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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221079/cue-induced-food-seeking-after-punishment-is-associated-with-increased-fos-expression-in-the-lateral-hypothalamus-and-basolateral-and-medial-amygdala
#1
Erin J Campbell, David J Barker, Helen M Nasser, Konstantin Kaganovsky, Christopher V Dayas, Nathan J Marchant
In humans, relapse to unhealthy eating habits following dieting is a significant impediment to obesity treatment. Food-associated cues are one of the main triggers of relapse to unhealthy eating during self-imposed abstinence. Here we report a behavioral method examining cue-induced relapse to food seeking following punishment-induced suppression of food taking. We trained male rats to lever press for food pellets that were delivered after a 10-s conditional stimulus (CS) (appetitive). Following training, 25% of reinforced lever presses resulted in the presentation of a compound stimulus consisting of a novel CS (aversive) and the appetitive CS followed by a pellet and footshock...
February 20, 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220184/cxcl12a-cxcr4b-acts-to-retain-neutrophils-in-caudal-hematopoietic-tissue-and-to-antagonize-recruitment-to-an-injury-site-in-the-zebrafish-larva
#2
Susana Paredes-Zúñiga, Rodrigo A Morales, Salomé Muñoz-Sánchez, Carlos Muñoz-Montecinos, Margarita Parada, Karina Tapia, Carlos Rubilar, Miguel L Allende, Oscar A Peña
Neutrophils are a major component of the innate immune response and the most abundant circulating cell type in humans and zebrafish. The CXCL12/CXCR4 ligand receptor pair plays a key role in neutrophil homeostasis, controlling definitive hematopoiesis and neutrophil release into circulation. Neutrophils overexpressing CXCR4 respond by migrating towards sources of CXCL12, which is abundant in hematopoietic tissues. However, the physiological role of CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling during inflammatory responses remains unknown...
February 20, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219951/generation-of-thalamic-neurons-from-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#3
Atsushi Shiraishi, Keiko Muguruma, Yoshiki Sasai
Thalamus is a diencephalic structure that plays crucial roles in relaying and modulating sensory and motor information to the neocortex. The thalamus develops in the dorsal part of the neural tube at the level of the caudal forebrain. However, the molecular mechanisms that are essential for thalamic differentiation are still unknown. Here we have succeeded in the generation of thalamic neurons from mouse ES cells (mESCs) by modifying the default method that induces the most-anterior neural type in self-organizing culture...
February 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219675/tcf7l2-plays-crucial-roles-in-forebrain-development-through-regulation-of-thalamic-and-habenular-neuron-identity-and-connectivity
#4
Myungsin Lee, Jiyeon Yoon, Hobeom Song, Bumwhee Lee, Lam Tri Duc, Jaeseung Yoon, Kwanghee Baek, Hans Clevers, Yongsu Jeong
The thalamus acts as a central integrator for processing and relaying sensory and motor information to and from the cerebral cortex, and the habenula plays pivotal roles in emotive decision making by modulating dopaminergic and serotonergic circuits. These neural compartments are derived from a common developmental progenitor domain, called prosomere 2, in the caudal forebrain. Thalamic and habenular neurons exhibit distinct molecular profile, neurochemical identity, and axonal circuitry. However, the mechanisms of how their progenitors in prosomere 2 give rise to these two populations of neurons and contribute to the forebrain circuitry remains unclear...
February 17, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218381/an-accurate-method-to-quantify-breathing-induced-prostate-motion-for-patients-implanted-with-electromagnetic-transponders
#5
Tommaso Giandini, Costanza M V Panaino, Barbara Avuzzi, Sara Morlino, Sergio Villa, Nice Bedini, Gabriele Carabelli, Sarah C Frasca, Anna Romanyukha, Anatoly Rosenfeld, Emanuele Pignoli, Riccardo Valdagni, Mauro Carrara
PURPOSE: To validate and apply a method for the quantification of breathing-induced prostate motion (BIPM) for patients treated with radiotherapy and implanted with electromagnetic transponders for prostate localization and tracking. METHODS: For the analysis of electromagnetic transponder signal, dedicated software was developed and validated with a programmable breathing simulator phantom. The software was then applied to 1,132 radiotherapy fractions of 30 patients treated in supine position, and to a further 61 fractions of 2 patients treated in prone position...
