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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918530/a-probabilistic-approach-to-demixing-odors
#1
Agnieszka Grabska-Barwińska, Simon Barthelmé, Jeff Beck, Zachary F Mainen, Alexandre Pouget, Peter E Latham
The olfactory system faces a hard problem: on the basis of noisy information from olfactory receptor neurons (the neurons that transduce chemicals to neural activity), it must figure out which odors are present in the world. Odors almost never occur in isolation, and different odors excite overlapping populations of olfactory receptor neurons, so the central challenge of the olfactory system is to demix its input. Because of noise and the large number of possible odors, demixing is fundamentally a probabilistic inference task...
December 5, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916748/or2m3-a-highly-specific-and-narrowly-tuned-human-odorant-receptor-for-the-sensitive-detection-of-onion-key-food-odorant-3-mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol
#2
Franziska Noe, Johannes Polster, Christiane Geithe, Matthias Kotthoff, Peter Schieberle, Dietmar Krautwurst
The detection of key food odorants appears to be an important capability of odorant receptors. Here, thiols occupy an outstanding position among the 230 known key food odorants because of their very low odor thresholds. Members of the homologous series of 3-mercapto-2-methylalkan-1-ols have been described as onion key food odorants or food constituents and are detected at logarithmically different thresholds. 3-Mercapto-2-methylpentan-1-ol being the only key food odorant within this series also has the lowest odor threshold...
December 4, 2016: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916747/the-broadly-tuned-odorant-receptor-or1a1-is-highly-selective-for-3-methyl-2-4-nonanedione-a-key-food-odorant-in-aged-wines-tea-and-other-foods
#3
Christiane Geithe, Franziska Noe, Johanna Kreissl, Dietmar Krautwurst
Key food odorants are the most relevant determinants by which we detect, recognize, and hedonically evaluate the aroma of foods and beverages. Odorants are detected by our chemical sense of olfaction, comprising a set of approximately 400 different odorant receptor types. However, the specific receptor activity patterns representing the aroma percepts of foods or beverages, as well as the key food odorant agonist profiles of single-odorant receptors, are largely unknown. We aimed to establish comprehensive key food odorant agonist profiles of 2 unrelated, broadly tuned receptors, OR1A1 and OR2W1, that had been associated thus far with mostly non-key food odorants and shared some of these agonists...
December 4, 2016: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916525/molecular-basis-of-alarm-pheromone-detection-in-aphids
#4
Ruibin Zhang, Bing Wang, Gerarda Grossi, Patrizia Falabella, Yang Liu, Shanchun Yan, Jian Lu, Jinghui Xi, Guirong Wang
The sesquiterpene (E)-β-farnesene (EBF) is the alarm pheromone for many species of aphids [1]. When released from aphids attacked by parasitoids or predators, it alerts nearby conspecifics to escape by walking away and dropping off the host plant [2, 3]. The reception of alarm pheromone in aphids is accomplished through a highly sensitive chemosensory system. Although olfaction-related gene families including odorant receptors (ORs) and odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) have recently been identified from aphid genomes [4-6], the cellular and molecular mechanisms of EBF reception are still largely unknown...
