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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533189/potential-therapeutic-effects-of-odorants-through-their-ectopic-receptors-in-pigmented-cells
#1
REVIEW
Barbara Pavan, Antonio Capuzzo, Alessandro Dalpiaz
Several olfactory receptors (ORs) have been characterized outside the olfactory neuroepithelium in neuronal and non-neuronal tissues, where they were implicated in the recognition of diverse chemical signals. ORs have been found to regulate melanogenesis in skin melanocytes, and OR expression has been found in the human brain nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, where production of melanin occurs as neuromelanin and can change with age; OR expression is downregulated in Parkinson's disease. Therefore, we propose several odorants as new functional ligands to ORs expressed in non-olfactory pigmented cells as dopaminergic neurons and melanocytes, where, by acting on cAMP-induced melanin production, they could help to counteract melanogenic and neurodegenerative dysfunctions, including melanoma and Parkinson's disease...
May 19, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530904/wiring-variations-that-enable-and-constrain-neural-computation-in-a-sensory-microcircuit
#2
William F Tobin, Rachel I Wilson, Wei-Chung Allen Lee
Neural network function can be shaped by varying the strength of synaptic connections. One way to achieve this is to vary connection structure. To investigate how structural variation among synaptic connections might affect neural computation, we examined primary afferent connections in the Drosophila olfactory system. We used large-scale serial section electron microscopy to reconstruct all the olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) axons that target a left-right pair of glomeruli, as well as all the projection neurons (PNs) postsynaptic to these ORNs...
May 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528905/a-pheromone-antagonist-regulates-optimal-mating-time-in-the-moth-helicoverpa-armigera
#3
Hetan Chang, Yang Liu, Dong Ai, Xingchuan Jiang, Shuanglin Dong, Guirong Wang
Many insect species use multi-component sex pheromones to discriminate among potential mating partners [1-5]. In moths, pheromone blends tend to be dominated by one or two major components, but behavioral responses are frequently optimized by the inclusion of less abundant minor components [6]. An increasing number of studies have shown that female insects use these chemicals to convey their mating availability to males, who can assess the maturity of females and thus decide when to mate [7, 8]. However, little is known about the biological mechanisms that enable males to assess female reproductive status...
May 17, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525982/blood-meal-induced-regulation-of-the-chemosensory-gene-repertoire-in-the-southern-house-mosquito
#4
Tanvi Taparia, Rickard Ignell, Sharon Rose Hill
BACKGROUND: The southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, is one of the most prevalent vectors of lymphatic filariasis and flavivirus-induced encephalitis. Its vectorial capacity is directly affected by its reproductive feeding behaviors, such as host seeking, blood feeding, resting, and egg laying. In mosquitoes, these gonotrophic behaviors are odor-mediated and regulated following blood feeding. Immediately after a blood meal, female mosquitoes show reduced olfactory responsiveness and flight activity, as they enter a resting state...
May 19, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525560/activity-dependent-gene-expression-in-the-mammalian-olfactory-epithelium
#5
Qiang Wang, William B Titlow, Declan A McClintock, Arnold J Stromberg, Timothy S McClintock
Activity-dependent processes are important to olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in several ways, such as cell survival and the specificity of axonal convergence. The identification of activity-dependent mRNAs has contributed to our understanding of OSN axon convergence, but has revealed surprisingly little about other processes. Published studies of activity-dependent mRNAs in olfactory mucosae overlap poorly, but by combining these agreements with meta-analysis of existing data we identify 443 mRNAs that respond to methods that alter OSN activity...
May 19, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512400/exposure-to-hedione-increases-reciprocity-in-humans
#6
Sebastian Berger, Hanns Hatt, Axel Ockenfels
Cooperation among unrelated humans is frequently regarded as a defining feature in the evolutionary success of our species. Whereas, much research has addressed the strategic and cognitive mechanisms that underlie cooperation, investigations into chemosensory processes have received very limited research attention. To bridge that gap, we build on recent research that has identified the chemically synthesized odorant Hedione (HED) as a ligand for the putative human pheromone receptor (VN1R1) expressed in the olfactory mucosa, and hypothesize that exposure to HED may increase reciprocity...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502661/an-adenosine-receptor-for-olfaction-in-fish
#7
Noriko Wakisaka, Nobuhiko Miyasaka, Tetsuya Koide, Miwa Masuda, Towako Hiraki-Kajiyama, Yoshihiro Yoshihara
Nucleotides released from food sources into environmental water are supposed to act as feeding cues for many fish species. However, it remains unknown how fish can sensitively detect those nucleotides. Here we discover a novel olfactory mechanism for ATP sensing in zebrafish. Upon entering into the nostril, ATP is efficiently converted into adenosine through enzymatic reactions of two ecto-nucleotidases expressed in the olfactory epithelium. Adenosine subsequently activates a small population of olfactory sensory neurons expressing a novel adenosine receptor A2c that is unique to fishes and amphibians...
