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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338216/the-diversified-function-and-potential-therapy-of-ectopic-olfactory-receptors-in-non-olfactory-tissues
#1
REVIEW
Zhe Chen, Hong Zhao, Nian Fu, Linxi Chen
Olfactory receptors (ORs) are mainly distributed in olfactory neurons and play a key role in detecting volatile odorants, eventually resulting in the production of smell perception. Recently, it is also reported that ORs are expressed in non-olfactory tissues including heart, lung, sperm, skin and cancerous tissues. Interestingly, ectopic ORs are associated with the development of diseases in non-olfactory tissues. For instance, ectopic ORs initiate the hypoxic ventilatory responses and maintain the oxygen homeostasis of breathing in the carotid body when oxygen levels decline...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334229/functional-and-nonfunctional-forms-of-cquior91-an-odorant-selectivity-subunit-of-culex-quinquefasciatus
#2
David T Hughes, Julien Pelletier, Suhaila Rahman, Sisi Chen, Walter S Leal, Charles W Luetje
In Culex quinquefasciatus, CquiOR91 is the ortholog of 2 larvae-specific odorant receptors (ORs) from Anopheles gambiae (Agam\Or40, previously shown to respond to several odorant ligands including the broad-spectrum repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide, DEET) and Aedes aegypti (Aaeg\Or40). When we cloned full-length CquiOR91 from a Culex quinquefasciatus larval head RNA sample, we found 2 alleles of this OR, differing at 9 residues. Functional analysis using the Xenopus oocyte expression system and 2-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology revealed one allele (CquiOR91...
March 3, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301269/the-long-tale-of-the-calcium-activated-cl-channels-in-olfactory-transduction
#3
Michele Dibattista, Simone Pifferi, Anna Boccaccio, Anna Menini, Johannes Reisert
Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents have been implicated in many cellular processes in different cells, but for many years, their molecular identity remained unknown. Particularly intriguing are Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents in olfactory transduction, first described in the early 90s. Well characterized electrophysiologically, they carry most of the odorant-induced receptor current in the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). After many attempts to determine their molecular identity, TMEM16B was found to be abundantly expressed in the cilia of OSNs in 2009 and having biophysical properties like those of the native olfactory channel...
March 16, 2017: Channels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299692/a-light-addressable-potentiometric-sensor-for-odorant-detection-using-single-bioengineered-olfactory-sensory-neurons-as-sensing-element
#4
Chunsheng Wu, Liping Du, Yulan Tian, Xi Zhang, Ping Wang
A light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS), a silicon-based surface potential detector, is combined with bioengineered olfactory sensory neurons (OSN) for odorant detection. A LAPS chip is used as a transducer to monitor cell membrane potential changes. In addition, a focused movable laser with a diameter comparable to cell sizes is employed to select the desirable single cell for measurement under a microscope. Bioengineered OSNs are coupled to the LAPS surface and employed as sensing elements, which are prepared by the expression of an olfactory receptor of C...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296270/analogues-of-dehydroacetic-acid-as-selective-and-potent-agonists-of-an-ectopic-odorant-receptor-through-a-combination-of-hydrophilic-and-hydrophobic-interactions
#5
Bernie Byunghoon Park, NaHye Lee, YunHye Kim, YoonGyu Jae, Seunghyun Choi, NaNa Kang, Yu Ri Hong, Kiwon Ok, Jeonghee Cho, Young Ho Jeon, Eun Hee Lee, Youngjoo Byun, JaeHyung Koo
Identification of potent agonists of odorant receptors (ORs), a major class of G protein-coupled receptors, remains challenging due to complex receptor-ligand interactions. ORs are present in both olfactory and non-chemosensory tissues, indicating roles beyond odor detection that may include modulating physiological functions in non-olfactory tissues. Selective and potent agonists specific for particular ORs can be used to investigate physiological functions of ORs in non-chemosensory tissues. In this study, we designed and synthesized novel synthetic dehydroacetic acid analogues as agonists of odorant receptor 895 (Olfr895) expressed in bladder...
