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Bone Remodeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335442/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-effects-of-gracilaria-verrucosa-extracts-on-osteoclast-differentiation
#1
Kwang-Jin Kim, Yong-Jin Lee, Yun-Ho Hwang, Kyung-Yun Kang, Sung-Tae Yee, Young-Jin Son
Bone remodeling, a physiological process characterized by bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts, is important for the maintenance of healthy bone in adult humans. Osteoclasts play a critical role in bone erosion and osteoporosis and are bone-specific multinucleated cells generated through differentiation of monocyte/macrophage lineage precursors. Receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) has been reported to induce osteoclast differentiation. In this study, we explored whether Gracilaria verrucosa extracts (GE) could affect RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334010/automated-assessment-of-bone-changes-in-cross-sectional-micro-ct-studies-of-murine-experimental-osteoarthritis
#2
Patricia Das Neves Borges, Tonia L Vincent, Massimo Marenzana
OBJECTIVE: The degradation of articular cartilage, which characterises osteoarthritis (OA), is usually paired with excessive bone remodelling, including subchondral bone sclerosis, cysts, and osteophyte formation. Experimental models of OA are widely used to investigate pathogenesis, yet few validated methodologies for assessing periarticular bone morphology exist and quantitative measurements are limited by manual segmentation of micro-CT scans. The aim of this work was to chart the temporal changes in periarticular bone in murine OA by novel, automated micro-CT methods...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333394/socket-shield-technique-for-immediate-implant-placement-clinical-radiographic-and-volumetric-data-after-5%C3%A2-years
#3
Daniel Bäumer, Otto Zuhr, Stephan Rebele, Markus Hürzeler
OBJECTIVES: Implant placement immediately after tooth extraction is often accompanied by resorption of surrounding tissues. A clinical technique was developed where the buccal portion of the root is retained to preserve the periodontal ligament and bundle bone. This technique is based on animal studies showing the potential to preserve the facial tissues utilizing this approach. The purpose of this study was to gain more insight regarding the safety of the technique with regard to biological and implant-related long-term complications and to observe the clinical appearance of the peri-implant tissues...
March 23, 2017: Clinical Oral Implants Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332708/dual-specificity-tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated-kinase-2-regulates-osteoclast-fusion-in-a-cell-heterotypic-manner
#4
Gali Guterman-Ram, Milena Pesic, Ayelet Orenbuch, Tal Czeiger, Anastasia Aflalo, Noam Levaot
Monocyte fusion into osteoclasts, bone resorbing cells, plays a key role in bone remodeling and homeostasis; therefore, aberrant cell fusion may be involved in a variety of debilitating bone diseases. Research in the last decade has led to the discovery of genes that regulate osteoclast fusion, but the basic molecular and cellular regulatory mechanisms underlying the fusion process are not completely understood. Here, we reveal a role for Dyrk2 in osteoclast fusion. We demonstrate that Dyrk2 down regulation promotes osteoclast fusion, whereas its overexpression inhibits fusion...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327602/glucocorticoid-suppression-of-osteocyte-perilacunar-remodeling-is-associated-with-subchondral-bone-degeneration-in-osteonecrosis
#5
Tristan W Fowler, Claire Acevedo, Courtney M Mazur, Faith Hall-Glenn, Aaron J Fields, Hrishikesh A Bale, Robert O Ritchie, Jeffrey C Lotz, Thomas P Vail, Tamara Alliston
Through a process called perilacunar remodeling, bone-embedded osteocytes dynamically resorb and replace the surrounding perilacunar bone matrix to maintain mineral homeostasis. The vital canalicular networks required for osteocyte nourishment and communication, as well as the exquisitely organized bone extracellular matrix, also depend upon perilacunar remodeling. Nonetheless, many questions remain about the regulation of perilacunar remodeling and its role in skeletal disease. Here, we find that suppression of osteocyte-driven perilacunar remodeling, a fundamental cellular mechanism, plays a critical role in the glucocorticoid-induced osteonecrosis...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327260/vitamin-d-and-dental-caries-in-primary-dentition
