) receptors as well as sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs). Yet, information on these genes involved in chemoreception is unavailable in X...
May 30, 2018: Environmental Entomology
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