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Molecular mechanisms of cancer cachexia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151366/the-150-most-important-questions-in-cancer-research-and-clinical-oncology-series-questions-76-85-edited-by-chinese-journal-of-cancer
#1
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
Since the beginning of 2017, Chinese Journal of Cancer has published a series of important questions in cancer research and clinical oncology to promote cancer research and accelerate collaborations. In this article, 10 questions are presented as followed. Question 76. How to develop effective therapeutics for cancer cachexia? Question 77. How can we develop preclinical animal models to recapitulate clinical situations of cancer patients for more effective anti-cancer drug development? Question 78. How can we develop novel effective therapeutics for pancreatic cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma? Question 79...
November 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942676/epigenetics-of-cancer-associated-muscle-catabolism
#2
Ryan M Carr, Elisa Enriquez-Hesles, Rachel Lo Olson, Aminah Jatoi, Jason Doles, Martin E Fernandez-Zapico
Cancer patients are commonly affected by cachexia, a wasting process involving muscle and fat. Specifically, loss of the muscle compartment has been associated with poor prognosis and suboptimal response to therapy. Nutritional support has been ineffective in treating this process leading to investigations into the underlying molecular processes governing muscle catabolism. In this commentary, we discuss the molecular mechanisms of cancer-associated muscle metabolism and the epigenetic processes responsible for the muscle wasting phenotype...
September 25, 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858429/energy-imbalance-and-cancer-cause-or-consequence
#3
REVIEW
Xiaohui Wang, Wei Liu, Xiangyang Xie
Obesity has been an epidemic worldwide over the past decades and significantly increases the risk of developing a variety of deadly diseases including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and many cancers. The relationship between obesity and type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease has been well documented. The drastically increased frequency of a number of cancers in obesity has attracted growing interest. On one hand, how increased adiposity promotes cancer development remains poorly understood, despite the fact that considerable epidemiological evidence has suggested links between them...
October 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830524/lipases-and-lipid-droplet-associated-protein-expression-in-subcutaneous-white-adipose-tissue-of-cachectic-patients-with-cancer
#4
Renata Silvério, Fábio S Lira, Lila M Oyama, Cláudia M Oller do Nascimento, José P Otoch, Paulo S M Alcântara, Miguel L Batista, Marília Seelaender
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial metabolic syndrome characterized by marked loss of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Fat loss from adipose tissue in cancer cachexia is partly the result of increased lipolysis. Despite the growing amount of studies focused on elucidating the mechanisms through which lipolysis-related proteins regulate the lipolytic process, there are scarce data concerning that profile in the adipose tissue of cancer cachectic patients. Considering its fundamental importance, it was our main purpose to characterize the expression of the lipolysis-related proteins in the white adipose tissue of cachectic cancer patients...
August 22, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782835/identification-and-functional-analysis-of-a-potential-key-lncrna-involved-in-fat-loss-of-cancer-cachexia
#5
Huiquan Liu, Ting Zhou, Bangyan Wang, Lu Li, Dawei Ye, Shiying Yu
Cancer cachexia is a devastating, multifactorial, and irreversible syndrome characterized by skeletal muscle reduction with or without fat loss. Although much attention has been focused on muscle wasting, fat loss may occur earlier and accelerate muscle wasting in cachexia. The cause of 20% of cancer related death makes it urgent to discover molecular mechanisms behind cancer cachexia. Here we applied weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) to identify cachexia related gene modules using differentially expressed 3289 genes and 59 long non-coding RNAs based on microarray data of cachectic and non-cachectic subcutaneous adipose tissue...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739222/biomarkers-of-cancer-cachexia
#6
REVIEW
Audrey Loumaye, Jean-Paul Thissen
Cachexia is a complex multifactorial syndrome, characterized by loss of skeletal muscle and fat mass, which affects the majority of advanced cancer patients and is associated with poor prognosis. Interestingly, reversing muscle loss in animal models of cancer cachexia leads to prolong survival. Therefore, detecting cachexia and maintaining muscle mass represent a major goal in the care of cancer patients. However, early diagnosis of cancer cachexia is currently limited for several reasons. Indeed, cachexia development is variable according to tumor and host characteristics...
July 21, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701224/the-150-most-important-questions-in-cancer-research-and-clinical-oncology-series-questions-40-49
#7
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
Since the beginning of 2017, Chinese Journal of Cancer has published a series of important questions in cancer research and clinical oncology, which sparkle diverse thoughts, interesting communications, and potential collaborations among researchers all over the world. In this article, 10 more questions are presented as followed. Question 40. Why do mice being used as tumorigenesis models raised in different places or different conditions possess different tumor formation rate? Question 41. How could we generate more effective anti-metastasis drugs? Question 42...