#6
Ana Lucia Seminario, Elizabet Velan
Traditionally classified as a vitamin, vitamin D represents a group of fat-soluble secosteroids with D2 (ergocalciferol) and D3 (cholecalciferol) being the most relevant of the group. The importance of this prohormone exceeds its known ability to maintain intra- and extracellular calcium and phosphate concentrations, thereby preserving essential metabolic functions such as the promotion of mineralization and maintenance and remodeling of the bone. Current observational research recognizes the potential antiproliferative, prodifferentiative, and immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D and its metabolites in the human body...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Dentistry for Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326824/osteopontin-its-potential-role-in-cancer-of-children-and-young-adults
#7
Gabrielle Karpinsky, Aleksandra Fatyga, Malgorzata Anna Krawczyk, Madeleine Chamera, Natalia Sande, Dagmara Szmyd, Ewa Izycka-Swieszewska, Ewa Bien
OBJECTIVE: Osteopontin (OPN) is aglyco-phosphoprotein, involved in tissue remodeling, inflammation and boneresorption. In various adult neoplasms OPN was shown to correlate with cancer progression, invasiveness and metastasis. AIM: to define the role of OPN in malignancies of children and young adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS: a structured PubMed and Google Scholar literature analysis based on reports published in English between I'1995 and XII'2015...
March 14, 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326340/organ-and-tissue-level-properties-are-more-sensitive-to-age-than-osteocyte-lacunar-characteristics-in-rat-cortical-bone
#8
Nina Kølln Wittig, Fiona Linnea Bach-Gansmo, Mie Elholm Birkbak, Malene Laugesen, Annemarie Brüel, Jesper Skovhus Thomsen, Henrik Birkedal
Modeling and remodeling induce significant changes of bone structure and mechanical properties with age. Therefore, it is important to gain knowledge of the processes taking place in bone over time. The rat is a widely used animal model, where much data has been accumulated on age-related changes of bone on the organ and tissue level, whereas features on the nano- and micrometer scale are much less explored. We investigated the age-related development of organ and tissue level bone properties such as bone volume, bone mineral density, and load to fracture and correlated these with osteocyte lacunar properties in rat cortical bone...
June 2016: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326337/a-case-of-infantile-osteopetrosis-the-radioclinical-features-with-literature-update
#9
Tamer Ahmed El-Sobky, Ezzat Elsobky, Ismaiel Sadek, Solaf M Elsayed, Mohamed Fawzy Khattab
BACKGROUND: Osteopetrosis is a rare hereditary metabolic bone disorder characterized by generalized skeletal sclerosis caused by a defect in bone resorption and remodelling. Infantile autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is one of three subtypes of osteopetrosis and the most severe form. The correct and early diagnosis of infantile osteopetrosis is important for management of complications and for future genetic counselling. Diagnosis is largely based on clinical and radiographic evaluation, confirmed by gene testing where applicable...
June 2016: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325650/the-potential-role-of-follicle-stimulating-hormone-in-the-cardiovascular-metabolic-skeletal-and-cognitive-effects-associated-with-androgen-deprivation-therapy
#10
REVIEW
E David Crawford, Andrew V Schally, Jehonathan H Pinthus, Norman L Block, Ferenc G Rick, Marc B Garnick, Robert H Eckel, Thomas E Keane, Neal D Shore, David N Dahdal, Thomas J R Beveridge, Dennis C Marshall
PURPOSE: To explore how follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) may contribute to cardiovascular, metabolic, skeletal, and cognitive events in men treated for prostate cancer, with various forms of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A colloquium of prostate cancer experts was convened in May 2015, to discuss the role of FSH in the development of unwanted effects associated with ADT. Subsequently, a literature review (Medline, PubMed, and relevant congress abstract databases) was performed to further explore and evaluate the collected evidence...