February 11, 2017: Tumori
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218380/increase-in-physical-activity-after-resurfacing-hip-arthroplasty-is-associated-with-calcar-and-acetabular-bone-mineral-density-changes
#6
Davey M J M Gerhardt, Gerjon Hannink, Ton Rijnders, Job L C van Susante
PURPOSE: Bone preservation is an important advantage of the resurfacing hip arthroplasty (RHA) concept. We hypothesised that patients' increase in physical activity level after RHA would positively relate with periprosthetic bone mineral density (BMD) changes and thus facilitate bone preservation. METHODS: BMD-changes were prospectively recorded in 38 patients after RHA. Dual-energy absorptiometry was used to quantify BMD-changes in 6 periprosthetic regions of interest preoperatively, at 6 months, 1, 2 and 3 years postoperative...
February 15, 2017: Hip International: the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Research on Hip Pathology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217397/a5-segment-aneurysm-of-the-anterior-cerebral-artery-imbedded-into-the-body-of-the-corpus-callosum-a-case-report
#7
Fransua Sharafeddin, Ahmad Hafez, Martin Lehecka, Rahul Raj, Roberto Colasanti, Ahmadreza Rafiei, Joham Choque, Behnam R Jahromi, Mika Niemelä, Juha Hernesniemi
BACKGROUND: The A5 segment aneurysms of the anterior cerebral artery are rare, approximately 0.5% of all intracranial aneurysms. They are small with a wide base located in the midline, with the domes mostly projecting upward or backward. CASE DESCRIPTION: The authors describe a unique case of A5 segment aneurysm, with the dome embedded into the body of the corpus callosum. This 41-year-old female was admitted to the neurology department for possible multiple sclerosis investigation...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217061/sequestrated-caudal-catheter-in-a-child-an-anesthetic-nightmare-and-surgical-dilemma
#8
Chong Soon Eu, Shyamala V Kumar, Saedah Ali, Shamsul Kamalrujan Hassan
The usage of epidural infusion for intraoperative and postoperative pain relief is widely used in certain pediatric anesthetic practice because of the effectiveness and advantages. However, there is drawback for these techniques due to its potential complications such as inadvertent intrathecal placement, local anesthetic toxicity, catheter migration, infection, and breakage of epidural catheter. Though occur infrequently, epidural catheters have been known to snap during insertion or removal. The retained catheter tip may lead to multiple complications, including nerve injury, infection, and even catheter migration...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217052/topical-versus-caudal-ketamine-bupivacaine-combination-for-postoperative-analgesia-in-children-undergoing-inguinal-herniotomy
#9
Hala Saad Abdel-Ghaffar, Seham Mohamed Moeen, Ahmed Mohamed Moeen
BACKGROUND: Multiple studies claim that caudal administration of ketamine causes effective postoperative analgesia. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical effectiveness of ketamine after caudal or topical administration in pediatric patients undergoing inguinal herniotomy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This randomized, comparative, double-blind study included eighty children (aged 6 months to 6 years) received either 1 ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine/ketamine 0.5 mg/kg for caudal analgesia (caudal group) or 0...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216751/femoral-bowing-plane-adaptation-to-femoral-anteversion
#10
Alp Akman, Fahir Demirkan, Nuran Sabir, Murat Oto, Cagdas Yorukoglu, Esat Kiter
BACKGROUND: Femoral bowing plane (FBP) is the unattended subject in the literature. More over the femoral shaft with its bowing is neglected in established anteversion determination methods. There is limited information about the relationship between FBP and anteversion. Thus we focused on this subject and hypothesized that there could be an adaptation of FBP to anteversion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: FBP is determined on three-dimensional solid models derived from the left femoral computerized tomography data of 47 patients which were taken before for another reason and comparatively evaluated with anteversion...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216318/circuit-homology-between-decussating-pathways-in-the-ciona-larval-cns-and-the-vertebrate-startle-response-pathway
#11
Kerrianne Ryan, Zhiyuan Lu, Ian A Meinertzhagen
Comparing synaptic circuits and networks between brains of different animal groups helps us derive an understanding of how nervous systems might have evolved. The circuits of the startle response pathway in the brains of tailed vertebrates are known from electrophysiological studies on the giant reticulospinal Mauthner cells (M-cells). To identify morphological counterparts in chordate tunicates, a sister group of vertebrates [1, 2], we have compiled a densely reconstructed connectome (defined in [3]) for the CNS in the tadpole larva of Ciona intestinalis (L...
