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odorant receptor

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September 27, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Nurit Eliash, Nitin K Singh, Starlin Thangarajan, Noa Sela, Dena Leshkowitz, Yosi Kamer, Ilia Zaidman, Ada Rafaeli, Victoria Soroker
Chemosensing is a primary sense in nature, however little is known about its mechanism in Chelicerata. As a model organism we used the mite Varroa destructor, a key parasite of honeybees. Here we describe a transcriptomic analysis of two physiological stages for the Varroa foreleg, the site of primary olfactory organ. The transcriptomic analysis revealed transcripts of chemosensory related genes belonging to several groups. These include Niemann-Pick disease protein, type C2 (NPC2), gustatory receptors (GRs), ionotropic receptors (IRs), sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) and odorant binding proteins (OBP)...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Tetsuo Iwata, Yoshihito Niimura, Chizuru Kobayashi, Daichi Shirakawa, Hikoyu Suzuki, Takayuki Enomoto, Kazushige Touhara, Yoshihiro Yoshihara, Junji Hirota
Individual olfactory sensory neurons express a single odorant receptor gene from either class I genes residing in a single cluster on a single chromosome or class II genes spread over multiple clusters on multiple chromosomes. Here, we identify an enhancer element for mouse class I genes, the J element, that is conserved through mammalian species from the platypus to humans. The J element regulates most class I genes expression by exerting an effect over ~ 3 megabases within the whole cluster. Deletion of the trans J element increases the expression frequencies of class I genes from the intact J allele, indicating that the allelic exclusion of class I genes depends on the activity of the J element...
October 12, 2017: Nature Communications
Xin Shao, Vanisha Lakhina, Puneet Dang, Ryan P Cheng, Christina L Marcaccio, Jonathan A Raper
BACKGROUND: The axons of Olfactory Sensory Neurons (OSNs) project to reproducible target locations within the Olfactory Bulb (OB), converting odorant experience into a spatial map of neural activity. We characterized the initial targeting of OSN axons in the zebrafish, a model system suitable for studying axonal targeting early in development. In this system the initial targets of OSN axons are a small number of distinct, individually identifiable neuropilar regions called protoglomeruli...
October 11, 2017: Neural Development
Fabrizio Lombardo, Marco Salvemini, Carmine Fiorillo, Tony Nolan, Laurence J Zwiebel, José M Ribeiro, Bruno Arcà
BACKGROUND: The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is a highly invasive species and competent vector of several arboviruses (e.g. dengue, chikungunya, Zika) and parasites (e.g. dirofilaria) of public health importance. Compared to other mosquito species, Ae. albopictus females exhibit a generalist host seeking as well as a very aggressive biting behaviour that are responsible for its high degree of nuisance. Several complex mosquito behaviours such as host seeking, feeding, mating or oviposition rely on olfactory stimuli that target a range of sensory neurons localized mainly on specialized head appendages such as antennae, maxillary palps and the mouthparts...
October 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
Yuetian Zhang, Yi Pan, Hiroaki Matsunami, Hanyi Zhuang
The enormous sizes of the mammalian odorant receptor (OR) families present difficulties to find their cognate ligands among numerous volatile chemicals. To efficiently and accurately deorphanize ORs, we combine the use of a heterologous cell line to express mammalian ORs and a genetically modified biosensor plasmid to measure cAMP production downstream of OR activation in real time. This assay can be used to screen odorants against ORs and vice versa. Positive odorant-receptor interactions from the screens can be subsequently confirmed by testing against various odor concentrations, generating concentration-response curves...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Francesco Raimondi, Matthew J Betts, Qianhao Lu, Asuka Inoue, J Silvio Gutkind, Robert B Russell
Members of diverse protein families often perform overlapping or redundant functions meaning that different variations within them could reflect differences between individual organisms. We investigated likely functional positions within aligned protein families that contained a significant enrichment of nonsynonymous variants in genomes of healthy individuals. We identified more than a thousand enriched positions across hundreds of family alignments with roles indicative of mammalian individuality, including sensory perception and the immune system...
