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Bone Remodeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793000/effect-of-a-bisphosphonate-and-selective-estrogen-receptor-modulator-on-bone-remodeling-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-and-ovariectomized-rat-model
#1
Young-Seok Lee, Rishab Gupta, Jeong-Taik Kwon, Dae-Chul Cho, Ye Jin Seo, Sung Young Seu, Eui Kyun Park, Inbo Han, Chi-Heon Kim, Joo-Kyung Sung, Kyoung-Tae Kim
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Diabetes and menopause can cause severe osteoporosis. In general, menopause and diabetes can lead to an imbalance in bone turnover, which results in secondary osteoporosis. However, the efficacy of antiresorptive drugs against this form of osteoporosis has not been extensively evaluated. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the changes in vertebral bone remodeling when postmenopausal osteoporosis is accompanied by diabetes and the efficacy of bisphosphonates and selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs) against these outcomes...
May 21, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792855/the-versatile-hippo-pathway-in-oral-maxillofacial-development-and-bone-remodeling
#2
REVIEW
Lin Xiang, Hui Yu, Xinyuan Zhang, Bin Wang, Ying Yuan, Qin Zhang, Rui Ye, Ping Gong, Yingying Wu
The Hipposignaling pathway is implicated in key aspects of cell proliferation, control of organ size, stem cell functions and tumor suppression. Its functions are primarily mediated either through direct effects on transcription factors to influence target gene expression or through crosstalk with other signaling pathways that regulate multiple physiological activities. Studies are revealing Hippo pathway involvement in diverse functions including renewal of intestinal epithelium, promotion of myocardial cell proliferation, cancer suppression, etc...
May 21, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791896/deterioration-of-cortical-bone-microarchitecture-critical-component-of-renal-osteodystrophy-evaluation
#3
Ashish K Sharma, Nigel D Toussaint, Rosemary Masterson, Stephen G Holt, Chamith S Rajapakse, Peter R Ebeling, Sindhu T Mohanty, Paul Baldock, Grahame J Elder
BACKGROUND: Cortical bone is a significant determinant of bone strength and its deterioration contributes to bone fragility. Thin cortices and increased cortical porosity have been noted in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the "Turnover Mineralization Volume" classification of renal osteodystrophy does not emphasize cortical bone as a key parameter. We aimed to assess trabecular and cortical bone microarchitecture by histomorphometry and micro-CT in patients with CKD G5 and 5D (dialysis)...
May 23, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791693/decoronation-followed-by-dental-implants-placement-fundamentals-applications-and-explanations
#4
Alberto Consolaro, Paulo Domingos Ribeiro Júnior, Maurício A Cardoso, Dario A Oliveira Miranda, Monica Salfatis
Dental arches areas with teeth presenting dentoalveolar ankylosis and replacement root resorption can be considered as presenting normal bone, in full physiological remodeling process; and osseointegrated implants can be successfully placed. Bone remodeling will promote osseointegration, regardless of presenting ankylosis and/or replacement root resorption. After 1 to 10 years, all dental tissues will have been replaced by bone. The site, angulation and ideal positioning in the space to place the implant should be dictated exclusively by the clinical convenience, associated with previous planning...
January 2018: Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789425/a-heterodimer-formed-by-bone-morphogenetic-protein-9-bmp9-and-bmp10-provides-most-bmp-biological-activity-in-plasma
#5
Emmanuelle Tillet, Marie Ouarné, Agnès Desroches-Castan, Christine Mallet, Mariela Subileau, Robin Didier, Anna Lioutsko, Guillaume Belthier, Jean-Jacques Feige, Sabine Bailly
Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) and BMP10 are the two high-affinity ligands for the endothelial receptor activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1) and are key regulators of vascular remodeling. They are both present in the blood, but their respective biological activities are still a matter of debate. The aim of the present work was to characterize their circulating forms to better understand how their activities are regulated in vivo. First, by cotransfecting BMP9 and BMP10, we found that both can form a disulfide-bonded heterodimer in vitro and that this heterodimer is functional on endothelial cells via ALK1...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787635/abnormal-bone-remodeling-activity-of-dental-follicle-cells-from-a-cleidocranial-dysplasia-patient
#6
Yang Liu, Xianli Zhang, Xiangyu Sun, Xiaozhe Wang, Chenying Zhang, Shuguo Zheng
OBJECTIVES: To explore the role of dental follicle cells (DFCs) with a novel cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) causative gene RUNX2 mutation (DFCsRUNX 2+/m ) in delayed permanent tooth eruption. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A CCD patient with typical clinical features was involved in this study. DFCsRUNX 2+/m were cultured and DNA was extracted for RUNX2 mutation screening. Measurements of cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, alizarin red staining and osteoblast-specific genes expression were performed to assess osteogenesis of DFCsRUNX 2+/m ...