February 14, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216316/local-spinal-cord-circuits-and-bilateral-mauthner-cell-activity-function-together-to-drive-alternative-startle-behaviors
#12
Yen-Chyi Liu, Melina E Hale
The reticulospinal Mauthner cells (M-cells) of the startle circuit have been considered to be dedicated to one basic motor output and the C-type startle response in fish. The neural circuit underlying the C-start, a startle behavior in which the fish forms a "C"-shaped body bend has been described in depth in goldfish and zebrafish [1, 2] and is thought to occur in other species [3, 4]. However, previous research has shown that some species can perform a second type of startle called the S-start [5-7]. This startle response, in which the first movement creates an "S"-shaped body bend achieved with regional muscle activity on left and right sides, cannot be explained by M-cell circuit models...
February 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214734/developmental-toxicity-and-molecular-responses-of-marine-medaka-oryzias-melastigma-embryos-to-ciguatoxin-p-ctx-1-exposure
#13
Meng Yan, Priscilla T Y Leung, Jack C H Ip, Jin-Ping Cheng, Jia-Jun Wu, Jia-Rui Gu, Paul K S Lam
Ciguatoxins are produced by toxic benthic dinoflagellates and cause ciguatera fish poisoning worldwide, but the toxic effects on developing marine fish have not been well investigated. The Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX-1), is a potent sodium channel agonist, which is one of the most toxic members among all CTXs. This study evaluated the toxic effects of microinjecting purified Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1) on embryonic development of marine medaka Oryzias melastigma. A lower 96h-LD50 value was estimated for eleuthero-embryos (1...
February 10, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214148/muscle-characteristics-only-partially-explain-color-variations-in-fresh-hams
#14
K Stufft, J Elgin, B Patterson, S K Matarneh, R Preisser, H Shi, E M England, T L Scheffler, E W Mills, D E Gerrard
Fresh hams display significant lean color variation that persists through further processing and contributes to a less desirable cured product. In an attempt to understand the underlying cause of this color disparity, we evaluated the differences in muscle characteristics and energy metabolites across semimembranosus (SM) muscles differing in color variation. The L* (lightness) and a* (redness) values were highest and lowest (P<0.001), respectfully in the most caudal aspects of the muscle while the ultimate pH was the lowest (P<0...
December 24, 2016: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213647/increased-and-decreased-pelvic-incidence-sagittal-facet-joint-orientations-are-associated-with-lumbar-spine-osteoarthritis-in-a-large-cadaveric-collection
#15
Douglas S Weinberg, Raymond W Liu, Katherine K Xie, William Z Morris, Jeremy J Gebhart, Zachary L Gordon
PURPOSE: Degenerative joint disease of the lumbar spine is a pervasive problem in healthcare; however, its aetiology and risk factors remain poorly defined. There have been recent attempts to correlate the anatomic parameters of facet angle and pelvic incidence with spine osteoarthritis, although data remains limited. The purpose of this experiment was to determine how age, gender, race, facet angle, tropism, and pelvic incidence correlate to facet joint osteoarthritis in the lumbar spine...
