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Prostate Cancer Screening Test

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338956/gender-identity-disparities-in-cancer-screening-behaviors
#1
Ariella R Tabaac, Megan E Sutter, Catherine S J Wall, Kellan E Baker
INTRODUCTION: Transgender (trans) and gender-nonconforming adults have reported reduced access to health care because of discrimination and lack of knowledgeable care. This study aimed to contribute to the nascent cancer prevention literature among trans and gender-nonconforming individuals by ascertaining rates of breast, cervical, prostate, and colorectal cancer screening behaviors by gender identity. METHODS: Publicly available de-identified data from the 2014-2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys were utilized to evaluate rates of cancer screenings by gender identity, while controlling for healthcare access, sociodemographics, and survey year...
January 12, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331214/the-stockholm-3-model-for-prostate-cancer-detection-algorithm-update-biomarker-contribution-and-reflex-test-potential
#2
Peter Ström, Tobias Nordström, Henrik Grönberg, Martin Eklund
BACKGROUND: It has been shown that the Stockholm-3 model (S3M) outperforms prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as a screening tool for prostate cancer. OBJECTIVE: To update the S3M, to give a detailed account of the value of each predictor in the S3M, and to evaluate the S3M as a reflex test for men with PSA ≥3ng/ml. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: During 2012-2015, the Stockholm-3 study evaluated the S3M relative to PSA as tests for Gleason score ≥7 prostate cancers among men aged 50-69 yr...
January 10, 2018: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329342/ternary-copper-ii-complex-nci60-screening-toxicity-studies-and-evaluation-of-efficacy-in-xenograft-models-of-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#3
Munirah Ahmad, Shazlan-Noor Suhaimi, Tai-Lin Chu, Norazlin Abdul Aziz, Noor-Kaslina Mohd Kornain, D S Samiulla, Kwok-Wai Lo, Chew-Hee Ng, Alan Soo-Beng Khoo
Copper(II) ternary complex, [Cu(phen)(C-dmg)(H2O)]NO3 was evaluated against a panel of cell lines, tested for in vivo efficacy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma xenograft models as well as for toxicity in NOD scid gamma mice. The Cu(II) complex displayed broad spectrum cytotoxicity against multiple cancer types, including lung, colon, central nervous system, melanoma, ovarian, and prostate cancer cell lines in the NCI-60 panel. The Cu(II) complex did not cause significant induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A and 1A enzymes but moderately inhibited CYP isoforms 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2B6, 2C8 and 3A4...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321576/the-microwell-mesh-a-high-throughput-3d-prostate-cancer-spheroid-and-drug-testing-platform
#4
E O Mosaad, K F Chambers, K Futrega, J A Clements, M R Doran
Treatment following early diagnosis of Prostate cancer (PCa) is increasingly successful, whilst the treatment of advanced and metastatic PCa remains challenging. A major limitation in the development of new therapies is the prediction of drug efficacy using in vitro models. Classic in vitro 2-dimensional (2D) cell monolayer cultures are hypersensitive to anti-cancer drugs. As a result, there has been a surge in the development of platforms that enable three dimensional (3D) cultures thought to better replicate natural physiology and better predict drug efficacy...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321194/polygenic-hazard-score-to-guide-screening-for-aggressive-prostate-cancer-development-and-validation-in-large-scale-cohorts
#5
Tyler M Seibert, Chun Chieh Fan, Yunpeng Wang, Verena Zuber, Roshan Karunamuni, J Kellogg Parsons, Rosalind A Eeles, Douglas F Easton, ZSofia Kote-Jarai, Ali Amin Al Olama, Sara Benlloch Garcia, Kenneth Muir, Henrik Grönberg, Fredrik Wiklund, Markus Aly, Johanna Schleutker, Csilla Sipeky, Teuvo Lj Tammela, Børge G Nordestgaard, Sune F Nielsen, Maren Weischer, Rasmus Bisbjerg, M Andreas Røder, Peter Iversen, Tim J Key, Ruth C Travis, David E Neal, Jenny L Donovan, Freddie C Hamdy, Paul Pharoah, Nora Pashayan, Kay-Tee Khaw, Christiane Maier, Walther Vogel, Manuel Luedeke, Kathleen Herkommer, Adam S Kibel, Cezary Cybulski, Dominika Wokolorczyk, Wojciech Kluzniak, Lisa Cannon-Albright, Hermann Brenner, Katarina Cuk, Kai-Uwe Saum, Jong Y Park, Thomas A Sellers, Chavdar Slavov, Radka Kaneva, Vanio Mitev, Jyotsna Batra, Judith A Clements, Amanda Spurdle, Manuel R Teixeira, Paula Paulo, Sofia Maia, Hardev Pandha, Agnieszka Michael, Andrzej Kierzek, David S Karow, Ian G Mills, Ole A Andreassen, Anders M Dale
OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate a genetic tool to predict age of onset of aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) and to guide decisions of who to screen and at what age. DESIGN: Analysis of genotype, PCa status, and age to select single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with diagnosis. These polymorphisms were incorporated into a survival analysis to estimate their effects on age at diagnosis of aggressive PCa (that is, not eligible for surveillance according to National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines; any of Gleason score ≥7, stage T3-T4, PSA (prostate specific antigen) concentration ≥10 ng/L, nodal metastasis, distant metastasis)...
