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Bone Remodeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806488/serotonergic-5-ht2b-receptors-in-mitral-valvulopathy-bone-marrow-mobilization-of-endothelial-progenitors
#1
Estelle Ayme-Dietrich, Roland Lawson, Francine Côté, Claudia de Tapia, Sylvia Da Silva, Claudine Ebel, Béatrice Hechler, Christian Gachet, Jérome Guyonnet, Hélène Rouillard, Jordane Stoltz, Emily Quentin, Sophie Banas, François Daubeuf, Nelly Frossard, Bernard Gasser, Jean-Philippe Mazzucotelli, Olivier Hermine, Luc Maroteaux, Laurent Monassier
BACKGROUND: Valvular heart disease is highly prevalent in industrialized countries. Chronic use of anorexigens, amphetamine or ergot derivatives targeting the serotonin system has been associated with valvular heart disease. PURPOSE AND EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Here, we investigated the contribution of serotonin receptors in a mouse model of valve degeneration induced by nordexfenfluramine, the main metabolite of the anorexigens dexfenfluramine and benfluorex. KEY RESULTS: Chronically activated 5-HT2B receptors by nordexfenfluramine in mice mimicked early steps of mitral valve remodelling attested by increased valve thickness, and cell density in a thick extracellular matrix...
August 14, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806419/effects-of-short-term-dry-immersion-on-bone-remodeling-markers-insulin-and-adipokines
#2
Marie-Thérèse Linossier, Liubov E Amirova, Mireille Thomas, Myriam Normand, Marie-Pierre Bareille, Guillemette Gauquelin-Koch, Arnaud Beck, Marie-Claude Costes-Salon, Christine Bonneau, Claude Gharib, Marc-Antoine Custaud, Laurence Vico
BACKGROUND: Dry immersion (DI), a ground-based model of microgravity previously used in Russia, has been recently implemented in France. The aim of this study was to analyze early events in a short-term DI model in which all conditions are met to investigate who is first challenged from osteo- or adipo-kines and to what extent they are associated to insulin-regulating hormones. METHODS: Twelve healthy men were submitted to a 3-day DI. Fasting blood was collected during pre-immersion phase for the determination of the baseline data collection (BDC), daily during DI (DI24h, DI48H and DI72h), then after recovery (R+3h and R+24h)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805158/pp2a-regulatory-subunit-b55%C3%AE-is-a-gatekeeper-of-osteoblast-maturation-and-lineage-maintenance
#3
Anastassia Serguienko, Robert Hanes, Iwona Grad, Meng-Yu Wang, Ola Myklebost, Else Munthe
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM MSCs) mediate skeletal remodeling by differentiating into osteoblasts. However, this remodeling is impaired with aging as well as following long-term glucocorticoid treatment, resulting in osteoporosis. Here we report a novel factor of osteoblast differentiation - PP2A regulatory subunit B55γ. We show that B55γ is induced by glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in human primary BM MSCs during differentiation to osteoblast, but not to adipocytes, and is required for osteoblast morphogenesis and mineralization...
August 12, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804668/impaired-mrna-expression-of-the-migration-related-chemokine-receptor-cxcr4-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells-of-copd-patients
#4
K Karagiannis, A Proklou, E Tsitoura, I Lasithiotaki, C Kalpadaki, D Moraitaki, I Sperelakis, G Kontakis, K M Antoniou, N Tzanakis
Defective tissue repair and remodeling are main aspects of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) pathophysiology. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have been implicated in this direction, as their functional impairment and recruitment could possibly contribute to disease development and progression. The present study characterizes for the first time the expression of migration related chemokine receptors and their ligands in BM-MSCs from COPD patients. CXCR4/SDF1a and CCR7/CCL19-CCL21 mRNA levels were evaluated in BM-MSCs obtained from twelve COPD patients and seven healthy donors...
