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odorant receptor

Eileen K Jenkins, Mallory T DeChant, Erin B Perry
The impact of health, management, and microbiota on olfactory function in canines has not been examined in review. The most important characteristic of the detection canine is its sense of smell. Olfactory receptors are primarily located on the ethmoturbinates of the nasal cavity. The vomeronasal organ is an additional site of odor detection that detects chemical signals that stimulate behavioral and/or physiological changes. Recent advances in the genetics of olfaction suggest that genetic changes, along with the unique anatomy and airflow of the canine nose, are responsible for the macrosmia of the species...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Caroline Bushdid, Claire A de March, Sebastien Fiorucci, Hiroaki Matsunami, Jérôme Golebiowski
Predicting the activity of chemicals for a given odorant receptor is a longstanding challenge. Here, the activity of 258 chemicals on the human G protein-coupled odorant receptor (OR)51E1, also known as prostate-specific G protein-coupled receptor 2 (PSGR2) was virtually screened by machine learning using 4884 chemical descriptors as input. A systematic control by functional in vitro assays revealed that a support vector machine algorithm accurately predicted the activity of a screened library. It allowed identifying two novel agonists in vitro for OR51E1...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
David Baracchi, Elisa Rigosi, Gabriela de Brito Sanchez, Martin Giurfa
Lateralization is a fundamental property of the human brain that affects perceptual, motor, and cognitive processes. It is now acknowledged that left-right laterality is widespread across vertebrates and even some invertebrates such as fruit flies and bees. Honeybees, which learn to associate an odorant (the conditioned stimulus, CS) with sucrose solution (the unconditioned stimulus, US), recall this association better when trained using their right antenna than they do when using their left antenna. Correspondingly, olfactory sensilla are more abundant on the right antenna and odor encoding by projection neurons of the right antennal lobe results in better odor differentiation than those of the left one...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
David A Clark, Donovan Kohler, America Mathis, Eryn Slankster, Samipya Kafle, Seth R Odell, Dennis Mathew
The ability of insects to navigate toward odor sources is based on the activities of their first-order olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). While a considerable amount of information has been generated regarding ORN responses to odorants, the role of specific ORNs in driving behavioral responses remains poorly understood. Complications in behavior analyses arise due to different volatilities of odorants that activate individual ORNs, multiple ORNs activated by single odorants, and the difficulty in replicating naturally observed temporal variations in olfactory stimuli using conventional odor-delivery methods in the laboratory...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Lina Guo, Huiting Zhao, Bing Xu, Yusuo Jiang
Olfactory receptors (ORs) are important for insects to recognize and discriminate odorants in the environment and are mainly expressed in olfactory and gustatory organs. Little is known about the potential OR functions in non-olfactory tissues. In the present study, we evaluated the possibility of odorant receptors AcerOr1 and AcerOr2 (AcerOr2 is orthologous to the co-receptor) mediating sperm DNA integrity, and the relationship between sperm DNA integrity and semen parameters in Apis cerana cerana. Based on previous findings in mammals, we speculated that the Ca2+ /calmodulin (CaM)/CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) signaling pathway might be involved in the regulation of sperm motility in A...
March 31, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Yinliang Wang, Jian Zhang, Qi Chen, Hanbo Zhao, Jiatong Wang, Ming Wen, Jinghui Xi, Bingzhong Ren
Saperda populnea is a serious pest of poplar and willow trees in the Palaearctic region, causing extensive damage to forests and the lumber industry. Until recently, there is no safe and effective chemical method to control this pest due to the lack of sufficient knowledge on the molecular basis of its olfactory genes, moreover, the evolutionary history of the olfactory gene family in subfamily Lamiinae is still fully unknown. Our RNA sequencing of the antennae of S. populnea identified 43 odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 15 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 56 odorant receptors (ORs) and 24 inotropic receptors (IRs) in S...