July 13, 2017: Chinese Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652543/ghrelin-does-not-influence-cancer-progression-in-a-lung-adenocarcinoma-cell-line
#8
Hironobu Tsubouchi, Hitomi Onomura, Yusuke Saito, Shigehisa Yanagi, Ayako Miura, Ayako Matsuo, Nobuhiro Matsumoto, Masamitsu Nakazato
Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), is produced in the human stomach. Although ghrelin has therapeutic potential for cancer cachexia, ghrelin treatment may have a concern about accelerating cancer progression. Here, using the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line HLC-1, we investigated the effects of ghrelin on molecular mechanisms linked to cancer progression, including cell viability, proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, and mitochondrial activity. Both types of mouse alveolar epithelial cells (types I and II) expressed the GHSR, as did the human normal airway cell lines BEAS-2B and HLC-1...
2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529552/cancer-induced-muscle-wasting-latest-findings-in-prevention-and-treatment
#9
REVIEW
Zaira Aversa, Paola Costelli, Maurizio Muscaritoli
Cancer cachexia is a severe and disabling clinical condition that frequently accompanies the development of many types of cancer. Muscle wasting is the hallmark of cancer cachexia and is associated with serious clinical consequences such as physical impairment, poor quality of life, reduced tolerance to treatments and shorter survival. Cancer cachexia may evolve through different stages of clinical relevance, namely pre-cachexia, cachexia and refractory cachexia. Given its detrimental clinical consequences, it appears mandatory to prevent and/or delay the progression of cancer cachexia to its refractory stage by implementing the early recognition and treatment of the nutritional and metabolic alterations occurring during cancer...
May 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296247/comprehensive-proteome-analysis-of-human-skeletal-muscle-in-cachexia-and-sarcopenia-a-pilot-study
#10
H Alexander Ebhardt, Simone Degen, Valentina Tadini, Alain Schilb, Neil Johns, Carolyn A Greig, Kenneth C H Fearon, Ruedi Aebersold, Carsten Jacobi
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia (cancer-induced muscle wasting) is found in a subgroup of cancer patients leaving the patients with a poor prognosis for survival due to a lower tolerance of the chemotherapeutic drug. The cause of the muscle wasting in these patients is not fully understood, and no predictive biomarker exists to identify these patients early on. Skeletal muscle loss is an inevitable consequence of advancing age. As cancer frequently occurs in old age, identifying and differentiating the molecular mechanisms mediating muscle wasting in cancer cachexia vs...
August 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101649/molecular-mechanism-of-sarcopenia-and-cachexia-recent-research-advances
#11
REVIEW
Kunihiro Sakuma, Wataru Aoi, Akihiko Yamaguchi
Skeletal muscle provides a fundamental basis for human function, enabling locomotion and respiration. Muscle loss occurs as a consequence of several chronic diseases (cachexia) and normal aging (sarcopenia). Although many negative regulators (atrogin-1, muscle ring finger-1, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), myostatin, etc.) have been proposed to enhance protein degradation during both sarcopenia and cachexia, the adaptation of these mediators markedly differs within both conditions. Sarcopenia and cachectic muscles have been demonstrated to be abundant in myostatin-linked molecules...
June 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929469/the-colon-26-carcinoma-tumor-bearing-mouse-as-a-model-for-the-study-of-cancer-cachexia
#12
Andrea Bonetto, Joseph E Rupert, Rafael Barreto, Teresa A Zimmers
Cancer cachexia is the progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and adipose tissue, negative nitrogen balance, anorexia, fatigue, inflammation, and activation of lipolysis and proteolysis systems. Cancer patients with cachexia benefit less from anti-neoplastic therapies and show increased mortality(1). Several animal models have been established in order to investigate the molecular causes responsible for body and muscle wasting as a result of tumor growth. Here, we describe methodologies pertaining to a well-characterized model of cancer cachexia: mice bearing the C26 carcinoma(2-4)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919820/tnf-%C3%AE-and-cancer-cachexia-molecular-insights-and-clinical-implications
#13
REVIEW
Hetal J Patel, Bhoomika M Patel
Cancer cachexia characterized by a chronic wasting syndrome, involves skeletal muscle loss and adipose tissue loss and resistance to conventional nutritional support. Cachexia is responsible for the reduction in quality and length of life of cancer patients. It also decreases the muscle strength of the patients. The pro-inflammatory and pro-cachectic factors produced by the tumor cells have important role in genesis of cachexia. A number of pro-inflammatory cytokines, like interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α) may have important role in the pathological mechanisms of cachexia in cancer...
