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Child acute respiratory infection

Matthias An der Heiden, Udo Buchholz
BACKGROUND: The total burden of influenza in primary care is difficult to assess. The case definition of medically attended "acute respiratory infection" (MAARI) in the German physician sentinel is sensitive, however it requires modelling techniques to derive estimates of disease attributable to influenza. We aimed to examine the impact of type/subtype and age. METHODS: Data on MAARI and virological results of respiratory samples (virological sentinel) were available from 2001/02 until 2014/15...
October 18, 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Yu Mi Seo, Seok Hwang-Bo, Seong Koo Kim, Seung Beom Han, Nack-Gyun Chung, Jin Han Kang
BACKGROUND: Although adenovirus (ADV) infection usually causes self-limiting respiratory disorders in immune competent children; severe and systemic ADV infection in children undergoing chemotherapy for leukemia has been continuously reported. Nevertheless, there has been no consensus on risk factors and treatment strategies for severe ADV infection in children undergoing chemotherapy. CASE SUMMARY: We report a case of a 15-year-old boy with a fatal systemic ADV infection...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Terho Heikkinen, Emilia Ojala, Matti Waris
BACKGROUND:  Vaccines and antivirals against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are being developed, but there are scarce data on the full impact of RSV infection on outpatient children. METHODS:  We analyzed the burden of RSV in a prospective cohort study of children aged ≤13 years during 2 consecutive respiratory seasons in Turku, Finland (2231 child-seasons of follow-up). We examined the children and obtained nasal swabs for the detection of RSV during each respiratory illness...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Chi Chiao
BACKGROUND: As a consequence of the global spread of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa, the impact of the AIDS pandemic has contributed to more than 40 million orphaned and vulnerable children (OVC) in sub-Saharan Africa. The children's vulnerability is hypothesised to increase the risk of acute respiratory infection (ARI), which remains one of the major infectious causes of child mortality and morbidity in this region. This study examines the linkages between children's vulnerability and ARI symptoms, with a focus on the individual as well as community levels...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Melissa C Bartick, Eleanor Bimla Schwarz, Brittany D Green, Briana J Jegier, Arnold G Reinhold, Tarah T Colaizy, Debra L Bogen, Andrew J Schaefer, Alison M Stuebe
The aim of this study was to quantify the excess cases of pediatric and maternal disease, death, and costs attributable to suboptimal breastfeeding rates in the United States. Using the current literature on the associations between breastfeeding and health outcomes for nine pediatric and five maternal diseases, we created Monte Carlo simulations modeling a hypothetical cohort of U.S. women followed from age 15 to age 70 years and their children from birth to age 20 years. We examined disease outcomes using (a) 2012 breastfeeding rates and (b) assuming that 90% of infants were breastfed according to medical recommendations...
September 19, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Amy Cheng, Feifei Williams, James Fortenberry, Catherine Preissig, Steven Salinas, Pradip Kamat
Ehrlichiosis, caused by transmission of Ehrlichia chaffeensis to humans through the bite of an infected lone star tick, can lead to secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), a life-threatening condition caused by uncontrolled activation of the cellular immune system. We describe a child with HLH secondary to ehrlichiosis who developed multiorgan failure and was successfully managed with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). A 9-year-old boy developed headaches, fever, and sore throat after suspected tick exposure...
September 15, 2016: Pediatrics
Allison Bechtel, Michael Joyce, Christopher J Dudek, John J Sarandria, Chetan Shah, Ali G Saad
Granulomatous lung disease is a rare and perplexing differential in pediatrics. Pulmonary Cryptococcus falls into the differential but is not high on the list, particularly in a non-AIDS patient. Methotrexate (MTX) is a commonly used agent for chemotherapy in oncology and has been documented to cause lung injury in both patients with rheumatologic and oncologic diseases. Our patient had chronic cough and then developed an opportunistic infection resulting in respiratory failure. Lung biopsy showed two underlying unusual diagnoses: MTX lung injury and cryptococcal pneumonia...
September 12, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Katherine Kentoffio, John D Kraemer, Thomas Griffiths, Avi Kenny, Rajesh Panjabi, G Andrew Sechler, Stephen Selinsky, Mark J Siedner
BACKGROUND: Despite a growing global emphasis on universal healthcare, access to basic primary care for remote populations in post-conflict countries remains a challenge. To better understand health sector recovery in post-conflict Liberia, this paper seeks to evaluate changes in utilization of health services among rural populations across a 5-year time span. METHODS: We assessed trends in healthcare utilization among the national rural population using the Liberian Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) from 2007 and 2013...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
David T Mage, Maria Luisa Latorre, Alejandro G Jenik, E Maria Donner
INTRODUCTION: The cause of the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is perhaps the oldest of unsolved mysteries of medicine, possibly dating back to Exodus in Biblical times when Egyptian children died in their sleep as if from a plague. It occurs when infants die unexpectedly with no sufficient cause of death found in a forensic autopsy, including death scene investigation and review of medical history. That SIDS is an X-linked recessive death from infectious respiratory disease of a physiologically anemic infant and not a simple anomalous cardiac or neurological condition is an extraordinary claim that requires extraordinary evidence...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Koji Tanoue, Tetsuya Takamasu, Kiyoshi Matsui
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Food selectivity is commonly reported in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We aimed to investigate the eating habit histories of children with ASD. METHODS: We analyzed 3-day food records completed by the parents and assessed how many unique foods each child consumed. The parents were also interviewed about their child's diet of complementary foods and estimated number of food repertoires at the ages of 3, 6, 12 and 18 years...
