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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550719/morphometric-analysis-of-thalamic-volume-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-in-vivo-evidence-of-regionally-specific-bilateral-thalamic-atrophy
#1
Brian D Power, David Jakabek, Mitchell Hunter-Dickson, Fiona A Wilkes, Danielle van Westen, Alexander F Santillo, Mark Walterfang, Dennis Velakoulis, Christer Nilsson, Jeffrey C L Looi
We investigated whether differences were detectable in the volume and shape of the dorsal thalamus on magnetic resonance imaging in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Manual segmentation of the left and right thalami on magnetic resonance imaging scans occurred in 22 patients with clinically diagnosed PSP and 23 healthy controls; thalamic volumes (left, right, total) were calculated. Between group differences were explored by multivariate analysis of co-variance, using age and intracranial volume as covariates...
May 17, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549898/brainstem-mechanisms-underlying-the-cough-reflex-and-its-regulation
#2
REVIEW
Donatella Mutolo
Cough is a very important airway protective reflex. Cough-related inputs are conveyed to the caudal nucleus tractus solitarii (cNTS) that projects to the brainstem respiratory network. The latter is reconfigured to generate the cough motor pattern. A high degree of modulation is exerted on second-order neurons and the brainstem respiratory network by sensory inputs and higher brain areas. Two medullary structures proved to have key functions in cough production and to be strategic sites of action for centrally active drugs: the cNTS and the caudal ventral respiratory group (cVRG)...
May 23, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549600/novel-instrumented-probe-for-measuring-3d-pressure-distribution-along-the-vaginal-canal
#3
Licia P Cacciari, Anice C Pássaro, Amanda C Amorim, Manfred Geuder, Isabel C N Sacco
We developed an intravaginal instrumented probe (covered with a 10×10 matrix of capacitive sensors) for assessing the three-dimensional (3D) spatiotemporal pressure profile of the vaginal canal. The pressure profile was compared to the pelvic floor (PF) digital assessment, and the reliability of the instrument and repeatability of the protocol was tested. We also tested its ability to characterize and differentiate two tasks: PF maximum contraction and Valsalva maneuver (maximum intra-abdominal effort with downward movement of the PF)...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547886/the-suction-mechanism-of-the-pipid-frog-pipa-pipa-linnaeus-1758
#4
David Cundall, Edward Fernandez, Frances Irish
Most suction-feeding, aquatic vertebrates create suction by rapidly enlarging the oral cavity and pharynx. Forceful enlargement of the pharynx is powered by longitudinal muscles that retract skeletal elements of the hyoid, more caudal branchial arches, and, in many fish, the pectoral girdle. This arrangement was thought to characterize all suction-feeding vertebrates. However, it does not exist in the permanently aquatic, tongueless Pipa pipa, an Amazonian frog that can catch fish. Correlating high-speed (250 and 500 fps) video records with anatomical analysis and functional tests shows that fundamental features of tetrapod body design are altered to allow P...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546867/tethered-cord-syndrome-with-spina-bifida-aperta-in-cats-two-case-reports-of-different-types
#5
Masahiro Tamura, Takashi Oji, Satoshi Une, Makiko Mukaino, Tatsuro Bekki, Masaki Tado, Hiromi Koyama, Yumiko Kagawa, Mutsumi Kawata
CASE SUMMARY: Two castrated male cats, aged 8 months old (case 1) and 10 months old (case 2), showed a history of progressive paraparesis, an over-reaching pelvic limb gait, urinary incontinence and a palpable dermoid fistula. In case 1, the fistula was connected to the dural sac on the conus medullaris, and the tethered spinal cord was retracted caudally. In case 2, the tubular structure was connected to the dural sac on the thoracic spinal cord, and the tethered spinal cord was retracted dorsally...