March 15, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273117/activation-of-odorant-receptor-in-colorectal-cancer-cells-leads-to-inhibition-of-cell-proliferation-and-apoptosis
#6
Lea Weber, Klaudia Al-Refae, Juliane Ebbert, Peter Jägers, Janine Altmüller, Christian Becker, Stephan Hahn, Günter Gisselmann, Hanns Hatt
The analysis and functional characterization of ectopically expressed human olfactory receptors (ORs) is becoming increasingly important, as many ORs have been identified in several healthy and cancerous tissues. OR activation has been demonstrated to have influence on cancer cell growth and progression. Here, ORs were identified using RNA-Seq analyses and RT-PCR. We demonstrated the OR protein localization in HCT116 cells using immunocytochemistry (IHC). In order to analyze the physiological role of OR51B4, we deorphanized the receptor by the use of CRE-Luciferase assays, conducted calcium imaging experiments as well as scratch- and proliferation assays...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270833/regulatory-features-for-odorant-receptor-genes-in-the-mouse-genome
#7
REVIEW
Andrea Degl'Innocenti, Anna D'Errico
The odorant receptor genes, seven transmembrane receptor genes constituting the vastest mammalian gene multifamily, are expressed monogenically and monoallelicaly in each sensory neuron in the olfactory epithelium. This characteristic, often referred to as the one neuron-one receptor rule, is driven by mostly uncharacterized molecular dynamics, generally named odorant receptor gene choice. Much attention has been paid by the scientific community to the identification of sequences regulating the expression of odorant receptor genes within their loci, where related genes are usually arranged in genomic clusters...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269711/improving-odorant-chemical-class-prediction-with-multi-layer-perceptrons-using-temporal-odorant-spike-responses-from-drosophila-melanogaster-olfactory-receptor-neurons
#8
Luqman R Bachtiar, Richard D Newcomb, Andrew V Kralicek, Charles P Unsworth
In this work, we examine the possibility of improving the prediction performance of an olfactory biosensor through the use of temporal spiking data. We present an Artificial Neural Network (ANN), in the form of an optimal hybrid Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) system for the classification of chemical odorants from olfactory receptor neuron spike responses of the Drosophila melanogaster fruit fly (DmOrs). The data used in this study contains the responses to 34 odorants from 6 individual DmOrs, of which we exploit the temporal spiking responses of a 500ms odorant stimulus window...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259806/awake-long-term-intranasal-insulin-treatment-does-not-affect-object-memory-odor-discrimination-or-reversal-learning-in-mice
#9
Genevieve A Bell, Debra Ann Fadool
Intranasal insulin delivery is currently being used in clinical trials to test for improvement in human memory and cognition, and in particular, for lessening memory loss attributed to neurodegenerative diseases. Studies have reported the effects of short-term intranasal insulin treatment on various behaviors, but less have examined long-term effects. The olfactory bulb contains the highest density of insulin receptors in conjunction with the highest level of insulin transport within the brain. Previous research from our laboratory has demonstrated that acute insulin intranasal delivery (IND) enhanced both short- and long-term memory as well as increased two-odor discrimination in a two-choice paradigm...
March 2, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256589/chemosensory-adaptations-of-the-mountain-fly-drosophila-nigrosparsa-insecta-diptera-through-genomics-and-structural-biology-s-lenses
#10
Francesco Cicconardi, Daniele Di Marino, Pier Paolo Olimpieri, Wolfgang Arthofer, Birgit C Schlick-Steiner, Florian M Steiner
Chemoreception is essential for survival. Some chemicals signal the presence of nutrients or toxins, others the proximity of mating partners, competitors, or predators. Chemical signal transduction has therefore been studied in multiple organisms. In Drosophila species, a number of odorant receptor genes and various other types of chemoreceptors were found. Three main gene families encode for membrane receptors and one for globular proteins that shuttle compounds with different degrees of affinity and specificity towards receptors...
