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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819196/specialized-odorant-receptors-in-social-insects-that-detect-cuticular-hydrocarbon-cues-and-candidate-pheromones
#1
Gregory M Pask, Jesse D Slone, Jocelyn G Millar, Prithwiraj Das, Jardel A Moreira, Xiaofan Zhou, Jan Bello, Shelley L Berger, Roberto Bonasio, Claude Desplan, Danny Reinberg, Jürgen Liebig, Laurence J Zwiebel, Anandasankar Ray
Eusocial insects use cuticular hydrocarbons as components of pheromones that mediate social behaviours, such as caste and nestmate recognition, and regulation of reproduction. In ants such as Harpegnathos saltator, the queen produces a pheromone which suppresses the development of workers' ovaries and if she is removed, workers can transition to a reproductive state known as gamergate. Here we functionally characterize a subfamily of odorant receptors (Ors) with a nine-exon gene structure that have undergone a massive expansion in ants and other eusocial insects...
August 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812265/oxytocin-and-olfaction
#2
Lars-Lennart Oettl, Wolfgang Kelsch
Social signals are identified through processing in sensory systems to trigger appropriate behavioral responses. Social signals are received primarily in most mammals through the olfactory system. Individuals are recognized based on their unique blend of odorants. Such individual recognition is critical to distinguish familiar conspecifics from intruders and to recognize offspring. Social signals can also trigger stereotyped responses like mating behaviors. Specific sensory pathways for individual recognition and eliciting stereotyped responses have been identified both in the early olfactory system and its connected cortices...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808423/in-search-for-pheromone-receptors-certain-members-of-the-odorant-receptor-family-in-the-desert-locust-schistocerca-gregaria-orthoptera-acrididae-are-co-expressed-with-snmp1
#3
Pablo Pregitzer, Xingcong Jiang, Ewald Grosse-Wilde, Heinz Breer, Jürgen Krieger, Joerg Fleischer
Under given environmental conditions, the desert locust (Schistocera gregaria) forms destructive migratory swarms of billions of animals, leading to enormous crop losses in invaded regions. Swarm formation requires massive reproduction as well as aggregation of the animals. Pheromones that are detected via the olfactory system have been reported to control both reproductive and aggregation behavior. However, the molecular basis of pheromone detection in the antennae of Schistocerca gregaria is unknown. As an initial step to disclose pheromone receptors, we sequenced the antennal transcriptome of the desert locust...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802043/an-engineered-orco-mutation-produces-aberrant-social-behavior-and-defective-neural-development-in-ants
#4
Hua Yan, Comzit Opachaloemphan, Giacomo Mancini, Huan Yang, Matthew Gallitto, Jakub Mlejnek, Alexandra Leibholz, Kevin Haight, Majid Ghaninia, Lucy Huo, Michael Perry, Jesse Slone, Xiaofan Zhou, Maria Traficante, Clint A Penick, Kelly Dolezal, Kaustubh Gokhale, Kelsey Stevens, Ingrid Fetter-Pruneda, Roberto Bonasio, Laurence J Zwiebel, Shelley L Berger, Jürgen Liebig, Danny Reinberg, Claude Desplan
Ants exhibit cooperative behaviors and advanced forms of sociality that depend on pheromone-mediated communication. Odorant receptor neurons (ORNs) express specific odorant receptors (ORs) encoded by a dramatically expanded gene family in ants. In most eusocial insects, only the queen can transmit genetic information, restricting genetic studies. In contrast, workers in Harpegnathos saltator ants can be converted into gamergates (pseudoqueens) that can found entire colonies. This feature facilitated CRISPR-Cas9 generation of germline mutations in orco, the gene that encodes the obligate co-receptor of all ORs...
