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Bone Remodeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938317/postoperative-changes-in-isolated-medial-orbital-wall-fractures-based-on-computed-tomography
#1
Soyeon Jung, Jang Won Lee, Chung Hun Kim, Euna Hwang, Hyoseob Lim, Sung Won Jung, Sung Hoon Koh
The treatment has been improved on the accurate reduction of blow-out fracture for many decades. But still, it has been limited to reduce completely when surgeons are approaching by conventional technique. The authors analyzed the postoperative results using computed tomography (CT) scans after conventional open reduction of isolated medial wall fracture. Thirty-seven patients with isolated medial wall fracture were reviewed. All patients underwent preoperative, immediate, and postoperative CT scans. Two surgeons have performed the surgery by conventional open reduction with transcaruncular approach and absorbable mesh insertion...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938290/body-composition-changes-in-severely-burned-children-during-icu-hospitalization
#2
Janos Cambiaso-Daniel, Ioannis Malagaris, Eric Rivas, Gabriel Hundeshagen, Charles D Voigt, Elizabeth Blears, Ron P Mlcak, David N Herndon, Celeste C Finnerty, Oscar E Suman
OBJECTIVES: Prolonged hospitalization due to burn injury results in physical inactivity and muscle weakness. However, how these changes are distributed among body parts is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of body composition changes in different anatomical regions during ICU hospitalization. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: Children's burn hospital. PATIENTS: Twenty-four severely burned children admitted to our institution between 2000 and 2015...
September 21, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937802/epidemiology-of-stress-fractures-in-collegiate-student-athletes-2004-2005-through-2013-2014-academic-years
#3
Katherine H Rizzone, Kathryn E Ackerman, Karen G Roos, Thomas P Dompier, Zachary Y Kerr
CONTEXT:   Stress fractures are injuries caused by cumulative, repetitive stress that leads to abnormal bone remodeling. Specific populations, including female athletes and endurance athletes, are at higher risk than the general athletic population. Whereas more than 460 000 individuals participate in collegiate athletics in the United States, no large study has been conducted to determine the incidence of stress fractures in collegiate athletes. OBJECTIVE:   To assess the incidence of stress fractures in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athletes and investigate rates and patterns overall and by sport...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937598/the-effect-of-rankl-opg-balance-on-reducing-implant-complications
#4
REVIEW
Elizabeth R Kapasa, Peter V Giannoudis, Xiaodong Jia, Paul V Hatton, Xuebin B Yang
Despite the phenomenal success of implants particularly in the realms of dentistry and orthopaedics, there are still challenges to overcome. The failure of implants resulting from infection, prosthetic loosening, and non-union continue to be the most notorious examples. The cascade of fracture healing and bone repair, especially with the presence of an implant, is complex because it involves a multifaceted immune response alongside the intricate process of bone formation and remodelling. Bone loss is a serious clinical problem that is frequently accompanied by chronic inflammation, illustrating that there is a convoluted relationship between inflammation and bone erosion...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936809/association-between-vitamin-d-and-carboxy-terminal-cross-linked-telopeptide-of-type-i-collagen-in-children-during-growth-hormone-replacement-therapy
#5
Ewelina Witkowska-Sędek, Anna Stelmaszczyk-Emmel, Anna Kucharska, Urszula Demkow, Beata Pyrżak
Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) play a crucial role in the regulation of bone turnover. Adequate vitamin D status supports proper bone remodeling, leading to normal longitudinal bone growth and normal peak bone mass. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and carboxy-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) in children and adolescents with growth hormone deficiency at baseline and during recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) replacement therapy...
September 22, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935565/comparative-postnatal-histomorphogenesis-of-the-mandible-in-wild-and-laboratory-mice
#6
Jessica Martínez-Vargas, Cayetana Martinez-Maza, Francesc Muñoz-Muñoz, Nuria Medarde, Hayat Lamrous, María José López-Fuster, Jorge Cubo, Jacint Ventura
The coordinated activity of bone cells (i.e., osteoblasts and osteoclasts) during ontogeny underlies observed changes in bone growth rates (recorded in bone histology and bone microstructure) and bone remodeling patterns explaining the ontogenetic variation in bone size and shape. Histological cross-sections of the mandible in the C57BL/6J inbred mouse strain were recently examined in order to analyze the bone microstructure, as well as the directions and rates of bone growth according to the patterns of fluorescent labeling, with the aim of description of the early postnatal histomorphogenesis of this skeletal structure...