March 21, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
Binu Antony, Jibin Johny, Saleh A Aldosari
In insects, perception of the environment-food, mates, and prey-is mainly guided by chemical signals. The dynamic process of signal perception involves transport to odorant receptors (ORs) by soluble secretory proteins, odorant binding proteins (OBPs), which form the first stage in the process of olfactory recognition and are analogous to lipocalin family proteins in vertebrates. Although OBPs involved in the transport of pheromones to ORs have been functionally identified in insects, there is to date no report for Coleoptera...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Ziying Fu, Tatsuya Ogura, Wangmei Luo, Weihong Lin
The main olfactory epithelium (MOE) functions to detect odor molecules, provide an epithelial surface barrier, and remove xenobiotics from inhaled air. Mechanisms coordinating the activities of different cell types within the MOE to maintain these functions are poorly understood. Previously, we showed that superficially located microvillous cells (MCs) in the MOE expressing transient receptor potential channel M5 (TRPM5) are cholinergic and chemoresponsive and that they play an important role in maintaining odor responses and olfactory-guided behavior under challenging chemical environment...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
George Tzotzos, Jim N Iley, Elaine A Moore
It is generally recognized that insect odorant binding proteins (OBPs) mediate the solubilisation and transport of hydrophobic odorant molecules and contribute to the sensitivity of the insect olfactory system. However, the exact mechanism by which OBPs deliver odorants to olfactory receptors and their role, if any, as selectivity filters for specific odorants, are still a matter of debate. In the case of Anopheles gambiae, recent studies indicate that ligand discrimination is effected through the formation of heterodimers such as AgamOBP1 and AgamOBP4 (odorant binding proteins 1 and 4 from Anopheles gambiae)...
2018: PloS One
Naoko Saito, Emi Yamano, Akira Ishii, Masaaki Tanaka, Junji Nakamura, Yasuyoshi Watanabe
Some components of the neural circuits underlying innate odor-evoked responses have recently been elucidated. Odor information detected by the olfactory receptors is transmitted from the olfactory bulb to the cortical amygdala, where physiological and emotional states such as attraction or avoidance are controlled. Thus, activation of specific olfactory receptors can elicit changes in physiological and/or psychological state. Here, we examined on the odorant Hex-Hex Mix, which has been reported to induce anti-fatigue effects...
2018: PloS One
Seth Haney, Debajit Saha, Baranidharan Raman, Maxim Bazhenov
Adaptation of neural responses is ubiquitous in sensory systems and can potentially facilitate many important computational functions. Here, we examined this issue using a well-constrained computational model of the early olfactory circuits. In the insect olfactory system, the responses of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) on their antenna adapt over time. We found that strong adaptation of sensory input is important for rapidly detecting a fresher stimulus encountered in the presence of other background cues and for faithfully representing its identity...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Akhila Hosur Shrungeswara, Mazhuvancherry Kesavan Unnikrishnan
Highly specialized and functionally integrated cognitive systems facilitate hedonistic and healthy food preferences. Guided by survival needs, flavor preferences not only select safe, nutritious dietary components, but also those with negligible calorific value but significant health benefits, for example, spices. Feeding behavior, both innate and acquired, is guided not only by taste receptors on the tongue but also visceral organs. The gustatory cortex receives information from all senses, not just taste, suggesting multiple checkpoints in predicting and evaluating healthy foods...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Xiang Liu, Shaolin Liu
Neuropeptides including cholecystokinin (CCK) are important for many brain functions including sensory processing. CCK is predominantly present in a subpopulation of excitatory neurons and activation of CCK receptors is implicated in olfactory signal processing in the olfactory bulb (OB). However, cellular and circuit mechanisms underlying CCK actions in the OB remain elusive. Here we characterized CCK effects on synaptic inhibition of the principal OB output neurons mitral/tufted cells (MTCs) followed by mechanistic analyses at the circuit and cellular levels with the following findings...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Xiu-Lin Chen, Li Su, Bo-Liao Li, Guang-Wei Li, Jun-Xiang Wu
Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) act in recognizing odor molecules and their most well-studied functions are transporting odors across the sensillum lymph to olfactory receptor neurons within the insect antennal sensillum. The adults of Grapholita molesta highly depend on olfactory cues in locating host plants and selecting oviposition sites, in which OBPs play an important role in perceiving and recognizing host plant volatiles. Exploring the physiological function of OBPs could facilitate our understanding of their importance in insects' chemical communication...