August 10, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802042/orco-mutagenesis-causes-loss-of-antennal-lobe-glomeruli-and-impaired-social-behavior-in-ants
#5
Waring Trible, Leonora Olivos-Cisneros, Sean K McKenzie, Jonathan Saragosti, Ni-Chen Chang, Benjamin J Matthews, Peter R Oxley, Daniel J C Kronauer
Life inside ant colonies is orchestrated with diverse pheromones, but it is not clear how ants perceive these social signals. It has been proposed that pheromone perception in ants evolved via expansions in the numbers of odorant receptors (ORs) and antennal lobe glomeruli. Here, we generate the first mutant lines in the clonal raider ant, Ooceraea biroi, by disrupting orco, a gene required for the function of all ORs. We find that orco mutants exhibit severe deficiencies in social behavior and fitness, suggesting they are unable to perceive pheromones...
August 10, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791713/distinct-temporal-filters-in-mitral-cells-and-external-tufted-cells-of-the-olfactory-bulb
#6
Christopher E Vaaga, Gary L Westbrook
Short-term synaptic plasticity is a critical regulator of neural circuits, and largely determines how information is temporally processed. In the olfactory bulb, afferent olfactory receptor neurons respond to increasing concentrations of odorants with barrages of action potentials, and their terminals have an extraordinarily high release probability (Sicard, 1986; Murphy et al. 2004). These features suggest that during naturalistic stimuli, afferent input to the olfactory bulb is subject to strong synaptic depression, presumably truncating the postsynaptic response to afferent stimuli...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781934/signaling-in-parasitic-nematodes-physicochemical-communication-between-host-and-parasite-and-endogenous-molecular-transduction-pathways-governing-worm-development-and-survival
#7
James B Lok
Signaling or communication between host and parasite may occur over relatively long ranges to enable host finding and acquisition by infective parasitic nematode larvae. Innate behaviors in infective larvae transmitted from the soil that enhance the likelihood of host contact, such as negative geotaxis and hypermotility, are likely mediated by mechanoreception and neuromuscular signaling. Host cues such as vibration of the substratum, elevated temperature, exhaled CO2, and other volatile odorants are perceived by mechanosensory and chemosensory neurons of the amphidial complex...
December 2016: Current Clinical Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771601/correction-inhibition-of-insect-olfactory-behavior-by-an-airborne-antagonist-of-the-insect-odorant-receptor-co-receptor-subunit
#8
Devin Kepchia, Scott Moliver, Kunal Chohan, Cameron Phillips, Charles W Luetje
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0177454.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763484/evidence-for-a-shape-based-recognition-of-odorants-in-vivo-in-the-human-nose-from-an-analysis-of-the-molecular-mechanism-of-lily-of-the-valley-odorants-detection-in-the-lilial-and-bourgeonal-family-using-the-c-si-ge-sn-switch-strategy
#9
Steffen Wolf, Lian Gelis, Steffen Dörrich, Hanns Hatt, Philip Kraft
We performed an analysis of possible mechanisms of ligand recognition in the human nose. The analysis is based on in vivo odor threshold determination and in vitro Ca2+ imaging assays with a C/Si/Ge/Sn switch strategy applied to the compounds Lilial and Bourgeonal, to differentiate between different molecular mechanisms of odorant detection. Our results suggest that odorant detection under threshold conditions is mainly based on the molecular shape, i.e. the van der Waals surface, and electrostatics of the odorants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756307/identification-and-comparison-of-candidate-odorant-receptor-genes-in-the-olfactory-and-non-olfactory-organs-of-holotrichia-oblita-faldermann-by-transcriptome-analysis
#10
Kebin Li, Hongshuang Wei, Changlong Shu, Shuai Zhang, Yazhong Cao, Chen Luo, Jiao Yin
A sophisticated olfactory system is part of the explanation for the prominence of insects among animals because of the essential roles of the olfactory system in foraging, host seeking, mating, ovipositing and avoiding toxic substances. In this study, we sequenced and analysed the transcriptomes of olfactory tissue (antennae) and non-olfactory tissue (legs) of the scarab beetle, Holotrichia oblita Faldermann, which is a serious underground pest in China. We obtained approximately 80.2 million 150bp reads that were assembled into 61,038 unigenes with an average length of 890bp...
