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heparin as bronchodilator

Guillermo Foncerrada, Derek M Culnan, Karel D Capek, Sagrario González-Trejo, Janos Cambiaso-Daniel, Lee C Woodson, David N Herndon, Celeste C Finnerty, Jong O Lee
Inhalation injury causes a heterogeneous cascade of insults that increase morbidity and mortality among the burn population. Despite major advancements in burn care for the past several decades, there remains a significant burden of disease attributable to inhalation injury. For this reason, effort has been devoted to finding new therapeutic approaches to improve outcomes for patients who sustain inhalation injuries.The three major injury classes are the following: supraglottic, subglottic, and systemic. Treatment options for these three subtypes differ based on the pathophysiologic changes that each one elicits...
March 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Travis K Nairn, Antonio Giulivi, Doris Neurath, Melanie Tokessy, Ying T Sia, Marc Ruel, Peter R H Wilkes
PURPOSE: Bombay red blood cell phenotype is an extremely rare blood type for which patients can receive only autologous or Bombay phenotype red blood cells. We report a case of urgent repeat sternotomy for replacement of a mechanical mitral prosthesis in a patient with Bombay phenotype anticoagulated with warfarin, to emphasize the transfusion challenges in such patients. CLINICAL FEATURES: A male of Indian descent presented to hospital with New York Heart Association IV symptoms...
June 2010: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
H Maarsingh, B E Bossenga, I S T Bos, H H Volders, J Zaagsma, H Meurs
Peroxynitrite has been shown to be crucially involved in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) after the late asthmatic reaction (LAR). Peroxynitrite production may result from simultaneous synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide by inducible NO-synthase (iNOS) at low L-arginine concentrations. L-arginine availability to iNOS is regulated by its cellular uptake, which can be inhibited by eosinophil-derived polycations and by arginase, which competes with iNOS for the common substrate. Using a guinea pig model of allergic asthma, we investigated whether aberrant L-arginine homeostasis could underlie peroxynitrite-mediated AHR after the LAR...
July 2009: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Robert Cartotto, Gautam Walia, Sandi Ellis, Rob Fowler
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of, and complications associated with High Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation (HFOV) in burn patients with the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) who have had a smoke inhalation injury, and to compare with those without an inhalation injury. Burn patients with progressive oxygenation failure from ARDS while on conventional mechanical ventilation were placed on HFOV as a "rescue" ventilation modality. There were 19 patients with burn + inhalation injury and 30 patients with burn only...
January 2009: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Harm Maarsingh, Johan Zaagsma, Herman Meurs
Allergic asthma is a chronic disease characterized by early and late asthmatic reactions, airway hyperresponsiveness, airway inflammation and airway remodelling. Changes in l-arginine homeostasis may contribute to all these features of asthma by decreased nitric oxide (NO) production and increased formation of peroxynitrite, polyamines and l-proline. Intracellular l-arginine levels are regulated by at least three distinct mechanisms: (i) cellular uptake by cationic amino acid (CAT) transporters, (ii) metabolism by NO-synthase (NOS) and arginase, and (iii) recycling from l-citrulline...
May 13, 2008: European Journal of Pharmacology
S Deriaz-Chessex, P Carron, D Gachoud, Y Fournier, J Donzé, M Monti, L Achtari Jeanneret, A Rossier, P A Moix, A C Barras-Moret, P Wilson
In 2007, several international studies brought useful information for the daily work of internists in hospital settings. This summary is of course subjective but reflects the interests and questions of the chief residents of the Department of internal medicine who wrote this article like an original trip in medical literature. This trip will allow you to review some aspects of important fields such as heart failure, diabetes, endocarditis, COPD, and quality of care. Besides the growing diversity of the fields covered by internal medicine, these various topics underline also the uncertainty internists have to face in a practice directed towards evidence...
January 30, 2008: Revue Médicale Suisse
Inga Sinicina, Karl Bise, Reinhard Hetterich, Helmut Pankratz
Tourniquet ischemia is widely used in limb surgery in every age group. In adults, tourniquet-related deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are recognized complications of tourniquet use. In healthy children, tourniquet-associated alterations of blood clotting physiology are assumed to have no clinical impact. Antithrombotic prophylaxis is, therefore, recommended only in the presence of pertinent risk factors such as extensive surgery, congenital thrombophilia, prolonged immobilization, and indwelling central venous line, however, it is not practiced in obese, otherwise healthy children...
