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Sanna Rönkä, Anu Katainen
BACKGROUND: The non-medical use of prescription drugs is a growing phenomenon associated with increasing health-related harms. However, little is known about the drivers of this process among illicit drug users. Our aim is to show how the qualities of pharmaceutical drugs, pharmaceutical related knowledge, online communities sharing this knowledge and medical professionals mediate and transform the consumption behaviour related to pharmaceutical drugs. METHODS: The data consist of discussion threads from an online drug use forum...
October 18, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Alexa A Lopez, Marzena Hiler, Sarah Maloney, Thomas Eissenberg, Alison B Breland
BACKGROUND: Novel tobacco products entering the US market include electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) and products advertised to "heat, not burn" tobacco. There is a growing literature regarding the acute effects of ECIGs. Less is known about "heat, not burn" products. This study's purpose was to expand existing clinical laboratory methods to examine, in cigarette smokers, the acute effects of a "heat, not burn" "loose-leaf tobacco vaporizer" (LLTV). METHODS: Plasma nicotine and breath carbon monoxide (CO) concentration and tobacco abstinence symptom severity were measured before and after two 10-puff (30-s interpuff interval) product use bouts separated by 60min...
October 11, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Le My Phuong, Do Thi Thanh Huong, Jens Randel Nyengaard, Mark Bayley
Gill morphometric and gill plasticity of the air-breathing striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) exposed to different temperatures (present day 27°C and future 33°C) and different air saturation levels (92% and 35%) during 6weeks were investigated using vertical sections to estimate the respiratory lamellae surface areas, harmonic mean barrier thicknesses, and gill component volumes. Gill respiratory surface area (SA) and harmonic mean water - blood barrier thicknesses (HM) of the fish were strongly affected by both environmental temperature and oxygen level...
October 18, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Alexandre Caron, Denis Richard
With the still-growing prevalence of obesity worldwide, major efforts are made to understand the various behavioral, environmental, and genetic factors that promote excess fat gain. Obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, which emphasizes the importance of deciphering the mechanisms behind energy balance regulation to understand its physiopathology. The control of energy balance is assured by brain systems/circuits capable of generating adequate ingestive and thermogenic responses to maintain the stability of energy reserves, which implies a proper integration of the homeostatic signals that inform about the status of the energy stores...
October 21, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Marta Gibert, Sonia Paytubi, Sergi Beltrán, Antonio Juárez, Carlos Balsalobre, Cristina Madrid
Plasmids of the incompatibility group HI1 (IncHI1) have been isolated from several Gram-negative pathogens and are associated with the spread of multidrug resistance. Their conjugation is tightly regulated and it is inhibited at temperatures higher than 30°C, indicating that conjugation occurs outside warm-blooded hosts. Using R27, the prototype of IncHI1 plasmids, we report that plasmid transfer efficiency in E. coli strongly depends on the physiological state of the donor cells. Conjugation frequency is high when cells are actively growing, dropping sharply when cells enter the stationary phase of growth...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Vineetha Mandlik, Sohan Patil, Ramanamurthy Bopanna, Sudipta Basu, Shailza Singh
Cutaneous leishmaniasis affects nearly 0.7 to 1.3 million people annually. Treatment of this disease is difficult due to lack of appropriate medication and the growing problem of drug resistance. Natural compounds such as coumarins serve as complementary therapeutic agents in addition to the current treatment modalities. In this study, we have performed an in-silico screening of the coumarin derivatives and their anti-leishmanial properties has been explored both in-vitro and in-vivo. One of the compounds (compound 2) exhibited leishmanicidal activity and to further study its properties, nanoliposomal formulation of the compound was developed...
2016: PloS One
Yun Kyoung Ryu, Reilley P Mathena, Sanghee Lim, Minhye Kwak, Michael Xu, Cyrus D Mintz
BACKGROUND: Early postnatal exposure to general anesthetic agents causes a lasting impairment in learning and memory in animal models. One hypothesis to explain this finding is that exposure to anesthetic agents during critical points in neural development disrupts the formation of brain circuitry. Here, we explore the effects of sevoflurane on the neuronal growth cone, a specialization at the growing end of axons and dendrites that is responsible for the targeted growth that underlies connectivity between neurons...
