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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641388/recognition-of-the-component-odors-in-mixtures
#1
Marion E Frank, Dane B Fletcher, Thomas P Hettinger
Natural olfactory stimuli are volatile-chemical mixtures in which relative perceptual saliencies determine which odor-components are identified. Odor identification also depends on rapid selective adaptation, as shown for 4 odor stimuli in an earlier experimental simulation of natural conditions. Adapt-test pairs of mixtures of water-soluble, distinct odor stimuli with chemical features in common were studied. Identification decreased for adapted components but increased for unadapted mixture-suppressed components, showing compound identities were retained, not degraded to individual molecular features...
June 21, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638084/identification-and-expression-analysis-of-chemosensory-receptor-genes-in-an-aphid-endoparasitoid-aphidius-gifuensis
#2
Zhi-Wei Kang, Hong-Gang Tian, Fang-Hua Liu, Xiang Liu, Xiang-Feng Jing, Tong-Xian Liu
Olfaction and gustation play critical roles during the host-location search process of insects. Several chemosensory receptor genes are thought to be involved in providing specificity to the olfactory sensory neuron responses. The aphid endoparasitoid, Aphidius gifuensis, has been used as a biological control agent against a variety of aphid species; this parasitoid is able to detect its target host(s) effectively during the parasitic process. To understand the mechanism of host detection in A. gifuensis, we assembled specific antennal transcriptomes of each sex through next generation sequencing technology to identify the major chemosensory receptor genes...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637694/dendritic-eph-organizes-dendrodendritic-segregation-in-discrete-olfactory-map-formation-in-drosophila
#3
Marie Anzo, Sayaka Sekine, Shirin Makihara, Kinhong Chao, Masayuki Miura, Takahiro Chihara
Proper function of the neural network results from the precise connections between axons and dendrites of presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons, respectively. In the Drosophila olfactory system, the dendrites of projection neurons (PNs) stereotypically target one of ∼50 glomeruli in the antennal lobe (AL), the primary olfactory center in the brain, and form synapses with the axons of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). Here, we show that Eph and Ephrin, the well-known axon guidance molecules, instruct the dendrodendritic segregation during the discrete olfactory map formation...
May 15, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626946/do-changes-in-gene-expression-contribute-to-sexual-isolation-and-reinforcement-in-the-house-mouse
#4
Etienne Loire, Sergio Tusso, Pierre Caminade, Dany Severac, Pierre Boursot, Guila Ganem, Carole M Smadja
Expression divergence, rather than sequence divergence, has been shown to be important in speciation, particularly in the early stages of divergence of traits involved in reproductive isolation. In the two European subspecies of house mice, Mus musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus, earlier studies have demonstrated olfactory-based assortative mate preference in populations close to their hybrid zone. It has been suggested that this behaviour evolved following the recent secondary contact between the two taxa (~3,000 years ago) in response to selection against hybridisation...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622973/maternal-programming-of-sex-specific-responses-to-predator-odor-stress-in-adult-rats
#5
Sophie St-Cyr, Sameera Abuaish, Shathveekan Sivanathan, Patrick O McGowan
Prenatal stress mediated through the mother can lead to long-term adaptations in stress-related phenotypes in offspring. This study tested the long-lasting effect of prenatal exposure to predator odor, an ethologically relevant and psychogenic stressor, in the second half of pregnancy. As adults, the offspring of predator odor-exposed mothers showed increased anxiety-like behaviors in commonly used laboratory tasks assessing novelty-induced anxiety, increased defensive behavior in males and increased ACTH stress reactivity in females in response to predator odor...