January 2017: JFMS Open Rep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546281/neurons-within-the-trigeminal-mesencephalic-nucleus-encode-for-the-kinematic-parameters-of-the-whisker-pad-macrovibrissae
#6
Ombretta Mameli, Marcello A Caria, Francesca Biagi, Marco Zedda, Vittorio Farina
It has been recently shown in rats that spontaneous movements of whisker pad macrovibrissae elicited evoked responses in the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (Me5). In the present study, electrophysiological and neuroanatomical experiments were performed in anesthetized rats to evaluate whether, besides the whisker displacement per se, the Me5 neurons are also involved in encoding the kinematic properties of macrovibrissae movements, and also whether, as reported for the trigeminal ganglion, even within the Me5 nucleus exists a neuroanatomical representation of the whisker pad macrovibrissae...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545896/morphological-identification-and-dna-barcoding-of-a-new-species-of-parabrachiella-siphonostomatoida-lernaeopodidae-with-aspects-of-their-intraspecific-variation
#7
M M Montes, R Castro-Romero, S R Martorelli
We present a detailed morphological description and a DNA barcoding of Parabrachiella platensis n. sp. collected from Mugil liza Valenciennes in Samborombon Bay (Buenos Aires, Argentina). This new species was compared with two Parabrachiella species parasitic on mugilids: Parabrachiella exilis (Shiino, 1956) and Parabrachiella mugilis (Kabata, Raibaut et Ben Hassine, 1971). Parabrachiella platensis n. sp. differs from those species in the shape of posterior processes, the anal slit with two pairs of bipartite papillae, the size of cephalothorax, the trunk, the maxilla, the microhabitat on the host, and the lack of caudal rami...
May 22, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543743/detection-and-localization-of-regucalcin-in-spermatozoa-of-water-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis-a-calcium-regulating-multifunctional-protein
#8
H Pillai, A M Shende, M S Parmar, J Thomas, H S Kartha, G Taru Sharma, S K Ghosh, S K Bhure
Regucalcin (RGN) is a calcium-regulating, anti-apoptotic, antioxidative and antiproliferative multifunctional protein predominantly seen in liver and kidney. All these functions are very crucial during spermatogenesis and sperm maturation process until fertilization of the ovum. Although many studies have reported the wide distribution of regucalcin in the male reproductive tract of the rat, human and bovine, its presence in spermatozoa is yet to be demonstrated wherein calcium has a pivotal role in the transport, capacitation, acrosomal reaction and further fusion with ova...
May 24, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543621/morphological-characteristics-of-the-oropharyngeal-cavity-tongue-palate-and-laryngeal-entrance-in-the-eurasian-coot-fulica-atra-linnaeus-1758
#9
M M A Abumandour, N E R El-Bakary
The present study represents the first definitive anatomical description of the oropharyngeal cavity of the coot Fulica atra. For this purpose, the organs of six birds were prepared to examine grossly and by SEM and stereomicroscope. The oval lingual apex had multiple overlapping branched acicular processes on its anterior and lateral border. The lingual apex and body had multiple caudally directed filiform-like papillae. By stereomicroscopy, the lingual root had a characteristic appearance and consisted of four parts...
May 22, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543304/biomechanical-comparison-between-pins-and-polymethylmethacrylate-and-the-sop-locking-plate-system-to-stabilize-canine-lumbosacral-fracture-luxation-in-flexion-and-extension
#10
Johannes J Nel, Cor-Jacques Kat, Gert L Coetzee, Paul J van Staden
OBJECTIVE: To determine the stability of a simulated complete L7-S1 fracture-luxation immobilized with SOP locking plate system, compared to pins and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). STUDY DESIGN: In vitro biomechanical study. ANIMALS: Cadaver specimens of 18 skeletally mature large-breed dogs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Specimens were randomly stabilized with one of the two fixation techniques. Lumbosacral spine specimens (L5-S3) were subjected to a bending moment applied to the caudal and cranial ends of the specimen...