July 24, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745638/localization-of-odorant-receptor-genes-in-locust-antennae-by-rna-in-situ-hybridization
#11
Xiao Xu, Yinwei You, Long Zhang
Insects have evolved sophisticated olfactory reception systems to sense exogenous chemical signals. These chemical signals are transduced by Olfactory Receptor Neurons (ORNs) housed in hair-like structures, called chemosensilla, of the antennae. On the ORNs' membranes, Odorant Receptors (ORs) are believed to be involved in odor coding. Thus, being able to identify genes localized to the ORNs is necessary to recognize OR genes, and provides a fundamental basis for further functional in situ studies. The RNA expression levels of specific ORs in insect antennae are very low, and preserving insect tissue for histology is challenging...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736530/identification-and-expression-profiling-of-chemosensory-genes-in-dendrolimus-punctatus-walker
#12
Su-Fang Zhang, Hui-Hui Liu, Xiang-Bo Kong, Hong-Bin Wang, Fu Liu, Zhen Zhang
Dendrolimus punctatus Walker is a serious pest affecting conifers in southern China. As extensive pesticide spraying is currently required to control D. punctatus, new control strategies are urgently needed. Chemosensory genes represent potential molecular targets for development of alternative pest control strategies, and the expression characteristics of these genes provide an indication of their function. To date, little information is available regarding chemosensory genes in D. punctatus or their expression profiles at different development stages and in various tissues...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732030/identification-of-odorant-binding-proteins-and-chemosensory-proteins-in-microplitis-mediator-as-well-as-functional-characterization-of-chemosensory-protein-3
#13
Yong Peng, Shan-Ning Wang, Ke-Ming Li, Jing-Tao Liu, Yao Zheng, Shuang Shan, Ye-Qing Yang, Rui-Jun Li, Yong-Jun Zhang, Yu-Yuan Guo
Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) play important roles in transporting semiochemicals through the sensillar lymph to olfactory receptors in insect antennae. In the present study, twenty OBPs and three CSPs were identified from the antennal transcriptome of Microplitis mediator. Ten OBPs (MmedOBP11-20) and two CSPs (MmedCSP2-3) were newly identified. The expression patterns of these new genes in olfactory and non-olfactory tissues were investigated by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) measurement...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730637/identification-and-functional-characterization-of-an-odorant-receptor-in-pea-aphid-acyrthosiphon-pisum
#14
Rui-Bin Zhang, Yang Liu, Shan-Chun Yan, Gui-Rong Wang
The sensitive olfactory system is necessary for survival of insects. Odorant receptors (ORs) are located on the dendrites of olfactory receptor neurons and play a critical role in odor detection. Insect ORs are functionally analyzed via heterologous expression in a Xenopus oocyte system using a two-electrode voltage-clamp (TEVC) electrophysiological recording. Here, we have identified a novel OR in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, then we cloned and named it ApisOR4. We analyzed the ApisOR4 tissue expression patterns and found expression only in antennae tissues...
July 21, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724907/measuring-the-olfactory-bulb-input-output-transformation-reveals-a-contribution-to-the-perception-of-odorant-concentration-invariance
#15
Douglas A Storace, Lawrence B Cohen
Humans and other animals can recognize an odorant as the same over a range of odorant concentrations. It remains unclear whether the olfactory bulb, the brain structure that mediates the first stage of olfactory information processing, participates in generating this perceptual concentration invariance. Olfactory bulb glomeruli are regions of neuropil that contain input and output processes: olfactory receptor neuron nerve terminals (input) and mitral/tufted cell apical dendrites (output). Differences between the input and output of a brain region define the function(s) carried out by that region...