June 20, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614384/antennal-transcriptome-analysis-of-the-piercing-moth-oraesia-emarginata-lepidoptera-noctuidae
#6
Bo Feng, Qianshuang Guo, Kaidi Zheng, Yuanxia Qin, Yongjun Du
The piercing fruit moth Oraesia emarginata is an economically significant pest; however, our understanding of its olfactory mechanisms in infestation is limited. The present study conducted antennal transcriptome analysis of olfactory genes using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis (RT-qPCR). We identified a total of 104 candidate chemosensory genes from several gene families, including 35 olfactory receptors (ORs), 41 odorant-binding proteins, 20 chemosensory proteins, 6 ionotropic receptors, and 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612045/lack-of-trpm5-expressing-microvillous-cells-in-mouse-main-olfactory-epithelium-leads-to-impaired-odor-evoked-responses-and-olfactory-guided-behavior-in-a-challenging-chemical-environment
#7
Kayla Lemons, Ziying Fu, Imad Aoudé, Tatsuya Ogura, Julianna Sun, Justin Chang, Kenechukwu Mbonu, Ichiro Matsumoto, Hiroyuki Arakawa, Weihong Lin
The mammalian main olfactory epithelium (MOE) modifies its activities in response to changes in the chemical environment. This process is essential for maintaining the functions of the olfactory system and the upper airway. However, mechanisms involved in this functional maintenance, especially those occurring via paracrine regulatory pathways within the multicellular MOE, are poorly understood. Previously, a population of non-neuronal, transient receptor potential M5-expressing microvillous cells (TRPM5-MCs) was identified in the MOE, and the initial characterization of these cells showed that they are cholinergic and responsive to various xenobiotics including odorants at high concentrations...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606853/proteomic-analysis-of-the-kissing-bug-rhodnius-prolixus-antenna
#8
Daniele S Oliveira, Nathalia F Brito, Fabio C S Nogueira, Monica F Moreira, Walter S Leal, Marcia R Soares, Ana C A Melo
Reception of odorants is essential in insects' life since the chemical signals in the environment (=semiochemicals) convey information about availability of hosts for a blood meal, mates for reproduction, sites for oviposition and other relevant information for fitness in the environment. Once they reach the antennae, these semiochemicals bind to odorant-binding proteins and are transported through the sensillar lymph until reach the odorant receptors. Such perireceptor events, particularly the interactions with transport proteins, are the liaison between the external environment and the entire neuroethological system and, therefore, a potential target to disrupt insect chemical communication...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596537/transcriptome-sequencing-of-tessaratoma-papillosa-antennae-to-identify-and-analyze-expression-patterns-of-putative-olfaction-genes
#9
Zhong-Zhen Wu, Meng-Qiu Qu, Xin-Hua Pu, Yang Cui, Wan-Yu Xiao, Hong-Xia Zhao, Shu-Ying Bin, Jin-Tian Lin
Studies on insect olfaction have increased our understanding of insect's chemosensory system and chemical ecology, and have improved pest control strategies based on insect behavior. In this study, we assembled the antennal transcriptomes of the lychee giant stink bug, Tessaratoma papillosa, by using next generation sequencing to identify the major olfaction gene families in this species. In total, 59 odorant receptors, 14 ionotropic receptors (8 antennal IRs), and 33 odorant binding proteins (28 classic OBPs and 5 plus-C OBPs) were identified from the male and female antennal transcriptomes...