September 18, 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935038/bone-marrow-derived-tenascin-c-attenuates-cardiac-hypertrophy-by-controlling-inflammation
#7
Lei Song, Lai Wang, Fuqiang Li, Ada Yukht, Minghui Qin, Haley Ruther, Mingjie Yang, Aurelio Chaux, Prediman K Shah, Behrooz G Sharifi
BACKGROUND: Tenascin-C (TNC) is a highly conserved matricellular protein with a distinct expression pattern during development and disease. Remodeling of the left ventricle (LV) in response to pressure overload leads to the re-expression of the fetal gene program. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the function of TNC in cardiac hypertrophy in response to pressure overload. METHODS: Pressure overload was induced in TNC knockout and wild-type mice by constricting their abdominal aorta or by infusion of angiotensin II...
September 26, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934884/effect-of-a-rapidly-degrading-presolidified-10-kda-chitosan-blood-implant-and-subchondral-marrow-stimulation-surgical-approach-on-cartilage-resurfacing-in-a-sheep-model
#8
Angela D Bell, Mark B Hurtig, Eric Quenneville, Georges-Étienne Rivard, Caroline D Hoemann
Objective This study tested the hypothesis that presolidified chitosan-blood implants are retained in subchondral bone channels perforated in critical-size sheep cartilage defects, and promote bone repair and hyaline-like cartilage resurfacing versus blood implant. Design Cartilage defects (10 × 10 mm) with 3 bone channels (1 drill, 2 Jamshidi biopsy, 2 mm diameter), and 6 small microfracture holes were created bilaterally in n = 11 sheep knee medial condyles. In one knee, 10 kDa chitosan-NaCl/blood implant (presolidified using recombinant factor VIIa or tissue factor), was inserted into each drill and Jamshidi hole...
October 2017: Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934396/evaluation-of-shared-genetic-aetiology-between-osteoarthritis-and-bone-mineral-density-identifies-smad3-as-a-novel-osteoarthritis-risk-locus
#9
Sophie Hackinger, Katerina Trajanoska, Unnur Styrkarsdottir, Eleni Zengini, Julia Steinberg, Graham R S Ritchie, Konstantinos Hatzikotoulas, Arthur Gilly, Evangelos Evangelou, John P Kemp, David Evans, Thorvaldur Ingvarsson, Helgi Jonsson, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Kari Stefansson, Andrew W McCaskie, Roger A Brooks, Jeremy M Wilkinson, Fernando Rivadeneira, Eleftheria Zeggini
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common complex disease with high public health burden and no curative therapy. High bone mineral density (BMD) is associated with an increased risk of developing OA, suggesting a shared underlying biology. Here, we performed the first systematic overlap analysis of OA and BMD on a genome wide scale. We used summary statistics from the GEFOS consortium for lumbar spine (n = 31,800) and femoral neck (n = 32,961) BMD, and from the arcOGEN consortium for three OA phenotypes (hip, ncases=3,498; knee, ncases=3,266; hip and/or knee, ncases=7,410; ncontrols=11,009)...
October 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933329/-mid-term-to-long-term-results-of-revision-total-hip-arthroplasty-using-the-oval-shaped-acetabular-cup-tc-type
#10
E Šťastný, T Trč, J Frýdl, Z Kopečný, T Philippou, J Lisý
INTRODUCTION The purpose of our paper is to evaluate the mid-term to long-term results and to confirm the basic criteria of a high-quality revision implant: safe bridging of bone defects, achievement of reliable primary fixation of revision acetabular cup, achievement of good secondary stability with documentable osteointegration of cup and demonstration of remodelling of transplanted bone tissue in the area of defects and in spaces between the implant ribs. MATERIAL AND METHODS Altogether 36 patients (38 cups) were evaluated who had undergone revision hip arthroplasty in the period from 2004 to 2010...