March 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239358/a-background-of-a-volatile-plant-compound-alters-neural-and-behavioral-responses-to-the-sex-pheromone-blend-in-a-moth
#11
Fabienne Dupuy, Angéla Rouyar, Nina Deisig, Thomas Bourgeois, Denis Limousin, Marie-Anne Wycke, Sylvia Anton, Michel Renou
Recognition of intra-specific olfactory signals within a complex environment of plant-related volatiles is crucial for reproduction in male moths. Sex pheromone information is detected by specific olfactory receptor neurons (Phe-ORNs), highly abundant on the male antenna. The information is then transmitted to the pheromone processing macroglomerular complex (MGC) within the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe, where it is processed by local interneurons and projection neurons. Ultimately a behavioral response, orientation toward the pheromone source, is elicited...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228732/c-terminus-methionene-specifically-involved-in-binding-corn-odorants-to-odorant-binding-protein4-in-macrocentrus-cingulum
#12
Tofael Ahmed, Tiantao Zhang, Zhenying Wang, Kanglai He, Shuxiong Bai
The soluble carrier proteins, OBPs carry odor components through sensilium lymph to specific receptors within the antennal sensilla to trigger behavioral responses. Herein, McinOBP4 was characterized from the Macrocentrus cingulum, which is the specialist parasitic insect of Ostrinia furnacalis for better understanding of olfactory recognition mechanism of this wasp. The classical odorant binding protein McinOBP4 showed good binding affinity to corn green leaf volatiles. RT-qPCR results showed that the McinOBP4 was primarily expressed in male and female wasp antennae, with transcripts levels differing by sex...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227973/improving-odorant-chemical-class-prediction-with-multi-layer-perceptrons-using-temporal-odorant-spike-responses-from-drosophila-melanogaster-olfactory-receptor-neurons
#13
Luqman R Bachtiar, Richard D Newcomb, Andrew V Kralicek, Charles P Unsworth, Luqman R Bachtiar, Richard D Newcomb, Andrew V Kralicek, Charles P Unsworth, Charles P Unsworth, Andrew V Kralicek, Richard D Newcomb, Luqman R Bachtiar
In this work, we examine the possibility of improving the prediction performance of an olfactory biosensor through the use of temporal spiking data. We present an Artificial Neural Network (ANN), in the form of an optimal hybrid Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) system for the classification of chemical odorants from olfactory receptor neuron spike responses of the Drosophila melanogaster fruit fly (DmOrs). The data used in this study contains the responses to 34 odorants from 6 individual DmOrs, of which we exploit the temporal spiking responses of a 500ms odorant stimulus window...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212942/activation-of-type-4-dopaminergic-receptors-in-the-prelimbic-area-of-medial-prefrontal-cortex-is-necessary-for-the-expression-of-innate-fear-behavior
#14
Macarena D Vergara, Victor N Keller, José A Fuentealba, Katia Gysling
The prelimbic area (PL) of the medial Prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is involved in the acquisition and expression of conditioned and innate fear. Both types of fear share several neuronal pathways. It has been documented that dopamine (DA) plays an important role in the regulation of aversive memories in the mPFC. The exposure to an aversive stimulus, such as the smell of a predator odor or the exposure to footshock stress is accompanied by an increase in mPFC DA release. Evidence suggests that the type 4 dopaminergic receptor (D4R) is the molecular target through which DA modulates fear expression...
May 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210219/mice-lacking-m1-and-m3-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-have-impaired-odor-discrimination-and-learning
#15
Wilson Chan, Sanmeet Singh, Taj Keshav, Ramita Dewan, Christian Eberly, Robert Maurer, Alexia Nunez-Parra, Ricardo C Araneda
The cholinergic system has extensive projections to the olfactory bulb (OB) where it produces a state-dependent regulation of sensory gating. Previous work has shown a prominent role of muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (mAChRs) in regulating the excitability of OB neurons, in particular the M1 receptor. Here, we examined the contribution of M1 and M3 mAChR subtypes to olfactory processing using mice with a genetic deletion of these receptors, the M1(-/-) and the M1/M3(-/-) knockout (KO) mice. Genetic ablation of the M1 and M3 mAChRs resulted in a significant deficit in odor discrimination of closely related molecules, including stereoisomers...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196887/spontaneous-activity-in-the-piriform-cortex-extends-the-dynamic-range-of-cortical-odor-coding
#16
Malinda L S Tantirigama, Helena H-Y Huang, John M Bekkers
Neurons in the neocortex exhibit spontaneous spiking activity in the absence of external stimuli, but the origin and functions of this activity remain uncertain. Here, we show that spontaneous spiking is also prominent in a sensory paleocortex, the primary olfactory (piriform) cortex of mice. In the absence of applied odors, piriform neurons exhibit spontaneous firing at mean rates that vary systematically among neuronal classes. This activity requires the participation of NMDA receptors and is entirely driven by bottom-up spontaneous input from the olfactory bulb...