March 18, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323963/an-antibody-to-notch2-reverses-the-osteopenic-phenotype-of-hajdu-cheney-mutant-male-mice
#11
Ernesto Canalis, Archana Sanjay, Jungeun Yu, Stefano Zanotti
Notch receptors play a central role in skeletal development and bone remodeling. Hajdu Cheney Syndrome (HCS), a disease characterized by osteoporosis and fractures, is associated with gain-of-NOTCH2 function mutations. To study HCS, we created a mouse model harboring a point 6955C>T mutation in the Notch2 locus upstream of the proline (P), glutamic acid (E), serine (S) and threonine (T) domain leading to a Q2319X change at the amino acid level. Notch2Q2319X heterozygous mutants exhibited cancellous and cortical bone osteopenia...
January 31, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323887/involvement-of-small-g-protein-rhob-in-the-regulation-of-proliferation-adhesion-and-migration-by-dexamethasone-in-osteoblastic-cells
#12
Fei Diao, Kangyao Chen, Yan Wang, Yidong Li, Weidong Xu, Jian Lu, Yu-Xia Chen
Long-term exposure to therapeutic doses of glucocorticoids (GCs) results in bone remodeling, which frequently causes osteoporosis and fracture healing retardation because of the abnormality of osteoblastic proliferation and differentiation. The mechanisms of GCs' effect on osteoblasts are largely unknown. In this present study, we found that dexamethasone (Dex) could induce the expression of the small G protein, RhoB, in mRNA and protein levels in the osteoblast-derived osteosarcoma cell lines MG-63. The up-regulation of RhoB mRNA by Dex mainly occurs at posttranscriptional level by increasing its mRNA stability through PI-3K/Akt and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323247/changes-of-the-bone-structure-after-cap-resurfacing-arthroplasty-of-thehumeral-head
#13
Lars V von Engelhardt, Michael Hahn, Thorsten Schulz, Klaus Peikenkamp, Joerg Jerosch
INTRODUCTION: Although humeral head resurfacing with a cap is relatively common in clinical practice, clinical studies about the changes of the bone are rare. The aim of this study was to analyse qualitative and quantitative changes of the bone after cup arthroplasty. Our hypothesis is that the implant leads to a new functional load with remarkable changes of the bone underneath the cap. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Overall, 12 explanted caps with adherent bone tissues, retrieved at the revision surgery, were collected for histological examination...
March 16, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323145/increased-cortical-porosity-is-associated-with-daily-not-weekly-administration-of-equivalent-doses-of-teriparatide
#14
Roger Zebaze, Ryoko Takao-Kawabata, Yu Peng, Ali Ghasem Zadeh, Kyoko Hirano, Hiroshi Yamane, Aya Takakura, Yukihiro Isogai, Toshinori Ishizuya, Ego Seeman
INTRODUCTION: The pharmacokinetic profile of parathyroid hormone (PTH) determines its effects on bone resorption and formation. When administered intermittently, anabolic effects are favored in comparison with the continuous treatment. Among the intermittent treatment regimens, lower frequency of administration may have a lower effect on bone remodeling. We therefore hypothesized that weekly administration of teriparatide will produce less increase in intracortical remodeling and porosity than reported using daily treatment...