2017: International Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804458/induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-attenuate-cigarette-smoke-induced-cardiac-remodeling-and-dysfunction
#5
Yingmin Liang, Xiang Li, Yuelin Zhang, Sze Chun Yeung, Zhe Zhen, Mary S M Ip, Hung Fat Tse, Qizhou Lian, Judith C W Mak
The strong relationship between cigarette smoking and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been well-documented, but the mechanisms by which smoking increases CVD risk appear to be multifactorial and incompletely understood. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are regarded as an important candidate for cell-based therapy in CVD. We hypothesized that MSCs derived from induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC-MSCs) or bone marrow (BM-MSCs) might alleviate cigarette smoke (CS)-induced cardiac injury. This study aimed to investigate the effects of BM-MSCs or iPSC-MSCs on CS-induced changes in serum and cardiac lipid profiles, oxidative stress and inflammation as well as cardiac function in a rat model of passive smoking...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797873/radiographic-and-computed-tomographic-evaluation-of-bone-union-after-medial-opening-wedge-high-tibial-osteotomy-with-filling-gap
#6
Hideo Kobayashi, Yasushi Akamatsu, Ken Kumagai, Yoshihiro Kusayama, Tomoyuki Saito
BACKGROUND: We evaluated bone union and remodelling in patients undergoing opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO) with bone gaps filled with beta-tricalcium phosphate. We examined the effectiveness of radiography and computed tomography (CT) for the evaluation of bone union and remodelling, and investigated whether lateral hinge fractures affected bone union. METHODS: Sixty-six cases underwent OWHTO with a combination of a TomoFix plate and a bone substitute...
August 7, 2017: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796721/mechanisms-predisposing-factors-and-prognosis-of-intraoperative-vertebral-subluxation-during-pedicle-subtraction-osteotomy-in-surgical-correction-of-thoracolumbar-kyphosis-secondary-to-ankylosing-spondylitis
#7
Bang-Ping Qian, Sai-Hu Mao, Jun Jiang, Bin Wang, Yong Qiu
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the mechanisms, predisposing factors, and prognosis of the intraoperative vertebral subluxation (VS) during pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) for thoracolumbar kyphosis secondary to ankylosing spondylitis (AS). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: VS is one of the most daunting challenges that surgeons encounter during PSO closure, especially in patients with AS with ankylosed and mostly osteoporotic spine...
August 15, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796136/local-and-systemic-expression-of-immunomodulatory-factors-in-chronic-pancreatitis
#8
Hannah M Komar, Phil A Hart, Zobeida Cruz-Monserrate, Darwin L Conwell, Gregory B Lesinski
Inflammatory and fibrotic events that drive chronic pancreatitis (CP) are likely orchestrated via signaling of soluble cytokines and chemokines systemically and within the pancreas. However, a comprehensive summary of the expression of such factors during CP has not been reported to date. This information is important given continued interest in targeting cytokines that influence CP pathogenesis. Reported data on the expression change of soluble immunomodulatory factors in human CP patients were identified via a literature search using a single search term...
September 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795526/coupling-factors-and-exosomal-packaging-micrornas-involved-in-the-regulation-of-bone-remodelling
#9
Sipin Zhu, Felix Yao, Heng Qiu, Ge Zhang, Huazi Xu, Jiake Xu
Bone remodelling is a continuous process by which bone resorption by osteoclasts is followed by bone formation by osteoblasts to maintain skeletal homeostasis. These two forces must be tightly coordinated not only quantitatively, but also in time and space, and its malfunction leads to diseases such as osteoporosis. Recent research focusing on the cross-talk and coupling mechanisms associated with the sequential recruitment of osteoblasts to areas where osteoclasts have removed bone matrix have identified a number of osteogenic factors produced by the osteoclasts themselves...
August 10, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795324/the-fgf23-klotho-axis-and-cardiac-tissue-doppler-imaging-in-pediatric-chronic-kidney-disease-a-prospective-cohort-study
#10
Ylva Tranæus Lindblad, Hannes Olauson, Georgios Vavilis, Ulf Hammar, Maria Herthelius, Jonas Axelsson, Peter Bárány
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease-associated mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is common in pediatric kidney disease patients and a risk factor for future cardiovascular disease (CVD). Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) and Klotho are novel key players in CKD-MBD, and has been suggested to be involved in the development of CVD. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 74 pediatric patients; 31 with CKD (age range 0.8-18.8 years, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) range 9-68 mL/min/1...