May 22, 2018: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786640/vitamin-d-in-vascular-calcification-a-double-edged-sword
#7
REVIEW
Jeffrey Wang, Jimmy J Zhou, Graham R Robertson, Vincent W Lee
Vascular calcification (VC) as a manifestation of perturbed mineral balance, is associated with aging, diabetes and kidney dysfunction, as well as poorer patient outcomes. Due to the current limited understanding of the pathophysiology of vascular calcification, the development of effective preventative and therapeutic strategies remains a significant clinical challenge. Recent evidence suggests that traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as left ventricular hypertrophy and dyslipidaemia, fail to account for clinical observations of vascular calcification...
May 22, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786151/time-dependent-loss-of-trabecular-bone-in-human-tibial-plateau-fractures
#8
Lucian Bogdan Solomon, David Kitchen, Paul Hamill Anderson, Dongqing Yang, Yolandi Starczak, Masakazu Kogawa, Egon Perilli, Peter Jonathan Smitham, Mark Sean Rickman, Dominic Thewlis, Gerald James Atkins
We investigated if time between injury and surgery affects cancellous bone properties in patients suffering tibial plateau fractures (TPF), in terms of structural integrity and gene expression controlling bone loss. A cohort of 29 TPF, operated 1-17 days post-injury, had biopsies from the fracture and an equivalent contralateral limb site, at surgery. Samples were assessed using micro-computed tomography and real-time RT-PCR analysis for the expression of genes known to be involved in bone remodeling and fracture healing...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785222/proximal-femoral-bone-regeneration-after-an-uncemented-hydroxyapatite-coated-long-stem-in-revision-hip-surgery
#9
José Cordero-Ampuero, Eduardo Garcia-Rey, Eduardo Garcia-Cimbrelo
Background: Bone remodelling with lateral femoral cortex thinning is a major concern after extensively porous-coated long-stem in revision surgery. Extensive hydroxyapatite coated long-stems were introduced to improve osseointegration, but bone remodelling changes have not been quantified. Objective: The question of whether bone remodelling changes from extensive hydroxyapatite-coated long stems influence the durability of femoral revision, clinical outcome is assessed in follow-up radiographs...
2018: Open Orthopaedics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781506/articular-cartilage-protection-in-ctsk-mice-is-associated-with-cellular-and-molecular-changes-in-subchondral-bone-and-cartilage-matrix
#10
Fabiana N Soki, Ryu Yoshida, David N Paglia, Le T Duong, Marc F Hansen, Hicham Drissi
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease and a major cause of chronic disability in aging individuals. Cathepsin K (CatK), encoded by the Ctsk gene, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of pycnodysostosis and osteoporosis. The use of a selective inhibitor of CatK was recently shown to delay OA progression in rabbits. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying these protective effects remain unexplored. We examined articular cartilage maintenance and joint bone remodeling using Ctsk null mice (Ctsk-/- ) which underwent destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM)...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781224/influence-of-different-drilling-preparation-on-cortical-bone-a-biomechanical-histological-and-micro-ct-study-on-sheep
#11
Michele Stocchero, Marco Toia, Yohei Jinno, Francesca Cecchinato, Jonas P Becktor, Yoshihito Naito, Anders Halldin, Ryo Jimbo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of cortical bone remodeling between two different drilling protocols by means of histomorphometric, µ-CT, and biomechanical analyses. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 48 implants were inserted into the mandible of six sheep following two drilling protocols: Group A (Test, n = 24), undersized preparation; Group B (Control, n = 24), non-undersized preparation. The animals were euthanatized to obtain 5 and 10 weeks of implantation time...
May 20, 2018: Clinical Oral Implants Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780354/targeting-the-metastatic-bone-microenvironment-by-micrornas
#12
REVIEW
Marie-Therese Haider, Hanna Taipaleenmäki
Bone metastases are a common and devastating feature of late-stage breast cancer. Metastatic bone disease is a consequence of disturbed bone remodeling due to pathological interactions between cancer cells and the bone microenvironment (BME). In the BME, breast cancer cells severely alter the balanced bone formation and bone resorption driven by osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The complex cellular cross talk in the BME is governed by secreted molecules, signaling pathways and epigenetic cues including non-coding RNAs...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780198/sva-shape-variation-analyzer
#13
Priscille de Dumast, Clement Mirabel, Beatriz Paniagua, Marilia Yatabe, Antonio Ruellas, Nina Tubau, Martin Styner, Lucia Cevidanes, Juan C Prieto
Temporo-mandibular osteo arthritis (TMJ OA) is characterized by progressive cartilage degradation and subchondral bone remodeling. The causes of this pathology remain unclear. Current research efforts are concentrated in finding new biomarkers that will help us understand disease progression and ultimately improve the treatment of the disease. In this work, we present Shape Variation Analyzer (SVA), the goal is to develop a noninvasive technique to provide information about shape changes in TMJ OA. SVA uses neural networks to classify morphological variations of 3D models of the mandibular condyle...
