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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235485/quantification-of-interacting-cognate-odorants-with-olfactory-receptors-in-nanovesicles
#1
Marta Sanmartí-Espinal, Patrizia Iavicoli, Annalisa Calò, Marta Taulés, Roger Galve, M Pilar Marco, Josep Samitier
This study aims to improve our understanding of the interaction between olfactory receptors and odorants to develop highly selective biosensing devices. Natural nanovesicles (NVs) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ~100 nm in diameter, carrying either the human OR17-40 or the chimpanzee OR7D4 olfactory receptor (OR) tagged with the c-myc epitope at their N-terminus, are presented as model systems to quantify the interaction between odorant and olfactory receptors. The level of expression of olfactory receptors was determined at individual NVs using a novel competitive ELISA immunoassay comparing the values obtained against those from techniques involving the solubilization of cell membrane proteins and the identification of c-myc-carrying receptors...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234276/functional-reintegration-of-sensory-neurons-and-transitional-dendritic-reduction-of-mitral-tufted-cells-during-injury-induced-recovery-of-the-larval-xenopus-olfactory-circuit
#2
Sara J Hawkins, Lukas Weiss, Thomas Offner, Katarina Dittrich, Thomas Hassenklöver, Ivan Manzini
Understanding the mechanisms involved in maintaining lifelong neurogenesis has a clear biological and clinical interest. In the present study, we performed olfactory nerve transection on larval Xenopus to induce severe damage to the olfactory circuitry. We surveyed the timing of the degeneration, subsequent rewiring and functional regeneration of the olfactory system following injury. A range of structural labeling techniques and functional calcium imaging were performed on both tissue slices and whole brain preparations...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232897/biomimetic-sensors-for-the-senses-towards-better-understanding-of-taste-and-odor-sensation
#3
REVIEW
Chunsheng Wu, Ya-Wen Du, Liquan Huang, Yaron Ben-Shoshan Galeczki, Ayana Dagan-Wiener, Michael Naim, Masha Y Niv, Ping Wang
Taste and smell are very important chemical senses that provide indispensable information on food quality, potential mates and potential danger. In recent decades, much progress has been achieved regarding the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of taste and odor senses. Recently, biosensors have been developed for detecting odorants and tastants as well as for studying ligand-receptor interactions. This review summarizes the currently available biosensing approaches, which can be classified into two main categories: in vitro and in vivo approaches...
December 11, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214995/normalizing-brain-activity-across-individuals-using-functional-reference-mapping
#4
Eugenio Martinelli, Alja Lüdke, Piergiorgio Adamo, Martin Strauch, Corrado Di Natale, C Giovanni Galizia
Neural activity can be mapped across individuals using brain atlases, but when spatial relationships are not equal, these techniques collapse. We map activity across individuals using functional registration, based on physiological responses to predetermined reference stimuli. Data from several individuals are integrated into a common multidimensional stimulus space, where dimensionality and axes are defined by these reference stimuli. We used this technique to discriminate volatile compounds with a cohort of Drosophila flies, by recording odor responses in receptor neurons on the flies' antennae...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209233/chemosensory-gene-families-in-ectropis-grisescens-and-candidates-for-detection-of-type-ii-sex-pheromones
#5
Zhao-Qun Li, Zong-Xiu Luo, Xiao-Ming Cai, Lei Bian, Zhao-Jun Xin, Yan Liu, Bo Chu, Zong-Mao Chen
Tea grey geometrid (Ectropis grisescens), a devastating chewing pest in tea plantations throughout China, produces Type-II pheromone components. Little is known about the genes encoding proteins involved in the perception of Type-II sex pheromone components. To investigate the olfaction genes involved in E. grisescens sex pheromones and plant volatiles perception, we sequenced female and male antennae transcriptomes of E. grisescens. After assembly and annotation, we identified 153 candidate chemoreception genes in E...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198196/the-identification-and-expression-analysis-of-candidate-chemosensory-genes-in-the-bird-cherry-oat-aphid-rhopalosiphum-padi-l
#6
Z-W Kang, F-H Liu, R-P Pang, W-B Yu, X-L Tan, Z-Q Zheng, H-G Tian, T-X Liu
The bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) is one of the most important wheat pests with polyphagia and autumn migrants. And, chemosensory genes were thought to play a key role in insect searching their hosts, food and mate. However, a systematic identification of the chemosensory genes in this pest has not been reported. Thus, in this study, we identified 14 odorant-binding proteins, nine chemosensory proteins, one sensory neuron membrane protein, 15 odorant receptors, 19 gustatory receptors and 16 ionotropic receptors from R...
December 4, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194457/olfactory-coding-in-the-turbulent-realm
#7
Vincent Jacob, Christelle Monsempès, Jean-Pierre Rospars, Jean-Baptiste Masson, Philippe Lucas
Long-distance olfactory search behaviors depend on odor detection dynamics. Due to turbulence, olfactory signals travel as bursts of variable concentration and spacing and are characterized by long-tail distributions of odor/no-odor events, challenging the computing capacities of olfactory systems. How animals encode complex olfactory scenes to track the plume far from the source remains unclear. Here we focus on the coding of the plume temporal dynamics in moths. We compare responses of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) and antennal lobe projection neurons (PNs) to sequences of pheromone stimuli either with white-noise patterns or with realistic turbulent temporal structures simulating a large range of distances (8 to 64 m) from the odor source...