July 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718821/tick-haller-s-organ-a-new-paradigm-for-arthropod-olfaction-how-ticks-differ-from-insects
#16
Ann L Carr, Robert D Mitchell Iii, Anirudh Dhammi, Brooke W Bissinger, Daniel E Sonenshine, R Michael Roe
Ticks are the vector of many human and animal diseases; and host detection is critical to this process. Ticks have a unique sensory structure located exclusively on the 1st pairs of legs; the fore-tarsal Haller's organ, not found in any other animals, presumed to function like the insect antennae in chemosensation but morphologically very different. The mechanism of tick chemoreception is unknown. Utilizing next-generation sequencing and comparative transcriptomics between the 1st and 4th legs (the latter without the Haller's organ), we characterized 1st leg specific and putative Haller's organ specific transcripts from adult American dog ticks, Dermacentor variabilis...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696298/functional-characterization-of-odorant-receptors-in-the-ponerine-ant-harpegnathos-saltator
#17
Jesse D Slone, Gregory M Pask, Stephen T Ferguson, Jocelyn G Millar, Shelley L Berger, Danny Reinberg, Jürgen Liebig, Anandasankar Ray, Laurence J Zwiebel
Animals use a variety of sensory modalities-including visual, acoustic, and chemical-to sense their environment and interact with both conspecifics and other species. Such communication is especially critical in eusocial insects such as honey bees and ants, where cooperation is critical for survival and reproductive success. Various classes of chemoreceptors have been hypothesized to play essential roles in the origin and evolution of eusociality in ants, through their functional roles in pheromone detection that characterizes reproductive status and colony membership...
July 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685185/regeneration-of-synapses-in-the-olfactory-pathway-of-locusts-after-antennal-deafferentation
#18
Hannah Wasser, Michael Stern
The olfactory pathway of the locust is capable of fast and precise regeneration on an anatomical level. Following deafferentation of the antenna either of young adult locusts, or of fifth instar nymphs, severed olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) reinnervate the antennal lobe (AL) and arborize in AL microglomeruli. In the present study we tested whether these regenerated fibers establish functional synapses again. Intracellular recordings from AL projection neurons revealed that the first few odor stimulus evoked postsynaptic responses from regenerated ORNs from day 4-7 post crush on...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683263/igf1-dependent-synaptic-plasticity-of-mitral-cells-in-olfactory-memory-during-social-learning
#19
Zhihui Liu, Zijun Chen, Congping Shang, Fei Yan, Yingchao Shi, Jiajing Zhang, Baole Qu, Hailin Han, Yanying Wang, Dapeng Li, Thomas C Südhof, Peng Cao
During social transmission of food preference (STFP), mice form long-term memory of food odors presented by a social partner. How does the brain associate a social context with odor signals to promote memory encoding? Here we show that odor exposure during STFP, but not unconditioned odor exposure, induces glomerulus-specific long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength selectively at the GABAergic component of dendrodendritic synapses of granule and mitral cells in the olfactory bulb. Conditional deletion of synaptotagmin-10, the Ca(2+) sensor for IGF1 secretion from mitral cells, or deletion of IGF1 receptor in the olfactory bulb prevented the socially relevant GABAergic LTP and impaired memory formation after STFP...
July 5, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677202/dreadd-induced-silencing-of-the-medial-amygdala-reduces-the-preference-for-male-pheromones-and-the-expression-of-lordosis-in-estrous-female-mice
#20
Elizabeth A McCarthy, Arman Maqsudlu, Matthew Bass, Sofia Georghiou, James A Cherry, Michael J Baum
Sexually naïve estrous female mice seek out male urinary pheromones; however, they initially display little receptive (lordosis) behavior in response to male mounts. Vomeronasal-accessory olfactory bulb inputs to the medial amygdala (Me) regulate courtship in female rodents. We used a reversible inhibitory chemogenetic technique (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs; DREADDs) to assess the contribution of Me signaling to females' preference for male pheromones and improvement in receptivity normally seen with repeated testing...
August 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
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