2017: Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931551/endoplasmic-reticulum-membrane-protein-complex-subunit-10-emc10-is-a-bone-marrow-derived-angiogenic-growth-factor-promoting-tissue-repair-after-myocardial-infarction
#11
Marc R Reboll, Mortimer Korf-Klingebiel, Stefanie Klede, Felix Polten, Eva Brinkmann, Ines Reimann, Hans-Joachim Schönfeld, Maria Bobadilla, Jan Faix, George Kensah, Ina Gruh, Michael Klintschar, Matthias Gaestel, Hans W Niessen, Andreas Pich, Johann Bauersachs, Joseph A Gogos, Yong Wang, Kai C Wollert
Background -Clinical trials of bone marrow cell (BMC)-based therapies after acute myocardial infarction (MI) have produced mostly neutral results. Treatment with specific BMC-derived secreted proteins may provide an alternative biologic approach to improving tissue repair and heart function after MI. We recently performed a bioinformatic secretome analysis in BMCs from patients with acute MI and discovered a poorly characterized secreted protein, endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein complex subunit 10 (EMC10), showing activity in an angiogenic screen...
September 20, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929265/-fractures-of-the-lower-extremities-in-childhood-part-1-fractures-of-the-thigh-and-in-the-proximity-of-the-knee
#12
L Kremer, M Voth, I Marzi
Fractures in children are a major challenge in everyday clinical practice. The decision about the correct treatment of fractures follows the consideration of individual factors. The age of the child and the resulting residual growth play an essential role. This article aims to facilitate a structured approach with respect to examination, diagnostics and treatment in clinical practice. This first part of this series deals with fractures of the thigh and in the proximity of the knee joint in children. The peculiarity of pediatric bone lies in its growth, which results not only in a much faster healing tendency than in adults but also possesses a greater correction potential...
September 19, 2017: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929117/histological-evidence-of-the-osseointegration-of-fractured-direct-metal-laser-sintering-implants-retrieved-after-5-years-of-function
#13
Francesco Mangano, Carlo Mangano, Adriano Piattelli, Giovanna Iezzi
BACKGROUND: Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) is an additive manufacturing technique that allows the fabrication of dental implants layer by layer through the laser fusion of titanium microparticles. The surface of DMLS implants is characterized by a high open porosity with interconnected pores of different sizes; therefore, it has the potential to enhance and accelerate bone healing. To date, however, there are no histologic/histomorphometric studies in the literature evaluating the interface between bone and DMLS implants in the long-term...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929099/harnessing-endogenous-cellular-mechanisms-for-bone-repair
#14
REVIEW
Claudia Lo Sicco, Roberta Tasso
Although autologous tissue transplantation represents a valid approach for bone repair, it has encountered crucial barriers in therapeutic translation, not least the invasive process necessary for stem cell isolation. In recent years, the scientific community has made significant strides for identifying new treatment options, and great emphasis has been placed on the tight interaction between skeletal and immune system in modulating the outcome of bone repair. Within the context of specific injury environmental cues, the cross talk among inflammatory cells and tissue resident and/or circulating progenitor cells is crucial to finely coordinate repair and remodeling processes...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928654/adenosine-receptor-stimulation-improves-glucocorticoid-induced-osteoporosis-in-a-rat-model
#15
Gabriele Pizzino, Natasha Irrera, Federica Galfo, Giacomo Oteri, Marco Atteritano, Giovanni Pallio, Federica Mannino, Angelica D'Amore, Enrica Pellegrino, Federica Aliquò, Giuseppe P Anastasi, Giuseppina Cutroneo, Francesco Squadrito, Domenica Altavilla, Alessandra Bitto
Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO) is a secondary cause of bone loss. Bisphosphonates approved for GIO, might induce jaw osteonecrosis; thus additional therapeutics are required. Adenosine receptor agonists are positive regulators of bone remodeling, thus the efficacy of adenosine receptor stimulation for treating GIO was tested. In a preventive study GIO was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by methylprednisolone (MP) for 60 days. Animals were randomly assigned to receive polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN), an adenosine A2 receptor agonist, or PDRN and DMPX (3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine, an A2 antagonist), or vehicle (0...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928248/carbonic-anhydrase-iii-protects-osteocytes-from-oxidative-stress