February 2007: Paediatric Anaesthesia
V Wenzel, S Russo, H R Arntz, J Bahr, M A Baubin, B W Böttiger, B Dirks, V Dörges, C Eich, M Fischer, B Wolcke, S Schwab, W G Voelckel, H W Gervais
The new CPR guidelines are based on a scientific consensus which was reached by 281 international experts. Chest compressions (100/min, 4-5 cm deep) should be performed in a ratio of 30:2 with ventilation (tidal volume 500 ml, Ti 1 s, FIO2 if possible 1.0). After a single defibrillation attempt (initially biphasic 150-200 J, monophasic 360 J, subsequently with the respective highest energy), chest compressions are initiated again immediately for 2 min. Endotracheal intubation is the gold standard; other airway devices may be employed as well depending on individual skills...
September 2006: Der Anaesthesist
Rachel A Brown, Luigi Allegra, Maria G Matera, Clive P Page, Mario Cazzola
It is now well recognised that heparin possesses numerous anti-inflammatory properties in addition to its anticoagulant properties. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the low molecular weight heparin, enoxaparin (ENX), as an add-on therapy for a period of 12 weeks, to inhaled salmeterol/fluticasone propionate (SLM/FP) combination in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Forty-six patients were randomised to receive 12 weeks of treatment in one of two treatment groups: (1) fixed combination of SLM 50 microg and FP 500 microg Diskus, one inhalation twice daily; or (2) as group 1 plus 20 mg ENX administered subcutaneously once daily for 12 weeks...
2006: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
S Salman A Shah, Davis C Drinkwater, Karla G Christian
Plastic bronchitis is an unusual clinical scenario of unknown cause and occurs in multiple clinical settings. The disease is characterized by the development of arborizing, thick, tenacious casts of the tracheobronchial tree that results in airway obstruction. Patients with congenital heart disease who have undergone a Fontan operation are at high risk for having this problem develop. Management of this distressing situation is difficult with only palliative options being available, such as repeated bronchoscopies, inhaled heparin, tissue plasminogen activator, inhaled bronchodilators, or azithromycin...
June 2006: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Kenneth J Broadley
Beta2-adrenoceptor agonists are the first-line treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), in which a short-acting beta2-adrenoceptor agonist is used as required for relief of bronchoconstriction. A long-acting beta2-adrenoceptor agonist may be added to an inhaled corticosteroid as step 3 in the management of chronic asthma. Long-acting beta2-adrenoceptor agonists may also be added in treatment of COPD. This review examines the beneficial and detrimental effects of beta2-adrenoceptor agonists...
March 8, 2006: European Journal of Pharmacology
Harm Maarsingh, Jacob de Boer, Henk F Kauffman, Johan Zaagsma, Herman Meurs
It has been established that polycations cause airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to methacholine by inducing a deficiency of constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS)-derived bronchodilating nitric oxide (NO). Since a deficiency of cNOS-derived NO also contributes to allergen-induced AHR after the early asthmatic reaction (EAR) and since this AHR is associated with the release of polycationic proteins from infiltrated eosinophils in the airways, we hypothesized that endogenous polycations underlie or at least contribute to the allergen-induced NO deficiency and AHR...
August 2004: British Journal of Pharmacology
H Milgrom, L M Taussig
Exercise-induced bronchospasm, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, and exercise-induced asthma (EIA) are all terms used to describe the phenomenon of transient airflow obstruction associated with physical exertion. It is a prominent finding in children and young adults because of their greater participation in vigorous activities. The symptoms shortness of breath, cough, chest tightness, and wheezing normally follow the brief period of bronchodilation present early in the course of exercise. Bronchospasm typically arises within 10 to 15 minutes of beginning exercise, peaks 8 to 15 minutes after the exertion is concluded, and resolves about 60 minutes later, but it also may appear during sustained exertion...
September 1999: Pediatrics
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