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Bone Remodeling

Joceline S Liu, Matthew I Bury, Natalie J Fuller, Renea M Sturm, Nida Ahmad, Arun K Sharma
Substitution urethroplasty for the treatment of male stricture disease is often accompanied by subsequent tissue fibrosis and secondary stricture formation. Patients with pre-existing morbidities are often at increased risk of urethral stricture recurrence brought upon in-part by delayed vascularization accompanied by overactive inflammatory responses following surgery. Within the context of this study, we demonstrate the functional utility of a cell/scaffold composite graft comprised of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) combined with CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) to modulate inflammation and wound healing in a rodent model of substitution urethroplasty...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Naomi Winn, Radhesh Lalam, Victor Cassar-Pullicino
Paget's disease of bone is a disorder of bone remodelling, leading to changes in the architecture and overall appearance of the bone. The disorder may be monostotic or polyostotic and affect any bone in the body, although most commonly it involves the spine, pelvis, skull and femur. This article explores the different imaging modalities used in the assessment of Paget's disease of bone in its different phases. The relative merits of each imaging modality is discussed with illustrative examples, in particular with respect to radiographs, nuclear medicine bone scan, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
October 19, 2016: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
Sofia Sousa, Jorma Määttä
This overview addresses the recent research developments in the role of tumour-associated macrophages (TAM) in bone metastasis biology and management of breast and prostate cancer as well as in primary and lung metastatic osteosarcoma. Immunosuppressive M2-type TAMs have been shown to associate with poor prognosis. Throughout their life cycle, macrophages (Macs) can adapt to environmental cues and influence the surroundings by secreting different cytokines and enzymes crucial to matrix remodelling, infection fighting, immune regulation and/or inflammation...
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
Penelope D Ottewell
The primary role of osteoblasts is to lay down new bone during skeletal development and remodelling. Throughout this process osteoblasts directly interact with other cell types within bone, including osteocytes and haematopoietic stem cells. Osteoblastic cells also signal indirectly to bone-resorbing osteoclasts via the secretion of RANKL. Through these mechanisms, cells of the osteoblast lineage help retain the homeostatic balance between bone formation and bone resorption. When tumour cells disseminate in the bone microenvironment, they hijack these mechanisms, homing to osteoblasts and disrupting bone homeostasis...
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
Raphael Leblanc, Olivier Peyruchaud
Blood platelets have been known for more than a century as important partners for successful metastatic dissemination of solid tumors. Cancer cell-induced platelet activation is a key event responsible for prometastatic activity of platelets. Blocking platelet aggregation inhibits the progression of skeletal metastases through mechanisms that are not fully understood. The establishment and progression of bone metastases are strongly influenced by the bone remodeling process. Growth factors and cytokines released upon platelet activation may contribute to both skeletal tumor growth and osteolytic lesions...
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
François Le Pape, Geoffrey Vargas, Philippe Clézardin
Breast cancer frequently metastasises to the skeleton, interfering with the normal bone remodelling process and inducing bone degradation. Bone degradation is caused by osteoclasts, the normal bone-resorbing cells. Osteoclast-mediated bone degradation subsequently leads to the release of bone-derived factors that promote skeletal tumour growth. Osteoclasts themselves stimulate tumour growth. This Review describes the molecular mechanisms through which osteoclasts and breast cancer cells collaborate with each other, triggering the formation of osteolytic bone metastasis...
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
Y-C Huang, J Xiao, W Y Leung, W W Lu, Y Hu, K D Luk
Previous human study suggested that fresh-frozen intervertebral disc allograft transplantation can relieve neurological symptoms and restore segmental kinematics. Before wide clinical application, research into the pathophysiology of the postoperative disc allograft is needed. One important question that remains to be answered in disc allografting is the healing process of the host-graft interface and the subsequent change of the endplates. With the goat model for lumbar disc allografting, histology, micro-computed tomography analysis, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping were applied to evaluate the healing of the host-graft interfaces, the remodelling of subchondral bone, and the changes of the bony and cartilaginous endplates after transplantation...