February 17, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213119/the-heterogeneity-of-the-left-dorsal-premotor-cortex-evidenced-by-multimodal-connectivity-based-parcellation-and-functional-characterization
#16
Sarah Genon, Andrew Reid, Hai Li, Lingzhong Fan, Veronika I Müller, Edna C Cieslik, Felix Hoffstaedter, Robert Langner, Christian Grefkes, Angela R Laird, Peter T Fox, Tianzi Jiang, Katrin Amunts, Simon B Eickhoff
Despite the common conception of the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) as a single brain region, its diverse connectivity profiles and behavioral heterogeneity argue for a differentiated organization of the PMd. A previous study revealed that the right PMd is characterized by a rostro-caudal and a ventro-dorsal distinction dividing it into five subregions: rostral, central, caudal, ventral and dorsal. The present study assessed whether a similar organization is present in the left hemisphere, by capitalizing on a multimodal data-driven approach combining connectivity-based parcellation (CBP) based on meta-analytic modeling, resting-state functional connectivity, and probabilistic diffusion tractography...
February 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212594/percutaneous-full-endoscopic-treatment-of-bertolotti-syndrome-a-report-of-three-cases-with-technical-note
#17
Byapak Paudel, Hyeun-Sung Kim, Jee Soo Jang, Jeong Hoon Choi, Sung Kyun Chung, Jung Sup Lee, Jeong Hoon Kim, Seong Hoon Oh, Il Tae Jang
Background Bertolotti syndrome is characterized by an abnormal enlargement of the transverse process of the most caudal lumbar vertebra. Most of the time it is asymptomatic, but when it is symptomatic it is associated with low back pain, radiating leg pain, or both. There is no consensus regarding management of this pathology. Open to minimal invasive tubular resection techniques are described in the literature, but a full endoscopic resection technique has not yet been described. Endoscopic technique is a less invasive target-oriented iliolumbar ligament preserving technique...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210364/caudal-edge-of-the-liver-in-the-right-upper-quadrant-ruq-view-is-the-most-sensitive-area-for-free-fluid-on-the-fast-exam
#18
Viveta Lobo, Michelle Hunter-Behrend, Erin Cullnan, Rebecca Higbee, Caleb Phillips, Sarah Williams, Philips Perera, Laleh Gharahbaghian
INTRODUCTION: The focused assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST) exam is a critical diagnostic test for intraperitoneal free fluid (FF). Current teaching is that fluid accumulates first in Morison's pouch. The goal of this study was to evaluate the "sub-quadrants" of traditional FAST views to determine the most sensitive areas for FF accumulation. METHODS: We analyzed a retrospective cohort of all adult trauma patients who had a recorded FAST exam by emergency physicians at a Level I trauma center from January 2012 - June 2013...
February 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209314/connection-between-bilateral-temporal-regions-tractography-using-human-connectome-data-and-diffusion-spectrum-imaging
#19
Peng-Hu Wei, Zhi-Qi Mao, Fei Cong, Bo Wang, Zhi-Pei Ling, Shu-Li Liang, Xin-Guang Yu
Temporal lobe epilepsy often propagates inter-hemispherically. Although the pathway of the propagation was verified by electrophysiology, the trajectory remains poorly defined. DTI can depict fiber trajectory but it has limited angular resolution and cannot adequately assess cortical regions. We visualized potential pathways of bitemporal epilepsy propagation using diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) with data consisting of 8 groups of 514 directions and diffusion templates of 842 subjects from the human connectome project (HCP)...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209182/mesenchymal-stem-cells-alleviate-japanese-encephalitis-virus-induced-neuroinflammation-and-mortality
#20
Peiyu Bian, Chuantao Ye, Xuyang Zheng, Jing Yang, Wei Ye, Yuan Wang, Yun Zhou, Hongwei Ma, Peijun Han, Hai Zhang, Ying Zhang, Fanglin Zhang, Yingfeng Lei, Zhansheng Jia
BACKGROUND: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. Japanese encephalitis (JE) caused by JEV is characterized by extensive inflammatory cytokine secretion, microglia activation, blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, and neuronal death, all of which contribute to the vicious cycle of inflammatory damage. There are currently no effective treatments for JE. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated to have a therapeutic effect on many central nervous system (CNS) diseases by regulating inflammation and other mechanisms...
February 16, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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