August 9, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795282/microscale-poroelastic-metamodel-for-efficient-mesoscale-bone-remodelling-simulations
#11
C C Villette, A T M Phillips
Bone functional tissue adaptation is a multiaspect physiological process driven by interrelated mechanical and biological stimuli which requires the combined activity of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. In previous work, the authors developed a phenomenological mesoscale structural modelling approach capable of predicting internal structure of the femur based on daily activity loading, which relied on the iterative update of the cross-sectional areas of truss and shell elements representative of trabecular and cortical bones, respectively...
August 9, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794403/chronological-immunolocalization-of-sclerostin-and-fgf23-in-the-mouse-metaphyseal-trabecular-and-cortical-bone
#12
Atsunaka Sakurai, Tomoka Hasegawa, Ai Kudo, Zhao Shen, Tomoya Nagai, Miki Abe, Taiji Yoshida, Hiromi Hongo, Tomomaya Yamamoto, Tsuneyuki Yamamoto, Kimimitsu Oda, Paulo Henrique Luiz de Freitas, Minqi Li, Hidehiko Sano, Norio Amizuka
To assess the chronological participation of sclerostin and FGF23 in bone metabolism, this study tracked the immunolocalization of sclerostin and FGF23 in the metaphyses of murine long bones from embryonic day 18 (E18) through 1 day after birth, 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 20 weeks of age. We have selected two regions in the metaphyseal trabeculae for assessing sclerostin and FGF23 localization: close to the chondro-osseous junction, i.e., bone modeling site even in the adult animals, and the trabecular region distant from the growth plate, where bone remodeling takes place...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793321/effects-of-combination-treatment-with-alendronate-and-raloxifene-on-skeletal-properties-in-a-beagle-dog-model
#13
Matthew R Allen, Erin McNerny, Mohammad Aref, Jason M Organ, Christopher L Newman, Brian McGowan, Tim Jang, David B Burr, Drew M Brown, Max Hammond, Paul R Territo, Chen Lin, Scott Persohn, Lei Jiang, Amanda A Riley, Brian P McCarthy, Gary D Hutchins, Joseph M Wallace
A growing number of studies have investigated combination treatment as an approach to treat bone disease. The goal of this study was to investigate the combination of alendronate and raloxifene with a particular focus on mechanical properties. To achieve this goal we utilized a large animal model, the beagle dog, used previously by our laboratory to study both alendronate and raloxifene monotherapies. Forty-eight skeletally mature female beagles (1-2 years old) received daily oral treatment: saline vehicle (VEH), alendronate (ALN), raloxifene (RAL) or both ALN and RAL...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792122/acceleration-of-fracture-healing-by-overexpression-of-basic-fibroblast-growth-factor-in-the-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#14
Hongliang Zhang, Alexander Kot, Yu-An E Lay, Fernando A Fierro, Haiyan Chen, Nancy E Lane, Wei Yao
In this study, we engineered mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to over-express basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and evaluated its effects on fracture healing. Adipose-derived mouse MSCs were transduced to express bFGF and green fluorescence protein (ADSC(bFGF) -GFP). Closed-femoral fractures were performed with osterix-mCherry reporter mice of both sexes. The mice received 3 × 10(5) ADSCs transfected with control vector or bFGF via intramuscular injection within or around the fracture sites. Mice were euthanized at days 7, 14, and 35 to monitor MSC engraftment, osteogenic differentiation, callus formation, and bone strength...