October 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Joshua F Wiley, Bei Bei, Julienne E Bower, Annette L Stanton
OBJECTIVES: Allostatic load (AL) represents cumulative wear-and-tear on the body and is operationalized as a multisystem index of biomarkers. Allostatic load is associated with morbidities and mortality, leading to a growing body of literature that uses AL as an outcome in its own right. Psychosocial resources (PSRs), such as mastery and social support, may influence health outcomes in part via AL, and the current review seeks to characterize the relations between PSRs and AL. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted by searching PubMed, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Embase for studies examining the relation between PSR(s) and AL in humans...
October 20, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
Huilin Ou, Wei Yao, Nanping Wu, Frederick X C Wang, Tianhao Weng, Chengcong Han, Xiangyun Lu, Dongshan Yu, Haibo Wu, Linfang Cheng, Honglin Chen, Hangping Yao, Lanjuan Li
Developing a safe and effective H7N9 influenza vaccine was initiated in early spring 2013, following human infections with a novel avian influenza A (H7N9) virus. In this study, a candidate H7N9 vaccine seed strain is produced using reverse genetics, with HA and NA derived from a human H7N9 virus and the remaining genes from the PR8 backbone virus which grows well in eggs. We verified that the virulence and transmissibility of the recombinant H7N9 vaccine seed strain were decreased as compared to wild-type H7N9 virus, to levels comparable with PR8...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Sachin S Kumbhar, Ryan B O'Malley, Tracy J Robinson, Suresh Maximin, Neeraj Lalwani, David R Byrd, Carolyn L Wang
Optimal treatment of thyroid cancer is highly dependent on accurate staging of the extent of disease at presentation. Preoperative ultrasonography (US) is the most sensitive method for detecting metastatic lymph nodes and is recommended as part of the standard preoperative workup. Missed findings on preoperative scans may lead to understaging and inadequate surgical management, which subsequently predispose these patients to residual disease postoperatively and a higher risk for recurrence, possibly requiring repeat surgery...
October 21, 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Courtney M Giannini, Megan B Irby, Joseph A Skelton, Sabina B Gesell
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence supporting social network-based interventions for adolescents with obesity. This study's aim was to determine the feasibility of a social network-based intervention by assessing adolescents' friendship networks, willingness to involve friends in treatment, and how these factors influence enjoyment. METHODS: Adolescents (N = 42) were recruited from a tertiary care obesity clinic. Participants gave a list of closest friends, friendship characteristics, and which of their friends they would involve in treatment...
October 21, 2016: Childhood Obesity
Christian Weisstanner, Gerlinde M Gruber, Peter C Brugger, Christan Mitter, Mariana C Diogo, Gregor Kasprian, Daniela Prayer
Foetal MR now plays an important role in the clinical work-up of pregnant women. It is performed mainly at 1.5T. However, the desire to obtain a more precise foetal depiction or the fact that some institutions have access only to a 3T scanner, has resulted in a growing interest in performing foetal MR at 3T. The aim of this article is to provide a reference for the use of 3T MRI as a prenatal diagnostic method.
October 21, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Issmat I Kassem, Olugbenga Kehinde, Anand Kumar, Gireesh Rajashekara
Poultry is a major source of Campylobacter, which can cause foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. Additionally, poultry-associated Campylobacter can develop resistance to important antimicrobials, which increases the risk to public health. While broiler chickens have been the focus of many studies, the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter on layer farms has not received equal attention. However, the growing popularity of cage-free and organic layer farming necessitates a closer assessment of (1) the impact of these farming practices on the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter and (2) layers as a potential source for the transmission of these pathogens...