October 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Amritpal S Jandu, Peter M Odor, Steven D Vidgeon
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis is a recently recognised autoimmune, paraneoplastic syndrome that typically presents with psychiatric disturbance, reduced conscious level and seizures. The disorder has been previously associated with ovarian teratomas. We present the case of a 35-year-old female, with a previous surgical history for resection of an ovarian teratoma, who later developed status epilepticus and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis requiring intensive care management...
November 2016: J Intensive Care Soc
Claudia Steiner, Françoise Bozzolan, Nicolas Montagné, Martine Maïbèche, Thomas Chertemps
Odorant degrading enzymes (ODEs) are thought to be responsible, at least in part, for olfactory signal termination in the chemosensory system by rapid degradation of odorants in the vicinity of the receptors. A carboxylesterase, specifically expressed in Drosophila antennae, called "juvenile hormone esterase duplication (JHEdup)" has been previously reported to hydrolyse different fruit esters in vitro. Here we functionally characterize JHEdup in vivo. We show that the jhedup gene is highly expressed in large basiconic sensilla that have been reported to detect several food esters...
October 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
Suhaila Rahman, Charles W Luetje
Lack of information about the structure of insect odorant receptors (ORs) hinders the development of more effective repellants to control disease-transmitting insects. Mutagenesis and functional analyses using agonists to map the odorant binding sites of these receptors have been limited because mutations distant from an agonist binding site can alter agonist sensitivity. Here we use mutant cycle analysis, an approach for exploring the energetics of protein-protein or protein-ligand interactions, with inhibitors, to identify a component of the odorant-binding site of an OR from the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Xue-Ke Gao, Shuai Zhang, Jun-Yu Luo, Chun-Yi Wang, Li-Min Lü, Li-Juan Zhang, Xiang-Zhen Zhu, Li Wang, Hui Lu, Jin-Jie Cui
Lysiphlebia japonica (Ashmead) is a predominant parasitoid of cotton-melon aphids in the fields of northern China with a proven ability to effectively control cotton aphid populations in early summer. For accurate normalization of gene expression in L. japonica using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), reference genes with stable gene expression patterns are essential. However, no appropriate reference genes is L. japonica have been investigated to date. In the present study, 12 selected housekeeping genes from L...
September 27, 2017: Gene
Sebastien Lebreton, Felipe Borrero-Echeverry, Francisco Gonzalez, Marit Solum, Erika A Wallin, Erik Hedenström, Bill S Hansson, Anna-Lena Gustavsson, Marie Bengtsson, Göran Birgersson, William B Walker, Hany K M Dweck, Paul G Becher, Peter Witzgall
BACKGROUND: Mate finding and recognition in animals evolves during niche adaptation and involves social signals and habitat cues. Drosophila melanogaster and related species are known to be attracted to fermenting fruit for feeding and egg-laying, which poses the question of whether species-specific fly odours contribute to long-range premating communication. RESULTS: We have discovered an olfactory channel in D. melanogaster with a dual affinity to sex and food odorants...
September 29, 2017: BMC Biology
Sha Jin, Xiaofan Zhou, Feng Gu, Guohua Zhong, Xin Yi
Changes in physiological conditions could influence the perception of external odors, which is important for the reproduction and survival of insect. With the alteration of physiological conditions, such as, age, feeding state, circadian rhythm, and mating status, insect can modulate their olfactory systems accordingly. Ionotropic, gustatory, and odorant receptors (IR, GR, and ORs) are important elements of the insect chemosensory system, which enable insects to detect various external stimuli. In this study, we investigated the changes in these receptors at the mRNA level in Bactrocera dorsalis in different physiological states...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Hannah A Arnson, Ben W Strowbridge
Olfactory sensory input is detected by receptor neurons in the nose which then send information to the olfactory bulb, the first brain region for processing olfactory information. Within the olfactory bulb, many local circuit interneurons, including axonless granule cells, function to facilitate fine odor discrimination. How interneurons interact with principal cells to affect bulbar processing is not known though the mechanism is likely to be different than in sensory cortical regions since the olfactory bulb lacks an obvious topographical organization; neighboring glomerular columns, representing inputs from different receptor neuron subtypes, typically have different odor tuning...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Devin Kepchia, Benjamin Sherman, Rafi Haddad, Charles W Luetje
The molecular receptive range (MRR) of a mammalian odorant receptor (OR) is the set of odorant structures that activate the OR, while the distribution of these odorant structures across odor space is the tuning breadth of the OR. Variation in tuning breadth is thought to be an important property of ORs, with the MRRs of these receptors varying from narrowly to broadly tuned. However, defining the tuning breadth of an OR is a technical challenge. For practical reasons, a screening panel that broadly covers odor space must be limited to sparse coverage of the many potential structures in that space...