March 22, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Hugh M Robertson, Rachel L Baits, Kimberly K O Walden, Ayako Wada-Katsumata, Coby Schal
The acquisition of genome sequences from a wide range of insects and other arthropods has revealed a broad positive correlation between the complexity of their chemical ecology and the size of their chemosensory gene repertoire. The German cockroach Blattella germanica is an extreme omnivore and has the largest chemosensory gene repertoire known for an arthropod, exceeding even the highly polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae. While the Odorant Receptor family is not particularly large, with 123 genes potentially encoding 134 receptors (105 intact), the Gustatory Receptor family is greatly expanded to 431 genes potentially encoding 545 receptors (483 intact), the largest known for insects and second only to the spider mite...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
Melania Melis, Mariano Mastinu, Massimiliano Arca, Roberto Crnjar, Iole Tomassini Barbarossa
Oral sensitivity to fats varies in individuals influencing nutritional status and health. Variations in oleic acid perception are associated with CD36 and odorant binding protein (OBPIIa) polymorphisms, and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) sensitivity, which is mediated by TAS2R38 receptor. L-Arginine (L-Arg) supplementation was shown to modify the perception of the five taste qualities. Here we analyzed the effect of three concentrations (5, 10, 15 mmol/L) of L-Arg on oral perception of oleic acid in forty-six subjects classified for PROP taster status and genotyped for TAS2R38, CD36 and OBPIIa polymorphisms...
2018: PloS One
Qi Wang, Qian Wang, Yan-Le Zhou, Shuang Shan, Huan-Huan Cui, Yong Xiao, Kun Dong, Adel Khashaveh, Liang Sun, Yong-Jun Zhang
The phytophagous mirid bugs of Apolygus lucorum, Lygus pratensis as well as three Adelphocoris spp., including Adelphocoris lineolatus, A. suturalis , and A. fasciaticollis are major pests of multiple agricultural crops in China, which have distinct geographical distribution and occurrence ranges. Like many insect species, these bugs heavily rely on olfactory cues to search preferred host plants, thereby investigation on functional co-evolution and divergence of olfactory genes seems to be necessary and is of great interest...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Nan Zhang, Lei Zhang, Linyin Feng, Lei Yao
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cananga odorata essential oil, known as ylang-ylang essential oil (YYO), was commonly used in the aromatherapy for relaxation and mood adjusting use. In our previous study, YYO played anxiolytic effects on the mice in several behavioral tests that based on the instinctive responses to novel environments. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the effects and mechanisms of YYO reversing the anxiety induced by 5-HT2C receptor agonist 1-(3-chlorophenyl) piperazine (m-CPP)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Peng He, Patamarerk Engsontia, Guang-Lei Chen, Qian Yin, Jun Wang, Xu Lu, Ya-Nan Zhang, Zhao-Qun Li, Ming He
BACKGROUND: The white-backed planthopper (WBPH) Sogatella furcifera Horváth, the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens, and the small brown planthopper (SBPH) Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) are rice pests that damage rice plants by sap-sucking and by transmitting viruses. Host-seeking behavior involves chemosensory receptor genes, which include odorant receptors (ORs), ionotropic receptors (IRs) and gustatory receptors (GRs). RESULTS: We used genome and transcriptome data to identify 141 ORs, 28 GRs and 25 IRs in BPH, 135 ORs, 18 GRs and 16 IRs in WBPH and 37 ORs, 14 GRs and 6 IRs in SBPH...
March 15, 2018: Pest Management Science
Deborah J Bird, William J Murphy, Lester Fox-Rosales, Iman Hamid, Robert A Eagle, Blaire Van Valkenburgh
The evolution of mammalian olfaction is manifested in a remarkable diversity of gene repertoires, neuroanatomy and skull morphology across living species. Olfactory receptor genes (ORGs), which initiate the conversion of odorant molecules into odour perceptions and help an animal resolve the olfactory world, range in number from a mere handful to several thousand genes across species. Within the snout, each of these ORGs is exclusively expressed by a discrete population of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), suggesting that newly evolved ORGs may be coupled with new OSN populations in the nasal epithelium...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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