November 26, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911792/transcriptomics-and-neuroanatomy-of-the-clonal-raider-ant-implicate-an-expanded-clade-of-odorant-receptors-in-chemical-communication
#5
Sean K McKenzie, Ingrid Fetter-Pruneda, Vanessa Ruta, Daniel J C Kronauer
A major aim of sociogenomic research is to uncover common principles in the molecular evolution of sociality. This endeavor has been hampered by the small number of specific genes currently known to function in social behavior. Here we provide several lines of evidence suggesting that ants have evolved a large and novel clade of odorant receptor (OR) genes to perceive hydrocarbon-based pheromones, arguably the most important signals in ant communication. This genomic expansion is also mirrored in the ant brain via a corresponding expansion of a specific cluster of glomeruli in the antennal lobe...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905542/defining-an-olfactory-receptor-function-in-airway-smooth-muscle-cells
#6
William H Aisenberg, Jessie Huang, Wanqu Zhu, Premraj Rajkumar, Randy Cruz, Lakshmi Santhanam, Niranjana Natarajan, Hwan Mee Yong, Breann De Santiago, Jung Jin Oh, A-Rum Yoon, Reynold A Panettieri, Oliver Homann, John K Sullivan, Stephen B Liggett, Jennifer L Pluznick, Steven S An
Pathways that control, or can be exploited to alter, the increase in airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass and cellular remodeling that occur in asthma are not well defined. Here we report the expression of odorant receptors (ORs) belonging to the superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), as well as the canonical olfaction machinery (Golf and AC3) in the smooth muscle of human bronchi. In primary cultures of isolated human ASM, we identified mRNA expression for multiple ORs. Strikingly, OR51E2 was the most highly enriched OR transcript mapped to the human olfactome in lung-resident cells...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902696/interglomerular-connectivity-within-the-canonical-and-gc-d-necklace-olfactory-subsystems
#7
Cedric R Uytingco, Adam C Puche, Steven D Munger
The mammalian main olfactory system contains several subsystems that differ not only in the receptors they express and the glomerular targets they innervate within the main olfactory bulb (MOB), but also in the strategies they use to process odor information. The canonical main olfactory system employs a combinatorial coding strategy that represents odorant identity as a pattern of glomerular activity. By contrast, the "GC-D/necklace" olfactory subsystem-formed by olfactory sensory neurons expressing the receptor guanylyl cyclase GC-D and their target necklace glomeruli (NGs) encircling the caudal MOB-is critical for the detection of a small number of semiochemicals that promote the acquisition of food preferences...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896310/preservation-of-essential-odor-guided-behaviors-and-odor-based-reversal-learning-after-targeting-adult-brain-serotonin-synthesis
#8
Kaitlin S Carlson, Meredith S Whitney, Marie A Gadziola, Evan S Deneris, Daniel W Wesson
The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) is considered a powerful modulator of sensory system organization and function in a wide range of animals. The olfactory system is innervated by midbrain 5-HT neurons into both its primary and secondary odor-processing stages. Facilitated by this circuitry, 5-HT and its receptors modulate olfactory system function, including odor information input to the olfactory bulb. It is unknown, however, whether the olfactory system requires 5-HT for even its most basic behavioral functions...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892490/identification-and-expression-analysis-of-an-olfactory-receptor-gene-family-in-green-plant-bug-apolygus-lucorum-meyer-d%C3%A3-r
#9
Xing-Kui An, Liang Sun, Hang-Wei Liu, Dan-Feng Liu, Yu-Xiao Ding, Le-Mei Li, Yong-Jun Zhang, Yu-Yuan Guo
Olfactory receptors are believed to play a central role in insects host-seeking, mating, and ovipositing. On the basis of male and female antennal transcriptome of adult Apolygus lucorum, a total of 110 candidate A. lucorum odorant receptors (AlucOR) were identified in this study including five previously annotated AlucORs. All the sequences were validated by cloning and sequencing. Tissue expression profiles analysis by RT-PCR indicated most AlucORs were antennal highly expressed genes. The qPCR measurements further revealed 40 AlucORs were significantly higher in the antennae...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888648/identification-and-characterization-of-the-distinct-expression-profiles-of-candidate-chemosensory-membrane-proteins-in-the-antennal-transcriptome-of-adelphocoris-lineolatus-goeze
#10
Y Xiao, L Sun, X-Y Ma, K Dong, H-W Liu, Q Wang, Y-Y Guo, Z-W Liu, Y-J Zhang
Chemosensory membrane proteins, including odorant receptors (ORs), ionotropic receptors (IRs), gustatory receptors (GRs) and sensory neurone membrane proteins (SNMPs), are supposed to be crucial macromolecules in the insect olfactory signal transduction pathway. The alfalfa plant bug Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is highly attracted to high-nitrogen or flowering plants and destroys many important agricultural crops. We assembled the antennal transcriptome of A. lineolatus using Illumina sequencing technology and identified a total of 108 transcripts encoding chemosensory membrane proteins (88 ORs, 12 IRs, four GRs and four SNMPs), amongst which 90 candidates appeared to be full length...