August 9, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791026/decrease-of-markers-related-to-bone-erosion-in-serum-of-patients-with-musculoskeletal-disorders-after-serial-low-dose-radon-spa-therapy
#15
Aljona Cucu, Kateryna Shreder, Daniela Kraft, Paul Friedrich Rühle, Gerhart Klein, Gerhard Thiel, Benjamin Frey, Udo S Gaipl, Claudia Fournier
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are the most frequent cause of disability in Europe. Reduced mobility and quality of life of the patients are often associated with pain due to chronic inflammation. The inflammatory process, accompanied by a destruction of the cartilage and bone tissue, is discussed as a result of (A) the infiltration of immune cells into the joints, (B) an altered homeostasis of the joint cavity (synovium) with a critical role of bone remodeling cells, and (C) release of inflammatory factors including adipokines in the arthritic joint...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789651/effect-of-athletic-fatigue-damage-and-the-associated-bone-targeted-remodeling-in-the-rat-ulna
#16
Li Hao, Li Rui-Xin, Han Biao, Zhao Bin, Hao Bao-Hui, Liu Ying-Jie, Zhang Xi-Zheng
BACKGROUND: Fatigue damage of the long bones is prevalent in running athletes and military recruits due to vigorous mid- and long-term physical activity. The current study attempted to know the features of bony athletic fatigue damage and to explore the mechanism of fatigue damage repair through bone targeted remodeling process. METHODS: Right ulnae of the Wistar rats were fatigue loaded on an INSTRON 5865 to construct the athletic fatigue damage model, and several time points (i...
August 8, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782280/orthopaedic-wear-particle-induced-bone-loss-and-exogenous-macrophage-infiltration-is-mitigated-by-local-infusion-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-decoy-oligodeoxynucleotide
#17
Tzuhua Lin, Jukka Pajarinen, Akira Nabeshima, Luis A Córdova, Florence Loi, Emmanuel Gibon, Laura Lu, Karthik Nathan, Eemeli Jämsen, Zhenyu Yao, Stuart B Goodman
Excessive production of wear particles from total joint replacements (TJRs) induces chronic inflammation, macrophage infiltration, and consequent bone loss (periprosthetic osteolysis). This inflammation and bone remodeling are critically regulated by the transcription factor NF-κB. We previously demonstrated that inhibition of NF-κB signaling by using the decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) mitigates polyethylene wear particle-induced bone loss using in vitro and in vivo models. However, the mechanisms of NF-κB decoy ODN action, and in particular its impact on systemic macrophage recruitment, remain unknown...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780668/new-anabolic-therapies-for-osteoporosis
#18
REVIEW
Salvatore Minisola, Cristiana Cipriani, Marco Occhiuto, Jessica Pepe
Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and qualitative structural abnormalities of bone tissue, leading to increased bone fragility that results in fractures. Pharmacological therapy is aimed at decreasing the risk of fracture, mainly correcting the imbalance between bone resorption and formation at the level of bone remodeling units. Anabolic therapy has the capability to increase bone mass to a greater extent than traditional antiresorptive agents. The only currently available drug licensed is parathyroid hormone 1-34 (teriparatide); new drugs are on the horizon, targeting the stimulation of bone formation, and therefore improving bone mass, structure and ultimately skeletal strength...
August 5, 2017: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780005/the-role-of-the-periosteal-sleeve-in-the-reconstruction-of-bone-defects-using-a-non-vascularised-fibula-graft-in-the-pediatric-population
#19
N Christina Steiger, Pierre Journeau, Pierre Lascombes
BACKGROUND: Following resection of large benign bone tumors surgeons are confronted with bone defects severely affecting the stability of a limb. To restore the mechanical continuity of the bone different treatment methods using bone grafts have been described. In pediatric patients the thick periosteal sleeve is thought to contribute to bone formation. HYPOTHESIS: An intact periosteal sleeve is crucial in bone remodelling around a non-vascularised fibular graft used to bridge large bone defects...
August 2, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777474/mast-cells-are-critical-regulators-of-bone-fracture-induced-inflammation-and-osteoclast-formation-and-activity
#20
Jochen Kroner, Anna Kovtun, Julia Kemmler, Joanna J Messmann, Gudrun Strauss, Sebastian Seitz, Thorsten Schinke, Michael Amling, Johanna Kotrba, Jan Dudeck, Anne Dudeck, Anita Ignatius
Mast cells, important sensor and effector cells of the immune system, may influence bone metabolism as their number is increased in osteoporotic patients. They are also present during bone fracture healing with currently unknown functions. Using a novel c-Kit-independent mouse model of mast cell deficiency, we demonstrated that mast cells did not affect physiological bone turnover. However, they triggered local and systemic inflammation after fracture by inducing release of inflammatory mediators and the recruitment of innate immune cells...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
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