#16
Chao Shi, Yuhei Uda, Christopher Dedic, Ehab Azab, Ningyuan Sun, Amira I Hussein, Christopher A Petty, Keertik Fulzele, Maria C Mitterberger-Vogt, Werner Zwerschke, Renata Pereira, Kunzheng Wang, Paola Divieti Pajevic
Osteocytes are master orchestrators of bone remodeling; they control osteoblast and osteoclast activities both directly via cell-to-cell communication and indirectly via secreted factors, and they are the main postnatal source of sclerostin and RANKL (receptor activator of NF-kB ligand), two regulators of osteoblast and osteoclast function. Despite progress in understanding osteocyte biology and function, much remains to be elucidated. Recently developed osteocytic cell lines-together with new genome editing tools-has allowed a closer look at the biology and molecular makeup of these cells...
September 19, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927994/current-bone-substitutes-for-implant-dentistry
#17
REVIEW
Masahiro Yamada, Hiroshi Egusa
PURPOSE: Alveolar ridge augmentation is essential for success in implant therapy and depends on the biological performance of bone graft materials. This literature review aims to comprehensively explain the clinically relevant capabilities and limitations of currently available bone substitutes for bone augmentation in light of biomaterial science. STUDY SELECTION: The biological performance of calcium phosphate-based bone substitutes was categorized according to space-making capability, biocompatibility, bioabsorption, and volume maintenance over time...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Prosthodontic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927744/impact-of-resveratrol-on-bone-repair-in-rats-exposed-to-cigarette-smoke-inhalation-histomorphometric-and-bone-related-gene-expression-analysis
#18
F C Franck, B B Benatti, D C Andia, F R Cirano, R C Casarin, M G Corrêa, F V Ribeiro
This study investigated the effect of resveratrol on bone healing and its influence on the gene expression of bone-related markers in rats exposed to cigarette smoke. Two calvarial defects were created in each of 60 rats, which were assigned equally (n=20) to three groups: (1) resveratrol (10mg/kg)+smoke exposure (SMK+RESV); (2) placebo+smoke exposure (SMK+PLA); or (3) placebo+no smoke exposure (NS+PLA). Substances were administered daily for 30days following surgery. Smoke inhalation was started 7days before surgery and continued for 30days after surgery...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927342/expert-opinion-biomimetic-functionalized-surfaces-and-the-induction-of-bone-formation
#19
Ugo Ripamonti
Tissue engineering still needs to assign the molecular basis of pattern formation, tissue induction and morphogenesis: What next to morphogens and stem cells? Macroporous biomimetic matrices per se, without the addition of the soluble osteogenic molecular signals of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) supergene family, initiate the induction of bone formation. Carving geometries within different calcium phosphate-based macroporous bioreactors we show that geometric cues imprinted within the macroporous spaces initiate the spontaneous induction of bone...
September 19, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926108/bone-morphogenetic-protein-7-inhibits-endothelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-pulmonary-artery-endothelial-cell-under-hypoxia
#20
Hongyue Zhang, Ying Liu, Lixin Yan, Wei Du, Xiaodan Zhang, Min Zhang, He Chen, Yafeng Zhang, Jianqiu Zhou, Hanliang Sun, Daling Zhu
Pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) is characterized by structural changes in pulmonary arteries. Increased numbers of cells expressing α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) is a nearly universal finding in the remodeled artery. It has been confirmed endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) may be a source of those α-SMA-expressing cells. In addition, the EndoMT is reversible. Here, we show that under hypoxia, the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) was decreased both in vivo and in vitro. We also found that under normoxia, BMP-7 deficiency induced spontaneous EndoMT and cell migration...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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