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500222/energy-requirements-of-odor-transduction-in-the-chemosensory-cilia-of-olfactory-sensory-neurons-rely-on-oxidative-phosphorylation-and-glycolytic-processing-of-extracellular-glucose
#8
Pablo S Villar, Ricardo Delgado, Cecilia Vergara, Juan G Reyes, Juan Bacigalupo
The mechanisms that power the physiological events occuring in cilia, flagella and microvilli are of fundamental importance for the functions of these important and ubicuous organelles. The olfactory epithelium (OE) is mostly populated by ciliated olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and surrounding sustentacular cells (SCs) with apical microvilli. The only OSN dendrite extends to the surface forming a knob projecting several chemosensory cilia of approximately 50 x 0.2 μm, devoid of inner membranes embedded in a mucus layer...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495971/cilia-and-flagella-associated-protein-69-regulates-olfactory-transduction-kinetics-in-mice
#9
Anna K Talaga, Frederick N Dong, Johannes Reisert, Haiqing Zhao
Animals detect odorous chemicals through specialized olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) that transduce odorants into neural electrical signals. We identify a novel and evolutionarily conserved protein, CFAP69, in mice that regulates olfactory transduction kinetics. In the olfactory epithelium CFAP69 is enriched in OSN cilia, where olfactory transduction occurs. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that a large portion of CFAP69 can form Armadillo-type α-helical repeats, which may mediate protein-protein interaction...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492065/revisiting-olfactory-receptors-as-putative-drivers-of-cancer
#10
Marco Ranzani, Vivek Iyer, Ximena Ibarra-Soria, Martin Del Castillo Velasco-Herrera, Mathew Garnett, Darren Logan, David J Adams
Background: Olfactory receptors (ORs) recognize odorant molecules and activate a signal transduction pathway that ultimately leads to the perception of smell. This process also modulates the apoptotic cycle of olfactory sensory neurons in an olfactory receptor-specific manner. Recent reports indicate that some olfactory receptors are expressed in tissues other than the olfactory epithelium suggesting that they may have pleiotropic roles. Methods: We investigated the expression of 301 olfactory receptor genes in a comprehensive panel of 968 cancer cell lines...
February 10, 2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487399/the-zinc-paradigm-for-metalloneurochemistry
#11
REVIEW
Chelsea A Barr, Shawn C Burdette
Neurotransmission and sensory perception are shaped through metal ion-protein interactions in various brain regions. The term "metalloneurochemistry" defines the unique field of bioinorganic chemistry focusing on these processes, and zinc has been the leading target of metalloneurochemists in the almost 15 years since the definition was introduced. Zinc in the hippocampus interacts with receptors that dictate ion flow and neurotransmitter release. Understanding the intricacies of these interactions is crucial to uncovering the role that zinc plays in learning and memory...
May 9, 2017: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476120/central-peptidergic-modulation-of-peripheral-olfactory-responses
#12
Sion Lee, Young-Joon Kim, Walton D Jones
BACKGROUND: Animal olfactory systems detect volatile environmental chemicals and integrate this information to direct the discovery of food and mates as well as danger avoidance. Rather than remaining constant, olfactory response thresholds are modulated by internal and external cues to adapt odor-guided behaviors to changing conditions. RESULTS: Here, we show in Drosophila melanogaster that neuropeptide F (NPF) modulates the responses of a specific population of antennal olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) to food-derived odors...
May 5, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473258/representational-specializations-of-the-hippocampus-in-phylogenetic-perspective
#13
REVIEW
Elisabeth A Murray, Steven P Wise, Kim S Graham
In a major evolutionary transition that occurred more than 520 million years ago, the earliest vertebrates adapted to a life of mobile, predatory foraging guided by distance receptors concentrated on their heads. Vision and olfaction served as the principal sensory systems for guiding their search for nutrients and safe haven. Among their neural innovations, these animals had a telencephalon that included a homologue of the hippocampus. Experiments on goldfish, turtles, lizards, rodents, macaque monkeys and humans have provided insight into the initial adaptive advantages provided by the hippocampus homologue...
May 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471462/the-role-of-metals-in-mammalian-olfaction-of-low-molecular-weight-organosulfur-compounds
#14
REVIEW
Eric Block, Victor S Batista, Hiroaki Matsunami, Hanyi Zhuang, Lucky Ahmed
Covering: up to the end of 2017While suggestions concerning the possible role of metals in olfaction and taste date back 50 years, only recently has it been possible to confirm these proposals with experiments involving individual olfactory receptors (ORs). A detailed discussion of recent experimental results demonstrating the key role of metals in enhancing the response of human and other vertebrate ORs to specific odorants is presented against the backdrop of our knowledge of how the sense of smell functions both at the molecular and whole animal levels...