November 26, 2016: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884734/nitric-oxide-coupled-signaling-in-odor-elicited-molecular-events-in-the-olfactory-center-of-the-terrestrial-snail-helix-pomatia
#11
Zoltán Serfőző, Kálmán Nacsa, Zoltán Veréb, Izabella Battonyai, Csaba Hegedűs, Csilla Balogh, Károly Elekes
Olfaction, a chemosensory modality, plays a pivotal role in the orientation and behavior of invertebrates. The central olfactory processing unit in terrestrial stylomatophoran snails is the procerebrum, which contains NO synthesizing interneurons, whose oscillatory currents are believed to be the base of odor evoked memory formation. Nevertheless, in this model the up- and downstream events of molecular cascades that trigger and follow NO release, respectively, have not been studied. Immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry studies performed on procerebral neural perikarya isolated from the snail Helix pomatia revealed cell populations with discrete DAF-2 fluorescence, indicating the release of different amounts of NO...
November 21, 2016: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869740/functional-role-of-the-c-terminal-amphipathic-helix-8-of-olfactory-receptors-and-other-g-protein-coupled-receptors
#12
REVIEW
Takaaki Sato, Takashi Kawasaki, Shouhei Mine, Hiroyoshi Matsumura
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) transduce various extracellular signals, such as neurotransmitters, hormones, light, and odorous chemicals, into intracellular signals via G protein activation during neurological, cardiovascular, sensory and reproductive signaling. Common and unique features of interactions between GPCRs and specific G proteins are important for structure-based design of drugs in order to treat GPCR-related diseases. Atomic resolution structures of GPCR complexes with G proteins have revealed shared and extensive interactions between the conserved DRY motif and other residues in transmembrane domains 3 (TM3), 5 and 6, and the target G protein C-terminal region...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852677/processing-of-intraoral-olfactory-and-gustatory-signals-in-the-gustatory-cortex-of-awake-rats
#13
Chad L Samuelsen, Alfredo Fontanini
: The integration of gustatory and olfactory information is essential to the perception of flavor. Human neuroimaging experiments have pointed to the gustatory cortex (GC) as one of the areas involved in mediating flavor perception. While GC's involvement in encoding the chemical identity and hedonic value of taste stimuli is well studied, it is unknown how single GC neurons process olfactory stimuli emanating from the mouth. In this study, we relied on multi-electrode recordings to investigate how single GC neurons respond to intraorally delivered tastants and tasteless odorants dissolved in water and whether/how these two modalities converge in the same neurons...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849027/evolutionarily-conserved-odorant-receptor-function-questions-ecological-context-of-octenol-role-in-mosquitoes
#14
Amir Dekel, Ronald J Pitts, Esther Yakir, Jonathan D Bohbot
Olfaction is a key insect adaptation to a wide range of habitats. In the last thirty years, the detection of octenol by blood-feeding insects has been primarily understood in the context of animal host-seeking. The recent discovery of a conserved octenol receptor gene in the strictly nectar-feeding elephant mosquito Toxorhynchites amboinensis (TaOr8) suggests a different biological role. Here, we show that TaOR8 is a functional ortholog of its counterparts in blood-feeding mosquitoes displaying selectivity towards the (R)-enantiomer of octenol and susceptibility to the insect repellent DEET...
November 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845621/organization-and-function-of-drosophila-odorant-binding-proteins
#15
Nikki K Larter, Jennifer S Sun, John R Carlson
Odorant binding proteins (Obps) are remarkable in their number, diversity, and abundance, yet their role in olfactory coding remains unclear. They are widely believed to be required for transporting hydrophobic odorants through an aqueous lymph to odorant receptors. We construct a map of the Drosophila antenna, in which the abundant Obps are mapped to olfactory sensilla with defined functions. The results lay a foundation for an incisive analysis of Obp function. The map identifies a sensillum type that contains a single abundant Obp, Obp28a...