February 2018: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780142/diabetes-mellitus-induced-bone-fragility
#14
Ippei Kanazawa, Toshitsugu Sugimoto
Accumulating evidence has shown that the risk of osteoporotic fractures is increased in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Thus, DM-induced bone fragility has been recently recognized as a diabetic complication. Because the fracture risk is independent of the reduction in bone mineral density, deterioration of the bone quality may be the main cause of bone fragility. Although its mechanism remains poorly understood, accumulated collagen cross-links of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and dysfunctions of osteoblast and osteocyte may be involved...
May 18, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777919/brain-to-bone-what-is-the-contribution-of-the-brain-to-skeletal-homeostasis
#15
REVIEW
Anna Idelevich, Roland Baron
The brain, which governs most, if not all, physiological functions in the body, from the complexities of cognition, learning and memory, to the regulation of basal body temperature, heart rate and breathing, has long been known to affect skeletal health. In particular, the hypothalamus - located at the base of the brain in close proximity to the medial eminence, where the blood-brain-barrier is not as tight as in other regions of the brain but rather "leaky", due to fenestrated capillaries - is exposed to a variety of circulating body cues, such as nutrients (glucose, fatty acids, amino acids), and hormones (insulin, glucagon, leptin, adiponectin) [1-3]...
May 16, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777863/comparison-of-histological-and-morphometrical-changes-underlying-subchondral-bone-abnormalities-in-inflammatory-and-degenerative-musculoskeletal-disorders-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
M Loef, S van Beest, F P B Kroon, J L Bloem, O M Dekkers, M Reijnierse, J W Schoones, M Kloppenburg
OBJECTIVE: Subchondral bone abnormalities (SBAs) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are observed frequently and associated with disease course in various musculoskeletal disorders. This review aims to map the existing knowledge of their underlying histological features, and to identify needs for future research. DESIGN: We conducted a systematic review following PRISMA guidelines until September 2017, including all studies correlating histological features to on MRI defined SBAs in patients with osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), spondyloarthritis (SpA) and degenerative disc disease (DDD)...
May 16, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777577/autologous-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-improve-the-quality-and-stability-of-vascularized-flap-surgery-of-irradiated-skin-in-pigs
#17
Christine Linard, Michel Brachet, Carine Strup-Perrot, Bruno L'homme, Elodie Busson, Claire Squiban, Valerie Holler, Michel Bonneau, Jean-Jacques Lataillade, Eric Bey, Marc Benderitter
Cutaneous radiation syndrome has severe long-term health consequences. Because it causes an unpredictable course of inflammatory waves, conventional surgical treatment is ineffective and often leads to a fibronecrotic process. Data about the long-term stability of healed wounds, with neither inflammation nor resumption of fibrosis, are lacking. In this study, we investigated the effect of injections of local autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs), combined with plastic surgery for skin necrosis, in a large-animal model...
May 18, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777508/endothelial-progenitor-cells-in-heart-failure-an-authentic-expectation-for-potential-future-use-and-a-lack-of-universal-definition
#18
REVIEW
Andie H Djohan, Ching-Hui Sia, Poay Sian Lee, Kian-Keong Poh
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a prevalent disease (especially among the elderly) with high mortality and morbidity rates. The pathological hallmark of CHF is a loss of cardiomyocytes leading to cardiac fibrosis and dysfunctional cardiac remodeling, which culminates in organ failure. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are bone marrow-derived cells that contribute to maintenance of the integrity of endothelial wall and protect ischemic myocardium through forming new blood vessels (vasculogenesis) or proliferation of pre-existing vasculature (angiogenesis)...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773986/flavopiridol-protects-bone-tissue-by-attenuating-rankl-induced-osteoclast-formation
#19
Zi'ang Hu, Yilei Chen, Lijiang Song, Jasper H N Yik, Dominik R Haudenschild, Shunwu Fan
Bone resorption and homeostasis is carried out by osteoclasts, whose differentiation and activity are regulated by the RANK/RANKL axis. Our previous studies using a mouse model of joint injury show that joint trauma induces local inflammation followed by bone remodeling. The transcription factor cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) is the major regulator of inflammation, as CDK9 inhibitor flavopiridol effectively suppress injury-induced inflammatory response. The objective of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanism through which flavopiridol regulates bone resorption...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773404/large-tibial-geode-which-developed-several-years-after-a-left-medial-oxford-unicondylar-knee-arthroplasty-treated-with-curettage-and-bone-grafting
#20
Matthew K Curran, James R Murray
BACKGROUND: Tibial geodes are rare, and usually reported in association with rheumatoid arthritis. This case study reported the rare occurrence of a tibial geode in association with a left unicondylar knee arthroplasty (UKA). The patient, a 55-year-old male, was initially pleased with his UKA, which was performed at another institution. However, just over one year after the operation he began experiencing pain and discomfort. He did not present to the current institution until he was six years after UKA...
May 14, 2018: Knee
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