October 19, 2016: European Cells & Materials
Emeline Puissant, Marielle Boonen
Osteoclasts are giant bone-resorbing cells originating from monocytes/macrophages. During their differentiation, they overexpress two lysosomal enzymes, cathepsin K and TRAP, which are secreted into the resorption lacuna, an acidified sealed area in contact with bone matrix where bone degradation takes place. Here we report that the acid hydrolase HYAL1, a hyaluronidase able to degrade the glycosaminoglycans hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate, is also upregulated upon osteoclastogenesis. The mRNA expression and protein level of HYAL1 are markedly increased in osteoclasts differentiated from RAW264...
2016: PloS One
Wook-Jin Chung
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening disorder with a poor prognosis and causes pulmonary vascular remodeling accompanied with increased pulmonary arterial medial wall thickness and fibrosis, which leads to vascular and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. Despite treatment with prostacyclin, endothelin antagonist, and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors the 1-year mortality rate of PAH still remains high. Recent registries, clinical trials, and basic researches have been increasing the knowledge of PAH and it would contribute to potential therapeutic strategies and better clinical outcome...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Edwin D Hawkins, Delfim Duarte, Olufolake Akinduro, Reema A Khorshed, Diana Passaro, Malgorzata Nowicka, Lenny Straszkowski, Mark K Scott, Steve Rothery, Nicola Ruivo, Katie Foster, Michaela Waibel, Ricky W Johnstone, Simon J Harrison, David A Westerman, Hang Quach, John Gribben, Mark D Robinson, Louise E Purton, Dominique Bonnet, Cristina Lo Celso
It is widely accepted that complex interactions between cancer cells and their surrounding microenvironment contribute to disease development, chemo-resistance and disease relapse. In light of this observed interdependency, novel therapeutic interventions that target specific cancer stroma cell lineages and their interactions are being sought. Here we studied a mouse model of human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) and used intravital microscopy to monitor the progression of disease within the bone marrow at both the tissue-wide and single-cell level over time, from bone marrow seeding to development/selection of chemo-resistance...
October 17, 2016: Nature
Olugbenga Awolaran, Susan A Brooks, Verna Lavender
Metastasis accounts for most of the deaths from breast cancer and the preference of invasive breast cancer metastasising to bone has been widely reported. However, the biological basis of breast cancer osteotropism is not fully understood. This paper provides, for the first time, an integrative, systematic review of evidence of molecular factors that have functional roles in the homing of metastatic breast cancer to the bone. Pubmed, Web of Science and EBSCOhost were searched using keywords and synonyms for molecular, metastasis, breast cancer and bone to identify articles published between January 2004 and August 2016...
October 14, 2016: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
Thorsten Derlin, Desiree Weiberg, Jan M Sohns
Paget disease is a chronic disorder resulting in enlarged and misshapen bones, and is caused by disorganized bone remodeling. We present the case of an 85-year-old man with prostatic adenocarcinoma and known Paget disease of the right iliac bone who underwent Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen ligand, C-acetate, and F-fluoride PET/CT for restaging of cancer. On all PET scans, increased tracer accumulation was observed in Paget disease of bone. Besides that Paget disease may mimic metastases on PET/CT using various radiotracers, including Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen ligands and C-acetate, this case highlights the potential of multiparametric disease characterization on PET...