September 22, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Fengjiao Chen, Qishan Zhu, Yeyun Wang, Wei Cui, Xiaodong Su, Yanguang Li
Increasing attention has now been focused on the photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen evolution as a promising route to transform solar energy into chemical fuels. Silicon is one of the most studied PEC electrode materials, but its performance is still limited by its inherent PEC instability and electrochemical inertness toward water splitting. To achieve significant PEC activities, silicon-based photoelectrodes usually have to be coupled with proper cocatalysts, and thus formed semiconductor/cocatalyst interface represents a critical structural parameter in the rational design of efficient PEC devices...
October 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
B Lipe, R Vukas, J Mikhael
Multiple myeloma is the second most common type of blood cancer and remains incurable despite advances in therapy. Current therapy for multiple myeloma includes a phased-approach, often consisting of initial induction therapy, consolidation and maintenance therapy. With an ever-growing landscape of treatment options, the approach to optimal therapy has become increasingly complex. Specifically, controversy surrounds the optimal use and duration of maintenance therapy. We conducted a comprehensive literature search to analyze the most current literature and to provide recommendations for maintenance therapy in multiple myeloma...
October 21, 2016: Blood Cancer Journal
Lisa A Sawicki, April M Kloxin
Click chemistries have been investigated for use in numerous biomaterials applications, including drug delivery, tissue engineering, and cell culture. In particular, light-mediated click reactions, such as photoinitiated thiol-ene and thiol-yne reactions, afford spatiotemporal control over material properties and allow the design of systems with a high degree of user-directed property control. Fabrication and modification of hydrogel-based biomaterials using the precision afforded by light and the versatility offered by these thiol-X photoclick chemistries are of growing interest, particularly for the culture of cells within well-defined, biomimetic microenvironments...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Silvia Dal Santo, Mauro Commisso, Erica D'Incà, Andrea Anesi, Matteo Stocchero, Sara Zenoni, Stefania Ceoldo, Giovanni B Tornielli, Mario Pezzotti, Flavia Guzzo
Terroir refers to the combination of environmental factors that affect the characteristics of crops such as grapevine (Vitis vinifera) according to particular habitats and management practices. This article shows how certain terroir signatures can be detected in the berry metabolome and transcriptome of the grapevine cultivar Corvina using multivariate statistical analysis. The method first requires an appropriate sampling plan. In this case study, a specific clone of the Corvina cultivar was selected to minimize genetic differences, and samples were collected from seven vineyards representing three different macro-zones during three different growing seasons...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Silvia Serino, Giuseppe Riva
In addition to impairments in episodic and spatial memory, anosognosia (i.e., loss of awareness of the deficient aspect of own cognitive functioning) may be considered an important cognitive marker of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, although a growing body of interesting models have been proposed to explain this early symptom, what is still missing is a unifying framework of all the characteristic signs occurring in patients with AD that may guide the search for its causal neuropathological process and, ultimately, the etiological process...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Rabeea'h W Aslam, Vickie Bates, Yenal Dundar, Juliet Hounsome, Marty Richardson, Ashma Krishan, Rumona Dickson, Angela Boland, Eleanor Kotas, Joanne Fisher, Sudip Sikdar, Louise Robinson
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a growing public health concern, and is one of the most distinctive characteristics of all dementias. The timely recognition of dementia syndromes can be beneficial, as some causes of dementia are treatable and are fully or partially reversible. Several automated cognitive assessment tools for assessing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early dementia are now available. Proponents of these tests cite as benefits the tests' repeatability and robustness and the saving of clinicians' time...
October 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Masaki Matsushita, Kenichi Mishima, Ryusaku Esaki, Naoki Ishiguro, Kinji Ohno, Hiroshi Kitoh
OBJECTIVE Achondroplasia (ACH) is the most common short-limbed skeletal dysplasia caused by gain-of-function mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene. Foramen magnum stenosis (FMS) is one of the serious neurological complications in ACH. Through comprehensive drug screening, the authors identified that meclozine, an over-the-counter drug for motion sickness, inhibited activation of FGFR3 signaling. Oral administration of meclozine to the growing ACH mice promoted longitudinal bone growth, but it did not prevent FMS...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
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