November 15, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845422/serotonergic-modulation-differentially-targets-distinct-network-elements-within-the-antennal-lobe-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#16
Tyler R Sizemore, Andrew M Dacks
Neuromodulation confers flexibility to anatomically-restricted neural networks so that animals are able to properly respond to complex internal and external demands. However, determining the mechanisms underlying neuromodulation is challenging without knowledge of the functional class and spatial organization of neurons that express individual neuromodulatory receptors. Here, we describe the number and functional identities of neurons in the antennal lobe of Drosophila melanogaster that express each of the receptors for one such neuromodulator, serotonin (5-HT)...
November 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844052/neuropilin-1-and-the-positions-of-glomeruli-in-the-mouse-olfactory-bulb
#17
Bolek Zapiec, Olaf Christian Bressel, Mona Khan, Andreas Walz, Peter Mombaerts
It is known since 1996 that mouse odorant receptors (ORs) are involved in determining the positions of the sites of coalescence of axons of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs)-the thousands of glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. But the molecular and cellular mechanisms of OR-mediated axonal coalescence into glomeruli remain unclear. A model was proposed in 2006-2009 whereby OR-derived cAMP signals, rather than direct action of OR molecules, determine the target destinations (glomeruli) of OSNs in the bulb. This model hypothesizes that OR-derived cAMP signals determine the expression levels of neuropilin 1 (Nrp1) in OSN axon termini; that levels of Nrp1 in glomeruli form a gradient from anterior-low to posterior-high throughout the bulb; and that these Nrp1 levels mechanistically determine anterior-posterior patterning of glomeruli...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835696/normalized-neural-representations-of-complex-odors
#18
David Zwicker
The olfactory system removes correlations in natural odors using a network of inhibitory neurons in the olfactory bulb. It has been proposed that this network integrates the response from all olfactory receptors and inhibits them equally. However, how such global inhibition influences the neural representations of odors is unclear. Here, we study a simple statistical model of the processing in the olfactory bulb, which leads to concentration-invariant, sparse representations of the odor composition. We show that the inhibition strength can be tuned to obtain sparse representations that are still useful to discriminate odors that vary in relative concentration, size, and composition...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829053/no-evidence-for-ionotropic-pheromone-transduction-in-the-hawkmoth-manduca-sexta
#19
Andreas Nolte, Petra Gawalek, Sarah Koerte, HongYing Wei, Robin Schumann, Achim Werckenthin, Jürgen Krieger, Monika Stengl
Insect odorant receptors (ORs) are 7-transmembrane receptors with inverse membrane topology. They associate with the conserved ion channel Orco. As chaperon, Orco maintains ORs in cilia and, as pacemaker channel, Orco controls spontaneous activity in olfactory receptor neurons. Odorant binding to ORs opens OR-Orco receptor ion channel complexes in heterologous expression systems. It is unknown, whether this also occurs in vivo. As an alternative to this ionotropic transduction, experimental evidence is accumulating for metabotropic odor transduction, implicating that insect ORs couple to G-proteins...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825964/effect-of-local-anesthetics-on-serotonin1a-receptor-function
#20
Bhagyashree D Rao, Sandeep Shrivastava, Amitabha Chattopadhyay
The fundamental mechanism behind the action of local anesthetics is still not clearly understood. Phenylethanol (PEtOH) is a constituent of essential oils with a pleasant odor and can act as a local anesthetic. In this work, we have explored the effect of PEtOH on the function of the hippocampal serotonin1A receptor, a representative neurotransmitter receptor belonging to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Our results show that PEtOH induces reduction in ligand binding to the serotonin1A receptor due to lowering of binding affinity, along with a concomitant decrease in the degree of G-protein coupling...
November 5, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
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