December 1, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193847/genetic-loss-of-diazepam-binding-inhibitor-in-mice-impairs-social-interest
#8
A L Ujjainwala, C D Courtney, S G Rhoads, J S Rhodes, C A Christian
Neuropsychiatric disorders in which reduced social interest is a common symptom, such as autism, depression, and anxiety, are frequently associated with genetic mutations affecting GABAergic transmission. Benzodiazepine treatment, acting via GABAA receptors, improves social interaction in male mouse models with autism-like features. The protein diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) can act as an endogenous benzodiazepine, but a role for DBI in social behavior has not been described. Here we investigated the role of DBI in the social interest and recognition behavior of mice...
November 28, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187814/olfaction-and-pheromones-uncanonical-sensory-influences-and-bulbar-interactions
#9
REVIEW
Víctor Vargas-Barroso, Fernando Peña-Ortega, Jorge A Larriva-Sahd
The rodent main and accessory olfactory systems (AOS) are considered functionally and anatomically segregated information-processing pathways. Each system is devoted to the detection of volatile odorants and pheromones, respectively. However, a growing number of evidences supports a cooperative interaction between them. For instance, at least four non-canonical receptor families (i.e., different from olfactory and vomeronasal receptor families) have been recently discovered. These atypical receptor families are expressed in the sensory organs of the nasal cavity and furnish parallel processing-pathways that detect specific stimuli and mediate specific behaviors as well...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186792/molecular-mechanisms-of-gpcr-signaling-a-structural-perspective
#10
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are cell surface receptors that respond to a wide variety of stimuli, from light, odorants, hormones, and neurotransmitters to proteins and extracellular calcium. GPCRs represent the largest family of signaling proteins targeted by many clinically used drugs. Recent studies shed light on the conformational changes that accompany GPCR activation and the structural state of the receptor necessary for the interactions with the three classes of proteins that preferentially bind active GPCRs, G proteins, G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), and arrestins...
November 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179263/odorant-receptors-containing-conserved-amino-acid-sequences-in-transmembrane-domain-7-display-distinct-expression-patterns-in-mammalian-tissues
#11
Sang Eun Ryu, Tammy Shim, Ju-Yeon Yi, So Yeun Kim, Sun Hwa Park, Sung Won Kim, Gabriele V Ronnett, Cheil Moon
Mammalian genomes are well established, and highly conserved regions within odorant receptors that are unique from other G-protein coupled receptors have been identified. Numerous functional studies have focused on specific conserved amino acids motifs, however, not all conserved motifs have been sufficiently characterized. Here, we identified a highly conserved 18 amino acid sequence motif within transmembrane domain seven (CAS-TM7) which was identified by aligning odorant receptor sequences. Next, we investigated the expression pattern and distribution of this conserved amino acid motif among a broad range of odorant receptors...
November 23, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175757/identification-and-characterization-of-chemosensory-gene-families-in-the-bark-beetle-tomicus-yunnanensis
#12
Nai-Yong Liu, Zong-Bo Li, Ning Zhao, Qi-Sheng Song, Jia-Ying Zhu, Bin Yang
The bark beetle, Tomicus yunnanensis (Coleoptera: Scolytinae), is a seriously destructive pest of Yunnan pine (Pinus yunnanensis) and is distributed solely in Southwestern China. It has been a challenge to control this pest owing to its resistance to chemical pesticides, which have been used as the main control strategy of this species in recent years. Since this approach will continue until an alternative mitigation strategy is implemented, it is essential to develop novel or improved biocontrol approaches...
November 23, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167327/learning-induced-modulation-of-the-effect-of-endocannabinoids-on-inhibitory-synaptic-transmission
#13
Sourav Ghosh, Iris Reuveni, Samaa Zidan, Raphael Lamprecht, Edi Barkai
Endocannabinoids are key modulators that regulate central brain functions and behaviours, including learning and memory. At the cellular and molecular levels, endocannabinoids are potent modulators of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic function. Most effects of cannabinoids are thought to be mediated via G protein-coupled cannabinoids receptors. In particular, cannabinoids released from post-synaptic neurons are suggested to act as retrograde messengers, activating presynaptic Type-1 Cannabinoid receptors (CB1R), thereby inducing suppression of synaptic release...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133907/a-primacy-code-for-odor-identity
#14
Christopher D Wilson, Gabriela O Serrano, Alexei A Koulakov, Dmitry Rinberg
Humans can identify visual objects independently of view angle and lighting, words independently of volume and pitch, and smells independently of concentration. The computational principles underlying invariant object recognition remain mostly unknown. Here we propose that, in olfaction, a small and relatively stable set comprised of the earliest activated receptors forms a code for concentration-invariant odor identity. One prediction of this "primacy coding" scheme is that decisions based on odor identity can be made solely using early odor-evoked neural activity...