March 16, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322464/cathepsin-k-controls-cortical-bone-formation-by-degrading-periostin
#15
Nicolas Bonnet, Julia Brun, Jean-Charles Rousseau, Le T Duong, Serge L Ferrari
While inhibitors of bone resorption concomitantly reduce bone formation because of the coupling between osteoclasts and osteoblasts, inhibition or deletion of cathepsin k (CatK) stimulates bone formation despite decreasing resorption. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this increase in bone formation, particularly at periosteal surfaces where osteoclasts are relatively poor, remain unclear. Here we show that CatK pharmacological inhibition or deletion (Ctsk(-/-) mice) potentiates mechanotransduction signals mediating cortical bone formation...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319157/subchondral-bone-histology-and-grading-in-osteoarthritis
#16
Olli-Matti Aho, Mikko Finnilä, Jerome Thevenot, Simo Saarakkala, Petri Lehenkari
OBJECTIVE: Osteoarthritis (OA) has often regarded as a disease of articular cartilage only. New evidence has shifted the paradigm towards a system biology approach, where also the surrounding tissue, especially bone is studied more vigorously. However, the histological features of subchondral bone are only poorly characterized in current histological grading scales of OA. The aim of this study is to specifically characterize histological changes occurring in subchondral bone at different stages of OA and propose a simple grading system for them...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318924/aged-rats-under-zoledronic-acid-therapy-and-oral-surgery
#17
Mariza Akemi Matsumoto, Elisa Mara de Abreu Furquim, Alaíde Gonçalves, Joel Ferreira Santiago-Júnior, Patrícia Pinto Saraiva, Camila Lopes Cardoso, Marcelo Salles Munerato, Roberta Okamoto
INTRODUCTION: Aging brings a number of health conditions that can compromise the healing process in elderly individuals, significantly when it comes to bone tissue. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of zoledronic acid (ZL) therapy on socket healing of aged male rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four Wistar male rats, 20 months old, underwent surgical procedures for the extraction of the upper right incisor and were divided into two groups according to the treatment: Control (C) - intravenous (IV) 0...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318623/the-complexity-of-chronic-kidney-disease-mineral-and-bone-disorder-across-stages-of-chronic-kidney%C3%A2-disease
#18
Fabiana G Graciolli, Katia R Neves, Fellype Barreto, Daniela V Barreto, Luciene M Dos Reis, Maria E Canziani, Yves Sabbagh, Aluizio B Carvalho, Vanda Jorgetti, Rosilene M Elias, Susan Schiavi, Rosa M A Moysés
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)-Mineral and Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD) is a complex disease that is not completely understood. However, some factors secreted by the osteocytes might play an important role in its pathophysiology. Therefore, we evaluated the bone expression of proteins in a group of patients with CKD 2-3, CKD 4, and CKD 5 on dialysis and healthy individuals. We also tested several bone remodeling markers, and correlated these levels with bone biopsy findings. As expected, as serum calcium decreased, serum phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), parathyroid hormone, and osteoprotegerin increased, as CKD progressed...
March 15, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318324/subchondral-bone-response-to-injected-adipose-derived-stromal-cells-for-treating-osteoarthritis-using-an-experimental-rabbit-model
#19
A Parrilli, G Giavaresi, A Ferrari, F Salamanna, G Desando, B Grigolo, L Martini, M Fini
Although articular cartilage is the target of osteoarthritis (OA), its deterioration is not always clearly associated with patient symptoms. Because a functional interaction between cartilage and bone is crucial, the pathophysiology of OA and its treatment strategy must focus also on subchondral bone. We investigated whether adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) injected into a joint at two different concentrations could prevent subchondral bone damage after the onset of mild OA in a rabbit model. We measured both volumetric and densitometric aspects of bone remodeling...
March 20, 2017: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318167/-changes-in-ultrastructure-and-bone-morphogenetic-protein-expression-in-reconstructed-mandibular-condylar-cartilage-under-continuous-mandibular-advancement-in-adult-rats
#20
Yang Shuai, Li Xue, Gao Jie, Cai Yizhi, Li Ronghui, Wang Mingguo
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the reconstructed mandibular condylar cartilage and the ultrastructural variations in mandibular condylar cartilage in adult rats as a result of mandibular advancement. METHODS: Thirty 9-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Rats in the experimental group were subjected to mandibular advancement. Rats were sacrificed on days 3, 7, 14, 21, 30. Sections were cut from condyles, and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) expression in condylar cartilage was examined through immunohistochemical analysis...
December 1, 2016: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
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