February 1, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916875/proteinase-activated-receptor-2-is-a-novel-regulator-of-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-in-pancreatic-cancer
#14
REVIEW
David Witte, Franziska Zeeh, Thomas Gädeken, Frank Gieseler, Bernhard H Rauch, Utz Settmacher, Roland Kaufmann, Hendrik Lehnert, Hendrik Ungefroren
TGF-β has a dual role in tumorigenesis, acting as a tumor suppressor in normal cells and in the early stages of tumor development while promoting carcinogenesis and metastasis in advanced tumor stages. The final outcome of the TGF-β response is determined by cell-autonomous mechanisms and genetic alterations such as genomic instability and somatic mutations, but also by a plethora of external signals derived from the tumor microenvironment, such as cell-to-cell interactions, growth factors and extracellular matrix proteins and proteolytic enzymes...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748895/comparative-molecular-analysis-of-early-and-late-cancer-cachexia-induced-muscle-wasting-in-mouse-models
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Rulin Sun, Santao Zhang, Xing Lu, Wenjun Hu, Ning Lou, Yan Zhao, Jia Zhou, Xiaoping Zhang, Hongmei Yang
Cancer-induced muscle wasting, which commonly occurs in cancer cachexia, is characterized by impaired quality of life and poor patient survival. To identify an appropriate treatment, research on the mechanism underlying muscle wasting is essential. Thus far, studies on muscle wasting using cancer cachectic models have generally focused on early cancer cachexia (ECC), before severe body weight loss occurs. In the present study, we established models of ECC and late cancer cachexia (LCC) and compared different stages of cancer cachexia using two cancer cachectic mouse models induced by colon-26 (C26) adenocarcinoma or Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC)...
December 2016: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667116/aliskiren-targets-multiple-systems-to-alleviate-cancer-cachexia
#16
Chaoyi Wang, Dunwei Guo, Qiang Wang, Song You, Zhongpeng Qiao, Yong Liu, Hang Dai, Hua Tang
To examine the effects of aliskiren, a small-molecule renin inhibitor, on cancer cachexia and to explore the underlying mechanisms. A cancer cachexia model was established by subcutaneously injecting C26 mouse colon carcinoma cells into isogenic BALB/c mice. Aliskiren was administered intragastrically [10 mg/kg body weight (BW)] on day 5 (as a preventive strategy, AP group) or on day 12 (as a therapeutic strategy, AT group) after C26 injection. Mice that received no C26 injection (healthy controls, HC group) or only C26 injection but not aliskiren (cancer, CA group) were used as controls...
November 2016: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531474/-cancer-cachexia-and-white-adipose-tissue-browning
#17
S T Zhang, H M Yang
Cancer cachexia occurs in a majority of advanced cancer patients. These patients with impaired physical function are unable to tolerance cancer treatment well and have a significantly reduced survival rate. Currently, there is no effective clinical treatment available for cancer cachexia, therefore, it is necessary to clarify the molecular mechanisms of cancer cachexia, moreover, new therapeutic targets for cancer cachexia treatment are urgently needed. Very recent studies suggest that, during cancer cachexia, white adipose tissue undergo a 'browning' process, resulting in increased lipid mobilization and energy expenditure, which may be necessary for the occurrence of cancer cachexia...
August 2016: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443316/the-rationale-for-preventing-cancer-cachexia-targeting-excessive-fatty-acid-oxidation
#18
COMMENT
Chao-Nan Qian
Cachexia commonly occurs at the terminal stage of cancer and has largely unclear molecular mechanisms. A recent study published in Nature Medicine, entitled "Excessive fatty acid oxidation induces muscle atrophy in cancer cachexia," reveals that cachectic cancer cells can secrete multiple cytokines that induce excessive fatty acid oxidation, which is responsible for muscle loss in cancer cachexia. Inhibition of fatty acid oxidation using etomoxir can increase muscle mass and body weight in cancer cachexia animal models...
July 21, 2016: Chinese Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27388367/metformin-treatment-modulates-the-tumour-induced-wasting-effects-in-muscle-protein-metabolism-minimising-the-cachexia-in-tumour-bearing-rats
#19
André G Oliveira, Maria Cristina C Gomes-Marcondes
BACKGROUND: Cancer-cachexia state frequently induces both fat and protein wasting, leading to death. In this way, the knowledge of the mechanism of drugs and their side effects can be a new feature to treat and to have success, contributing to a better life quality for these patients. Metformin is an oral drug used in type 2 diabetes mellitus, showing inhibitory effect on proliferation in some neoplastic cells. For this reason, we evaluated its modulatory effect on Walker-256 tumour evolution and also on protein metabolism in gastrocnemius muscle and body composition...
July 7, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27340276/molecular-pathways-cachexia-signaling-a-targeted-approach-to-cancer-treatment
#20
Yuji Miyamoto, Diana L Hanna, Wu Zhang, Hideo Baba, Heinz-Josef Lenz
Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by an ongoing loss of skeletal muscle mass, which negatively affects quality of life and portends a poor prognosis. Numerous molecular substrates and mechanisms underlie the dysregulation of skeletal muscle synthesis and degradation observed in cancer cachexia, including proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL1, and IL6), and the NF-κB, IGF1/AKT/mTOR, and myostatin/activin-SMAD pathways. Recent preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that anti-cachexia drugs (such as MABp1 and soluble receptor antagonist of myostatin/activin) not only prevent muscle wasting but also may prolong overall survival...
August 15, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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