May 24, 2017: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543057/combination-of-kinematic-analyses-and-diffusion-tensor-tractrography-to-evaluate-the-residual-motor-functions-in-spinal-cord-hemisected-monkeys
#11
Can Zhao, Wei Song, Jia-Sheng Rao, Wen Zhao, Rui-Han Wei, Xia Zhou, Peng-Yu Tian, Zhao-Yang Yang, Xiao-Guang Li
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes loss of locomotor functions. Nowadays, the relationship between the residual locomotion after SCI and the diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) results still remains unclear. METHODS: Four rhesus monkeys were suffered thoracic cord hemisection. Kinematic evaluation and DTT were performed prior- and post-SCI (6 and 12 weeks). The longitudinal changes of gait parameters and the DTT parameters were analyzed for the injury-contralateral hindlimb...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543027/the-vascularized-groin-lymph-node-flap-vgln-anatomical-study-and-flap-planning-using-multi-detector-ct-scanner-the-golden-triangle-for-flap-harvesting
#12
Assaf A Zeltzer, Alexander Anzarut, Delphine Braeckmans, Katrin Seidenstuecker, Benoit Hendrickx, Eddy Van Hedent, Moustapha Hamdi
INTRODUCTION: A growing number of surgeons perform lymph node transfers for the treatment of lymphedema. When harvesting a vascularized lymph node groin flap (VGLNF) one of the major concerns is the potential risk of iatrogenic lymphedema of the donor-site. This article helps understanding of the lymph node distribution of the groin in order to minimize this risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty consecutive patients undergoing abdominal mapping by multi-detector CT scanner were included and 100 groins analyzed...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542900/the-sensory-trigeminal-complex-and-the-organisation-of-its-primary-afferents-in-the-zebra-finch-taeniopygia-guttata
#13
Macarena Faunes, J Martin Wild, Thomas Finger
Our knowledge of the avian sensory trigeminal system has been largely restricted to the principal trigeminal nucleus (PrV) and its ascending projections to the forebrain. Studies addressing the cytoarchitecture and organisation of afferent input to the sensory trigeminal complex, which includes both the PrV and the nuclei of the descending trigeminal tract (nTTD), have only been performed in pigeons and ducks. Here we extend such an analysis to a songbird, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). We describe the cytoarchitecture of the sensory trigeminal complex, the patterns of calbindin-like and substance P-like immunoreactivity, and the organisation of afferents from the three branches of the trigeminal nerve and from the lingual branch of the hypoglossal nerve...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542213/a-novel-approach-for-assigning-levels-to-monkey-and-human-lumbosacral-spinal-cord-based-on-ventral-horn-morphology
#14
Cassandra Gross, Brian Ellison, Aron S Buchman, Ei Terasawa, Veronique G VanderHorst
Proper identification of spinal cord levels is crucial for clinical-pathological and imaging studies in humans, but can be a challenge given technical limitations. We have previously demonstrated in non-primate models that the contours of the spinal ventral horn are determined by the position of motoneuron pools. These positions are preserved within and among individuals and can be used to identify lumbosacral spinal levels. Here we tested the hypothesis that this approach can be extended to identify monkey and human spinal levels...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541156/biomechanical-evaluation-of-two-plating-configurations-for-fixation-of-a-simple-transverse-caudal-mandibular-fracture-model-in-cats
#15
Christopher L Greiner, Frank J M Verstraete, Susan M Stover, Tanya C Garcia, Dustin Leale, Boaz Arzi
OBJECTIVE To evaluate biomechanical properties of intact feline mandibles, compared with those for mandibles with an experimentally created osteotomy that was stabilized with 1 of 2 internal fixation configurations. SAMPLE 20 mandibles from 10 adult feline cadavers. PROCEDURES An incomplete block study design was used to assign the mandibles of each cadaver to 2 of 3 groups (locking plate with locking screws [locking construct], locking plate with nonlocking screws [nonlocking construct], or intact). Within each cadaver, mandibles were randomly assigned to the assigned treatments...