September 7, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Warren C Jochem, Abdur Razzaque, Elisabeth Dowling Root
BACKGROUND: Respiratory infections continue to be a public health threat, particularly to young children in developing countries. Understanding the geographic patterns of diseases and the role of potential risk factors can help improve future mitigation efforts. Toward this goal, this paper applies a spatial scan statistic combined with a zero-inflated negative-binomial regression to re-examine the impacts of a community-based treatment program on the geographic patterns of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) mortality in an area of rural Bangladesh...
2016: International Journal of Health Geographics
Laura Toivonen, Linnea Schuez-Havupalo, Sinikka Karppinen, Tamara Teros-Jaakkola, Maris Rulli, Jussi Mertsola, Matti Waris, Ville Peltola
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Rhinoviruses frequently cause respiratory infections in young children. We aimed to establish the burden of acute respiratory infections caused by rhinovirus during the first 2 years of life. METHODS: In this prospective birth cohort study, we followed 923 children for acute respiratory infections from birth to 2 years of age. Data on respiratory infections were collected by daily symptom diaries, study clinic visits, and from electronic registries...
September 2016: Pediatrics
Herman Avner Cohen, Moshe Hoshen, Shmuel Gur, Arie Bahir, Yoseph Laks, Hannah Blau
BACKGROUND: Available pediatric treatments for acute cough are limited by lack of demonstrated efficacy. The objective of this trial is to compare the effects of a polysaccharide-resin-honey based cough syrup, and carbocysteine syrups on nocturnal and daytime cough associated with childhood upper respiratory tract infections (URIs). METHODS: Using a single-blind randomization design, the study recruited children from 4 general pediatric community clinics. Participants included 150 children aged 2 to 5 years with an URI, nocturnal and daytime cough and illness duration of ≤7 days...
July 23, 2016: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
S Shemesh, S Tamir, A Goldfarb, T Ezri, Y Roth
BACKGROUND: Upper respiratory tract infection is the most common non-preventable cause of surgery cancellation. Consequently, surgeons and anaesthesiologists involved in elective ENT surgical procedures frequently face a dilemma of whether to proceed or to postpone surgery in affected children. METHODS: A literature review was conducted and a practical assessment algorithm proposed. CONCLUSION: The risk-benefit assessment should take into consideration the impact of postponing the surgery intended to bring relief to the child and the risks of proceeding with general anaesthesia in an inflamed airway...
September 2016: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
Benjamin R Childs, Nickolas J Nahm, Timothy A Moore, Heather A Vallier
OBJECTIVES: To compare single versus multiple procedures in the same surgical setting. We hypothesized that complication rates would not be different and length of stay would be shorter in patients undergoing multiple procedures. DESIGN: Prospective, cohort. SETTING: Level 1 trauma center. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: A total of 370 patients with high-energy fractures were treated after a standard protocol for resuscitation to lactate <4...
August 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
Vinod K Ramani, Jayashree Pattankar, Suresh Kuralayanapalya Puttahonnappa
INTRODUCTION: Among all illness, Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) account for 30-60% of paediatric outpatient attendance and 20-30% of hospital admissions. AIM: To study the morbidity pattern of ARI among under-five-age group children and to assess the determinants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study was conducted for a one year period, comprising a cumulative sample of 400 children from 3 urban slums of Gulbarga city. History of nasal discharge, cough, fever, sore throat, breathing difficulty, any discharge from ear alone or in combination, was used in the recognition of an ARI episode...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Frédérique Vallières, Emma Louise Cassidy, Eilish McAuliffe, Brynne Gilmore, Allieu S Bangura, Joseph Musa
BACKGROUND: In 2010, the Ministry of Health and Sanitation in Sierra Leone launched their Free Health Care Initiative (FHCI) for pregnant and lactating mothers and children under-5. Despite an increase in the update of services, the inequitable distribution of health services and health facilities remain important factors underlying the poor performance of health systems to deliver effective services. This study identifies current gaps in service delivery across two rural locations served by the same District Health Management Team (DHMT)...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
Melkamu Dedefo, Desalew Zelalem, Biniyam Eskinder, Nega Assefa, Wondimye Ashenafi, Negga Baraki, Melake Damena Tesfatsion, Lemessa Oljira, Ashenafi Haile
BACKGROUND: The global burden of mortality among children is still very huge though its trend has started declining following the improvements in the living standard. It presents serious challenges to the well-being of children in many African countries. Today, Sub-Saharan Africa alone accounts for about 50% of global child mortality. The overall objective of this study was to determine the magnitude and distribution of causes of death among children aged 5 to 14 year olds in the population of Kersa HDSS using verbal autopsy method for the period 2008 to 2013...
2016: PloS One
Mohinder Sarna, Robert S Ware, Theo P Sloots, Michael D Nissen, Keith Grimwood, Stephen B Lambert
BACKGROUND: Contemporary information on acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in children is based on hospital cohorts, primary healthcare presentations, and high-risk birth cohort studies. We describe the burden and determinants of symptomatic episodes of ARIs in unselected healthy infants in the first 2-years of life. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-four infants from subtropical Brisbane, Australia participated in a longitudinal, community-based birth cohort study...
May 26, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Camilla Grøndahl, Søren Rittig, Johan Vestergaard Povlsen, Kostantinos Kamperis
Acute postinfectious glomerulonephritis (PIGN) affects children typically after upper respiratory tract or skin infections with streptococci but can complicate the course of other infections. In children, it is generally a self-limiting disease with excellent prognosis. This paper reports a previously healthy 4-year-old boy who experienced a protracted course of PIGN with persisting episodes of gross haematuria, proteinuria, decreased complement C3c levels but normal P-creatinine levels. Due to the protracted course and the nephrotic-range proteinuria, a renal biopsy was performed 6 months after the initial presentation and the overall pathology was consistent with acute endocapillary glomerulonephritis...
January 2016: Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis
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