February 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188885/trpm5-expression-in-the-olfactory-epithelium
#17
Martina Pyrski, Eugenia Eckstein, Andreas Schmid, Bernd Bufe, Jan Weiss, Vladimir Chubanov, Ulrich Boehm, Frank Zufall
The Ca(2+)-activated monovalent cation channel Trpm5 is a key element in chemotransduction of taste receptor cells of the tongue, but the extent to which Trpm5 channels are expressed in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) of the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) of adult mice as part of a specific pheromonal detection system is debated. Here, we used a novel Trpm5-IRES-Cre knockin strain to drive Cre recombinase expression, employed previously validated Trpm5 antibodies, performed in situ hybridization experiments to localize Trpm5 RNA, and searched extensively for Trpm5 splice variants in genetically-labeled, Trpm5-expressing MOE cells...
February 8, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188216/amygdalar-gating-of-early-sensory-processing-through-interactions-with-locus-coeruleus
#18
Cynthia D Fast, John P McGann
Fear- and stress-induced activity in the amygdala has been hypothesized to influence sensory brain regions through the influence of the amygdala on neuromodulatory centers. To directly examine this relationship, we used optical imaging to observe odor-evoked activity in populations of olfactory bulb inhibitory interneurons and of synaptic terminals of olfactory sensory neurons (the primary sensory neurons of the olfactory system, which provide the initial olfactory input to the brain) during pharmacological inactivation of amygdala and locus coeruleus (LC) in mice...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187311/candidate-chemosensory-genes-identified-in-the-endoparasitoid-meteorus-pulchricornis-hymenoptera-braconidae-by-antennal-transcriptome-analysis
#19
Sheng Sheng, Cheng-Wu Liao, Yu Zheng, Yu Zhou, Yan Xu, Wen-Miao Song, Peng He, Jian Zhang, Fu-An Wu
Meteorus pulchricornis is an endoparasitoid wasp which attacks the larvae of various lepidopteran pests. We present the first antennal transcriptome dataset for M. pulchricornis. A total of 48,845,072 clean reads were obtained and 34,967 unigenes were assembled. Of these, 15,458 unigenes showed a significant similarity (E-value <10(-5)) to known proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Gene ontology (GO) and cluster of orthologous groups (COG) analyses were used to classify the functions of M...
January 31, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174521/deep-sequencing-of-the-human-retinae-reveals-the-expression-of-odorant-receptors
#20
Nikolina Jovancevic, Kirsten A Wunderlich, Claudia Haering, Caroline Flegel, Désirée Maßberg, Markus Weinrich, Lea Weber, Lars Tebbe, Anselm Kampik, Günter Gisselmann, Uwe Wolfrum, Hanns Hatt, Lian Gelis
Several studies have demonstrated that the expression of odorant receptors (ORs) occurs in various tissues. These findings have served as a basis for functional studies that demonstrate the potential of ORs as drug targets for a clinical application. To the best of our knowledge, this report describes the first evaluation of the mRNA expression of ORs and the localization of OR proteins in the human retina that set a stage for subsequent functional analyses. RNA-Sequencing datasets of three individual neural retinae were generated using Next-generation sequencing and were compared to previously published but reanalyzed datasets of the peripheral and the macular human retina and to reference tissues...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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