June 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541152/biomechanical-comparison-of-a-3-5-mm-conical-coupling-plating-system-and-a-3-5-mm-locking-compression-plate-applied-as-plate-rod-constructs-to-an-experimentally-created-fracture-gap-in-femurs-of-canine-cadavers
#16
Giovanni Tremolada, Daniel D Lewis, Ken Luka Paragnani, Bryan P Conrad, Stanley E Kim, Antonio Pozzi
OBJECTIVE To compare stiffness and resistance to cyclic fatigue of two 3.5-mm locking system plate-rod constructs applied to an experimentally created fracture gap in femurs of canine cadavers. SAMPLE 20 femurs from cadavers of 10 mixed-breed adult dogs. PROCEDURES 1 femur from each cadaver was stabilized with a conical coupling plating system-rod construct, and the contralateral femur was stabilized with a locking compression plate (LCP)-rod construct. An intramedullary Steinmann pin was inserted in each femur...
June 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540253/craniocervical-junction-abnormalities-with-atlantoaxial-subluxation-caused-by-ventral-subluxation-of-c2-in-a-dog
#17
Harumichi Itoh, Kazuhito Itamoto, Shotaro Eto, Tomoya Haraguchi, Shimpei Nishikawa, Kenji Tani, Yoshiki Itoh, Masato Hiyama, Toshie Iseri, Munekazu Nakaichi, Yasuho Taura
Craniocervical junction abnormalities with atlantoaxial subluxation caused by ventral subluxation of C2 were diagnosed in a 6-month-old female Pomeranian with tetraplegia as a clinical sign. Lateral survey radiography of the neck with flexion revealed atlantoaxial subluxation with ventral subluxation of C2. Computed tomography revealed absence of dens and atlanto-occipital overlapping. Magnetic resonance imaging showed compression of the spinal cord and indentation of caudal cerebellum. The diagnosis was Chiari-like malformation, atlantoaxial subluxation with ventral displacement of C2, atlanto-occipital overlapping, and syringomyelia...
2017: Open veterinary journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540124/relationship-of-the-sinus-anatomy-to-surface-landmarks-is-a-function-of-the-sinus-size-difference-between-the-right-and-left-side-anatomical-study-based-on-ct-angiography
#18
Roy S Hwang, Ryan C Turner, Walid Radwan, Rahul Singh, Brandon Lucke-Wold, Abdul Tarabishy, Sanjay Bhatia
BACKGROUND: Several cadaveric studies demonstrate reliable localization of the transverse sinus and the transverse sigmoid junction (TSJ). These studies use the line drawn from the inion to the posterior root of the zygoma (IZ) and the asterion, respectively. We investigated how the size difference between the right and left transverse sinuses (TS) and sigmoid sinuses (SS) affected the accuracy of their respective superficial landmarks, particularly with regards to where this relationship may result in unsafe and/or complicated surgical access...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539859/human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-generated-neural-cells-behaving-like-brain-and-spinal-cord-cells-an-insight-into-the-involvement-of-retinoic-acid-and-sonic-hedgehog-proteins
#19
Akinlolu Abdulazeez Adelaja
OBJECTIVES: The previous studies generated neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) using different protocols. However, the nature of the temporal or regional specificity of NPCs derived using these protocols is not well defined. Therefore, this study aimed to generate age- and region-specific NPCs from hiPSCs, which mimic in vivo fetal brain (FNPC-B) or spinal cord (FNPC-SC) tissues, in the absence or presence of retinoic acid (RA) and sonic hedgehog (SHH)...
April 2017: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538681/human-thalamic-somatosensory-nucleus-ventral-caudal-vc-as-a-locus-for-stimulation-by-inputs-from-tactile-noxious-and-thermal-sensors-on-an-active-prosthesis
#20
REVIEW
Jui Hong Chien, Anna Korzeniewska, Luana Colloca, Claudia Campbell, Patrick Dougherty, Frederick Lenz
The forebrain somatic sensory locus for input from sensors on the surface of an active prosthesis is an important component of the Brain Machine Interface. We now review the neuronal responses to controlled cutaneous stimuli and the sensations produced by Threshold Stimulation at Microampere current levels (TMIS) in such a locus, the human thalamic Ventral Caudal nucleus (Vc). The responses of these neurons to tactile stimuli mirror those for the corresponding class of tactile mechanoreceptor fiber in the peripheral nerve, and TMIS can evoke sensations like those produced by the stimuli that optimally activate each class...
May 24, 2017: Sensors
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