June 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586385/receptor-transporting-protein-rtp-family-members-play-divergent-roles-in-the-functional-expression-of-odorant-receptors
#10
Teng Yu, Xubo Su, Yi Pan, Hanyi Zhuang
Receptor transporting protein (RTP) family members, RTP1S and RTP2, are accessory proteins to mammalian odorant receptors (ORs). They are expressed in the olfactory sensory neurons and facilitate OR trafficking to the cell-surface membrane and ligand-induced responses in heterologous cells. We previously identified different domains in RTP1S that are important for different stages of OR trafficking, odorant-mediated responses, and interaction with ORs. However, the exact roles of RTP2 and the significance of the requirement of the seemingly redundant co-expression of the two RTP proteins in vivo have received less attention in the past...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584273/antennal-and-abdominal-transcriptomes-reveal-chemosensory-gene-families-in-the-coconut-hispine-beetle-brontispa-longissima
#11
Shu-Ying Bin, Meng-Qiu Qu, Ke-Ming Li, Zheng-Qiang Peng, Zhong-Zhen Wu, Jin-Tian Lin
Antennal and abdominal transcriptomes of males and females of the coconut hispine beetle Brontispa longissima were sequenced to identify and compare the expression patterns of genes involved in odorant reception and detection. Representative proteins from the chemosensory gene families likely essential for insect olfaction were identified. These include 48 odorant receptors (ORs), 19 ionotropic receptors (IRs), 4 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), 34 odorant binding proteins (OBPs) and 16 chemosensory proteins (CSPs)...
June 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583862/recovery-of-glomerular-morphology-in-the-olfactory-bulb-of-young-mice-after-disruption-caused-by-continuous-odorant-exposure
#12
Fernanda Monjaraz-Fuentes, Diana Millán-Adalco, Marcela Palomero-Rivero, Robyn Hudson, René Drucker-Colín
Olfactory glomeruli are the first synaptic site of the olfactory system and are formed by the convergence of axons of the same type of sensory neurons onto the olfactory bulbs of the brain. Although the anatomical organization of glomeruli is conserved across species, their particular role in olfactory processing remains uncertain. We studied the composition and maintenance of glomeruli by means of a genetic model, mI7-IRES-tauGFP knock-in young mice, where the cytoskeleton of sensory neurons expressing the mI7 olfactory receptor is tagged with green fluorescent protein...
June 2, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580965/functional-evolution-of-lepidoptera-olfactory-receptors-revealed-by-deorphanization-of-a-moth-repertoire
#13
Arthur de Fouchier, William B Walker, Nicolas Montagné, Claudia Steiner, Muhammad Binyameen, Fredrik Schlyter, Thomas Chertemps, Annick Maria, Marie-Christine François, Christelle Monsempes, Peter Anderson, Bill S Hansson, Mattias C Larsson, Emmanuelle Jacquin-Joly
Insects detect their hosts or mates primarily through olfaction, and olfactory receptors (ORs) are at the core of odorant detection. Each species has evolved a unique repertoire of ORs whose functional properties are expected to meet its ecological needs, though little is known about the molecular basis of olfaction outside Diptera. Here we report a pioneer functional analysis of a large array of ORs in a lepidopteran, the herbivorous pest Spodoptera littoralis. We demonstrate that most ORs are narrowly tuned to ubiquitous plant volatiles at low, relevant odorant titres...
June 5, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577927/deletion-of-the-bombyx-mori-odorant-receptor-co-receptor-bmorco-impairs-olfactory-sensitivity-in-silkworms
#14
Qun Liu, Wei Liu, Baosheng Zeng, Guirong Wang, Dejun Hao, Yongping Huang
Olfaction plays an essential role in many important insect behaviors such as feeding and reproduction. To detect olfactory stimuli, an odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) is required. In this study, we deleted the Orco gene in the Lepidopteran model insect, Bombyx mori, using a binary transgene-based clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system. We initially generated somatic mutations in two targeted sites, from which we obtained homozygous mutants with deletion of a 866 base pair sequence...