November 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133804/antennal-transcriptome-analysis-and-expression-profiles-of-olfactory-genes-in-anoplophora-chinensis
#15
Jingzhen Wang, Ping Hu, Peng Gao, Jing Tao, Youqing Luo
Olfaction in insects is essential for host identification, mating and oviposition, in which olfactory proteins are responsible for chemical signaling. Here, we determined the transcriptomes of male and female adult antennae of Anoplophora chinensis, the citrus longhorned beetle. Among 59,357 unigenes in the antennal assembly, we identified 46 odorant-binding proteins, 16 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 44 odorant receptors, 19 gustatory receptors, 23 ionotropic receptors, and 3 sensory neuron membrane proteins...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128717/in-vivo-bioelectronic-nose-using-transgenic-mice-for-specific-odor-detection
#16
Keqiang Gao, Songmin Li, Liujing Zhuang, Zhen Qin, Bin Zhang, Liquan Huang, Ping Wang
The olfactory system is a natural biosensor since its peripheral olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) respond to the external stimuli and transmit the signals to the olfactory bulb (OB) where they are integrated and processed. The axonal connections from the OSNs expressing about 1000 different types of odorant receptors are precisely organized and sorted out onto 1800 glomeruli in the OB, from which the olfactory information is delivered to and perceived by the central nervous system. This process is carried out with particularly high sensitivity, specificity and rapidity, which can be used for explosive detection...
October 10, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127313/current-source-density-mapping-of-antennal-sensory-selectivity-reveals-conserved-olfactory-systems-between-tephritids-and-drosophila
#17
Vincent Jacob, Francesca Scolari, Hélène Delatte, Giuliano Gasperi, Emmanuelle Jacquin-Joly, Anna R Malacrida, Pierre-François Duyck
Ecological specialization of insects involves the functional and morphological reshaping of olfactory systems. Little is known about the degree to which insect sensitivity to odorant compounds is conserved between genera, tribes, or families. Here we compared the olfactory systems of six tephritid fruit fly species spanning two tribes and the distantly related Drosophila melanogaster at molecular, functional, and morphological levels. Olfaction in these flies is mediated by a set of olfactory receptors (ORs) expressed in different functional classes of neurons located in distinct antennal regions...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126322/characterization-of-odorant-receptors-from-a-non-ditrysian-moth-eriocrania-semipurpurella-sheds-light-on-the-origin-of-sex-pheromone-receptors-in-lepidoptera
#18
Jothi Kumar Yuvaraj, Jacob A Corcoran, Martin N Andersson, Richard D Newcomb, Olle Anderbrant, Christer Löfstedt
Pheromone receptors (PRs) are essential in moths to detect sex pheromones for mate finding. However, it remains unknown from which ancestral proteins these specialized receptors arose. The oldest lineages of moths, so-called non-ditrysian moths, use short-chain pheromone components, secondary alcohols, or ketones, so called Type 0 pheromones that are similar to many common plant volatiles. It is, therefore, possible that receptors for these ancestral pheromones evolved from receptors detecting plant volatiles...
November 1, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121467/nanodisc-based-bioelectronic-nose-using-olfactory-receptor-produced-in-escherichia-coli-for-the-assessment-of-the-death-associated-odor-cadaverine
#19
Heehong Yang, Daesan Kim, Jeongsu Kim, Dongseok Moon, Hyun Seok Song, Minju Lee, Seunghun Hong, Tai Hyun Park
Cadaverine (CV), a death-associated odor, is an important target molecule for various sensor applications, including the evaluation of food spoilage. In this study, we developed an oriented nanodisc (ND)-functionalized bioelectronic nose (ONBN), based on carbon nanotube transistors and nanodiscs embedded with an olfactory receptor produced in Escherichia coli (E. coli) for detection of CV. To fabricate ONBN devices, a trace-amine-associated receptor 13c (TAAR13c) binding to CV was produced in E. coli, purified, reconstituted into NDs, and assembled, in the desired orientation, onto a carbon- nanotube-based field-effect transistor with floating electrodes...
November 13, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118104/conditional-deletion-of-ric-8b-in-olfactory-sensory-neurons-leads-to-olfactory-impairment
#20
Cleiton F Machado, Maíra H Nagai, Cassandra S Lyra, Thiago M Reis-Silva, André Machado Xavier, Isaias Glezer, Luciano F Felicio, Bettina Malnic
The olfactory system can discriminate a vast number of odorants. This ability derives from the existence of a large family of odorant receptors expressed in the cilia of the olfactory sensory neurons. Odorant receptors signal through the olfactory-specific G-protein subunit, Gαolf. Ric-8b, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, interacts with Gαolf and can amplify odorant receptor signal transduction in vitro To explore the function of Ric-8b in vivo, we generated a tissue specific knockout mouse by crossing OMP-Cre transgenic mice to Ric-8b floxed mice...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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