October 5, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Monica Montesi, Katharina Jähn, Lynda Bonewald, Susanna Stea, Barbara Bordini, Alina Beraudi
Skeletal unloading leads to hypoxia in the bone microenvironment, resulting in imbalanced bone remodeling that favors bone resorption. Osteocytes, the mechanosensors of bone, have been demonstrated to orchestrate bone homeostasis. Hypoxic osteocytes either undergo apoptosis or actively stimulate osteoclasts to remove bone matrix during hypoxia. Oxygen‑regulated protein 150 (ORP150) is an endoplasmic reticulum‑associated chaperone that has been observed to serve an important role in the cellular adaptation to hypoxia and in preventing cellular apoptosis in various tissue types...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Masaaki Ikeda, Yoshitaka Yoshimura, Takashi Kikuiri, Mino Matsuno, Tomokazu Hasegawa, Kumu Fukushima, Takako Hayakawa, Hajime Minamikawa, Kuniaki Suzuki, Junichiro Iida
Bone remodeling is an important factor in orthodontic tooth movement. During orthodontic treatment, osteoclasts are subjected to various mechanical stimuli, and this promotes or inhibits osteoclast differentiation and fusion. It has been previously reported that the release from tensile force induces osteoclast differentiation. However, little is known about how release from compressive force affects osteoclasts. The present study investigated the effects of release from compressive force on osteoclasts. The number of tartrate‑resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)‑positive multinucleated osteoclasts derived from RAW264...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Marie-Noëlle Labour, Mathieu Riffault, Søren T Christensen, David A Hoey
The recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a crucial process in the development, maintenance and repair of tissues throughout the body. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1) is a potent chemokine essential for the recruitment of MSCs in bone, coupling the remodelling cycle. The primary cilium is a sensory organelle with important roles in bone and has been associated with cell migration and more recently TGFβ signalling. Dysregulation of TGFβ signalling or cilia has been linked to a number of skeletal pathologies...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
David Holmes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Nicolas Reina, Etienne Cavaignac, Régis Pailhé, Aymeric Pailliser, Nicolas Bonnevialle, Pascal Swider, Jean-Michel Laffosse
Overweight is a risk factor for osteoarthritis on the knees. Subchondral trabecular bone (SCTB) densification has been shown to be associated with cartilage degeneration. This study analyzed the microarchitectural changes in the SCTB of tibial plateaus to validate the hypothesis that the degree of remodeling is correlated with a patient's body weight. Twenty-one tibial plateaus were collected during total knee arthroplasty from 21 patients (15 women and 6 men). These patients had a mean age of 70.4 years (49-81), mean weight of 74...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Siddharth Shanbhag, Vivek Shanbhag, Andreas Stavropoulos
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to systematically review the literature for studies reporting gene expression analyses (GEA) of the biological processes involved in early human peri-implant bone healing. METHODS: Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE) were searched in duplicate. Controlled and uncontrolled studies reporting GEA of human peri-implant tissues - including ≥5 patients and ≥2 time points - during the first 4 weeks of healing were eligible for inclusion...
December 2015: Int J Implant Dent
Ibrahim El Deeb Zakhary, Karl Wenger, Mohammed Elsalanty, James Cray, Mohamed Sharawy, Regina Messer
OBJECTIVE: The mandible is continuously undergoing remodeling as a result of mechanobiologic factors, such as chewing forces, tooth loss, orthodontic forces, and periodontitis. The effects of mechanical stress and biologic signals in bone homeostasis have been the focus of many investigations. However, much of this research utilized osteocytes derived from long bones, but little is known about the mandible-derived osteocytes. This study tests a protocol to isolate and grow osteocytes from rat mandible...
September 9, 2016: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Isabelle Sermet-Gaudelus, Martial Delion, Isabelle Durieu, Jacky Jacquot, Dominique Hubert
Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a common problem in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF), the etiology of which is multifactorial. In this study, we provide the first evidence that ivacaftor improves BMD in CF patients carrying the p.Gly551Asp mutation. Consistently, in vitro experiments with TNF-α-stimulated primary F508del-CFTR osteoblasts demonstrated that correction of p.Phe508del-CFTR markedly decreased RANKL protein production, a major factor of bone resorption. These clinical and fundamental observations suggest that rescue of mutated CFTR protein improves bone remodeling and support the link between CFTR and bone cell physiology...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
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