2017: PloS One
G Athrey, L V Cosme, Z Popkin-Hall, S Pathikonda, W Takken, M A Slotman
BACKGROUND: Anopheles (An.) coluzzii, one of Africa's primary malaria vectors, is highly anthropophilic. This human host preference contributes greatly to its ability to transmit malaria. In contrast, the closely related An. quadriannulatus prefers to feed on bovids and is not thought to contribute to malaria transmission. The diverged preference for host odor profiles between these sibling species is likely reflected in chemosensory gene expression levels in the olfactory organs. Therefore, we compared the transcriptomes of the antennae and maxillary palps between An...
September 22, 2017: BMC Genomics
Fabrizio Fierro, Eda Suku, Mercedes Alfonso-Prieto, Alejandro Giorgetti, Sven Cichon, Paolo Carloni
Human G-protein coupled receptors (hGPCRs) constitute a large and highly pharmaceutically relevant membrane receptor superfamily. About half of the hGPCRs' family members are chemosensory receptors, involved in bitter taste and olfaction, along with a variety of other physiological processes. Hence these receptors constitute promising targets for pharmaceutical intervention. Molecular modeling has been so far the most important tool to get insights on agonist binding and receptor activation. Here we investigate both aspects by bioinformatics-based predictions across all bitter taste and odorant receptors for which site-directed mutagenesis data are available...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Shiyong Yang, Depan Cao, Guirong Wang, Yang Liu
Perception of environmental and habitat cues is of significance for insect survival and reproduction. Odor detection in insects is mediated by a number of proteins in antennae such as odorant receptors (ORs), ionotropic receptors (IRs), odorant binding proteins (OBPs), chemosensory proteins (CSPs), sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) and odorant degrading enzymes. In this study, we sequenced and assembled the adult male and female antennal transcriptomes of a destructive agricultural pest, the diamondback moth Plutella xyllostella...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Thomas Giang, Jianzheng He, Safaa Belaidi, Henrike Scholz
In insects, the search for food is highly dependent on olfactory sensory input. Here, we investigated whether a single key odorant within an odor blend or the complexity of the odor blend influences the attraction of Drosophila melanogaster to a food source. A key odorant is defined as an odorant that elicits a difference in the behavioral response when two similar complex odor blends are offered. To validate that the observed behavioral responses were elicited by olfactory stimuli, we used olfactory co-receptor Orco mutants...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Tomohiro Kitazono, Sayuri Hara-Kuge, Osamu Matsuda, Akitoshi Inoue, Manabi Fujiwara, Takeshi Ishihara
Forgetting memories is important for animals to properly respond to continuously changing environments. To elucidate the mechanisms of forgetting, we used one of the behavioral plasticities of C. elegans hermaphrodite, olfactory adaptation to an attractive odorant, diacetyl, as a simple model of learning. In C. elegans, the TIR-1/JNK-1 pathway accelerates forgetting of olfactory adaptation by facilitating neural secretion from AWC sensory neurons. In this study, to identify the downstream effectors of the TIR-1/JNK-1 pathway, we conducted a genetic screen for suppressors of the gain-of-function mutant of tir-1 (ok1052), which shows excessive forgetting...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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