May 10, 2017: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460028/evolutionary-history-of-chemosensory-related-gene-families-across-the-arthropoda
#15
Seong-Il Eyun, Ho Young Soh, Marijan Posavi, James B Munro, Daniel S T Hughes, Shwetha C Murali, Jiaxin Qu, Shannon Dugan, Sandra L Lee, Hsu Chao, Huyen Dinh, Yi Han, HarshaVardhan Doddapaneni, Kim C Worley, Donna M Muzny, Eun-Ok Park, Joana C Silva, Richard A Gibbs, Stephen Richards, Carol Eunmi Lee
Chemosensory-related gene (CRG) families have been studied extensively in insects, but their evolutionary history across the Arthropoda had remained relatively unexplored. Here, we address current hypotheses and prior conclusions on CRG family evolution using a more comprehensive dataset. In particular, odorant receptors (ORs) were hypothesized to have proliferated during terrestrial colonization by insects (hexapods), but their association with other pancrustacean clades and with independent terrestrial colonizations in other arthropod subphyla have been unclear...
April 29, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458780/identification-of-olfactory-receptor-genes-in-the-japanese-grenadier-anchovy-coilia-nasus
#16
Guoli Zhu, Liangjiang Wang, Wenqiao Tang, Xiaomei Wang, Cong Wang
Olfaction is essential for fish to detect odorant elements in the environment and plays a critical role in navigating, locating food and detecting predators. Olfactory function is produced by the olfactory transduction pathway and is activated by olfactory receptors (ORs) through the binding of odorant elements. Recently, four types of olfactory receptors have been identified in vertebrate olfactory epithelium, including main odorant receptors (MORs), vomeronasal type receptors (VRs), trace-amine associated receptors (TAARs) and formyl peptide receptors (FPRs)...
2017: Genes & Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438259/variation-in-olfactory-neuron-repertoires-is-genetically-controlled-and-environmentally-modulated
#17
Ximena Ibarra-Soria, Thiago S Nakahara, Jingtao Lilue, Yue Jiang, Casey Trimmer, Mateus Aa Souza, Paulo Hm Netto, Kentaro Ikegami, Nicolle R Murphy, Mairi Kusma, Andrea Kirton, Luis R Saraiva, Thomas M Keane, Hiroaki Matsunami, Joel Mainland, Fabio Papes, Darren W Logan
The mouse olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) repertoire is composed of 10 million cells and each expresses one olfactory receptor (OR) gene from a pool of over 1000. Thus, the nose is sub-stratified into more than a thousand OSN subtypes. Here, we employ and validate an RNA-sequencing-based method to quantify the abundance of all OSN subtypes in parallel, and investigate the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to neuronal diversity. We find that the OSN subtype distribution is stereotyped in genetically identical mice, but varies extensively between different strains...
April 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434127/intranasal-vitamin-a-is-beneficial-in-post-infectious-olfactory-loss
#18
Thomas Hummel, Katherine L Whitcroft, Gina Rueter, Antje Haehner
Vitamin A plays a decisive role in the regeneration of olfactory receptor neurons. In this retrospective study we investigated the effectiveness of topical vitamin A in patients with post-infectious and posttraumatic smell disorders. Retrospective cohort. A total of 170 patients (age range 18-70 years, mean age 52 years) participated. Forty-six patients were treated with smell training only. The remaining 124 patients received smell training and topical vitamin A. Olfactory function was assessed using the Sniffin' Sticks test kit, a validated technique to measure odor thresholds, discrimination and identification...
April 22, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432783/gene-structure-and-expression-characteristic-of-a-novel-odorant-receptor-gene-cluster-in-the-parasitoid-wasp-microplitis-mediator-hymenoptera-braconidae
#19
S-N Wang, S Shan, Y Zheng, Y Peng, Z-Y Lu, Y-Q Yang, R-J Li, Y-J Zhang, Y-Y Guo
Odorant receptors (ORs) expressed in the antennae of parasitoid wasps are responsible for detection of various lipophilic airborne molecules. In the present study, 107 novel OR genes were identified from Microplitis mediator antennal transcriptome data. Phylogenetic analysis of the set of OR genes from M. mediator and Microplitis demolitor revealed that M. mediator OR (MmedOR) genes can be classified into different subfamilies, and the majority of MmedORs in each subfamily shared high sequence identities and clear orthologous relationships to M...
April 22, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428935/genetic-analysis-of-mosquito-detection-of-humans
#20
Joshua I Raji, Matthew DeGennaro
Mosquitoes detect the presence of humans by integrating chemosensory, thermal, and visual cues. Among these, odors are crucial for mosquito host detection. Insects have evolved a diverse repertoire of receptors to detect their plant and animal hosts. Genetic analysis of these receptors in Drosophila has set the stage for similar studies in mosquitoes. The diversity of the cues involved in mosquito host-seeking has made designing behavioral control strategies a challenge. The sensory receptors that are most important for mosquito detection of humans can now be determined using genome editing...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
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