May 31, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571710/identification-of-odorant-binding-proteins-in-carpomya-vesuviana-and-their-binding-affinity-to-the-male-borne-semiochemicals-and-host-plant-volatiles
#15
Yawei Li, Ping Zhou, Junhua Zhang, Ding Yang, Zhihong Li, Xianglin Zhang, Shuifang Zhu, Yanxue Yu, Naizhong Chen
Carpomya vesuviana (Costa; Diptera: Tephritidae) is an agricultural pest that causes serious damage to jujube fruits. However, the mechanism of olfaction, which is critical for host identification, is not well understood in this pest. In this study, we have identified for the first time five protein types involved in the olfactory signal transduction of C. vesuviana by using transcriptome sequencing. These include 6 odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), 15 odorant receptors (ORs), 22 gustatory receptors (GRs), 2 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), and 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs)...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562598/inhibition-of-insect-olfactory-behavior-by-an-airborne-antagonist-of-the-insect-odorant-receptor-co-receptor-subunit
#16
Devin Kepchia, Scott Moliver, Kunal Chohan, Cameron Phillips, Charles W Luetje
Response to volatile environmental chemosensory cues is essential for insect survival. The odorant receptor (OR) family is an important class of receptors that detects volatile molecules; guiding insects towards food, mates, and oviposition sites. ORs are odorant-gated ion channels, consisting of a variable odorant specificity subunit and a conserved odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) subunit, in an unknown stoichiometry. The Orco subunit possesses an allosteric site to which modulators can bind and noncompetitively inhibit odorant activation of ORs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533189/potential-therapeutic-effects-of-odorants-through-their-ectopic-receptors-in-pigmented-cells
#17
REVIEW
Barbara Pavan, Antonio Capuzzo, Alessandro Dalpiaz
Several olfactory receptors (ORs) have been characterized outside the olfactory neuroepithelium in neuronal and non-neuronal tissues, where they were implicated in the recognition of diverse chemical signals. ORs have been found to regulate melanogenesis in skin melanocytes, and OR expression has been found in the human brain nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, where production of melanin occurs as neuromelanin and can change with age; OR expression is downregulated in Parkinson's disease. Therefore, we propose several odorants as new functional ligands to ORs expressed in non-olfactory pigmented cells as dopaminergic neurons and melanocytes, where, by acting on cAMP-induced melanin production, they could help to counteract melanogenic and neurodegenerative dysfunctions, including melanoma and Parkinson's disease...
May 19, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530904/wiring-variations-that-enable-and-constrain-neural-computation-in-a-sensory-microcircuit
#18
William F Tobin, Rachel I Wilson, Wei-Chung Allen Lee
Neural network function can be shaped by varying the strength of synaptic connections. One way to achieve this is to vary connection structure. To investigate how structural variation among synaptic connections might affect neural computation, we examined primary afferent connections in the Drosophila olfactory system. We used large-scale serial section electron microscopy to reconstruct all the olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) axons that target a left-right pair of glomeruli, as well as all the projection neurons (PNs) postsynaptic to these ORNs...
May 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528905/a-pheromone-antagonist-regulates-optimal-mating-time-in-the-moth-helicoverpa-armigera
#19
Hetan Chang, Yang Liu, Dong Ai, Xingchuan Jiang, Shuanglin Dong, Guirong Wang
Many insect species use multi-component sex pheromones to discriminate among potential mating partners [1-5]. In moths, pheromone blends tend to be dominated by one or two major components, but behavioral responses are frequently optimized by the inclusion of less abundant minor components [6]. An increasing number of studies have shown that female insects use these chemicals to convey their mating availability to males, who can assess the maturity of females and thus decide when to mate [7, 8]. However, little is known about the biological mechanisms that enable males to assess female reproductive status...
June 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525982/blood-meal-induced-regulation-of-the-chemosensory-gene-repertoire-in-the-southern-house-mosquito
#20
Tanvi Taparia, Rickard Ignell, Sharon Rose Hill
BACKGROUND: The southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, is one of the most prevalent vectors of lymphatic filariasis and flavivirus-induced encephalitis. Its vectorial capacity is directly affected by its reproductive feeding behaviors, such as host seeking, blood feeding, resting, and egg laying. In mosquitoes, these gonotrophic behaviors are odor-mediated and regulated following blood feeding. Immediately after a blood meal, female mosquitoes show reduced olfactory responsiveness and flight activity, as they enter a resting state...
May 19, 2017: BMC Genomics
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