January 10, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304734/effects-of-pre-notification-invitation-length-questionnaire-length-and-reminder-on-participation-rate-a-quasi-randomised-controlled-trial
#6
Marie Koitsalu, Martin Eklund, Jan Adolfsson, Henrik Grönberg, Yvonne Brandberg
BACKGROUND: Improving participation rates in epidemiologic studies using questionnaires and biological sampling is important for the generalizability of the outcome. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of pre-notification, invitation length, questionnaire length, and reminder on participation rate and to investigate whether some factors contributed to participants doing both the questionnaire and blood sampling as oppose to only one part. METHODS: Our study was embedded within the pilot testing of a large population-based study about prostate cancer screening...
January 5, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303624/optimization-of-risk-stratification-in-localized-prostate-cancer
#7
Alicia Katherine Morgans
The Oncology Grand Rounds series is designed to place original reports published in the Journal into clinical context. A case presentation is followed by a description of diagnostic and management challenges, a review of the relevant literature, and a summary of the authors' suggested management approaches. The goal of this series is to help readers better understand how to apply the results of key studies, including those published in Journal of Clinical Oncology, to patients seen in their own clinical practice...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302046/p53-status-in-the-primary-tumor-predicts-efficacy-of-subsequent-abiraterone-and-enzalutamide-in-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#8
Benjamin L Maughan, Liana B Guedes, Kenneth Boucher, Gaurav Rajoria, Zach Liu, Szczepan Klimek, Roberto Zoino, Emmanuel S Antonarakis, Tamara L Lotan
BACKGROUND: We tested whether tissue-based analysis of p53 and PTEN genomic status in primary tumors is predictive for subsequent sensitivity to abiraterone and enzalutamide in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 309 consecutive patients with CRPC treated with abiraterone or enzalutamide. Of these, 101 men (33%) had available primary tumor tissue for analysis. We screened for deleterious TP53 missense mutations and PTEN deletions using genetically validated immunohistochemical assays for nuclear accumulation of p53 protein and PTEN protein loss, with sequencing confirmation of TP53 mutations in a subset...
January 4, 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298653/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-novel-triazoles-linked-7-hydroxycoumarin-as-potent-cytotoxic-agents
#9
Aashiq Hussain, Mushtaq A Qurishi, Abid Hamid, S Koul
Cancer is regarded as second leading cause of death worldwide. Therefore, there is a high demand for the discovery, development and improvement of novel anti-cancer agents which could efficiently prevent proliferative pathways and clonal expansion of cells. In view of this, a new series of bioactive scaffolds viz triazoles linked 7-hydroxycoumarin (1) were synthesized using click chemistry approach. All the synthesized compounds were screened for cytotoxicity against a panel of seven different human cancer cell lines viz...
December 29, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297703/cancer-breath-testing-a-patent-review
#10
K M Mohibul Kabir, William A Donald
Human breath can contain thousands of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semi-volatile compounds that are related to metabolism and other biochemical processes. The presence of cancer cells can affect the identity and abundances of chemicals in breath when compared to those in healthy control subjects, which can be used to indicate the likelihood of a patient having cancer. Recently, the chemical analysis of exhaled breath from patients has been shown to be promising for diagnosing many different types of cancers, including lung, breast, colon, head and neck and prostate and pre-cancerous conditions (dysplasia)...
January 3, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291169/with-increasing-trends-of-prostate-cancer-in-the-saudi-arabia-and-arab-world-should-we-start-screening-programs
#11
REVIEW
Mostafa A Arafa, Danny M Rabah
Incidence rate for prostate cancer in the Arab World is significantly lower than United States and Europe, it ranges from 5.5% to 39.2%. However, the incidence and the number of deaths is expected to increase. In Saudi Arabia, the crude incidence rate and age standardized incidence rate of prostate cancer are reported to be steadily increasing in between 2001-2008. Only two screening trials were attempted in 2001 and 2009 which yielded an incidence rate of 1.17% and 2.5% respectively. Men in the Arab world are sharing a common characteristic of poor knowledge and poor attitude towards prostate cancer examination and screening practices...
December 10, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288137/a-prospective-cohort-and-extended-comprehensive-cohort-design-provided-insights-about-the-generalizability-of-a-pragmatic-trial-the-protect-prostate-cancer-trial
#12
Jenny L Donovan, Grace J Young, Eleanor I Walsh, Chris Metcalfe, J Athene Lane, Richard M Martin, Marta K Tazewell, Michael Davis, Tim J Peters, Emma L Turner, Nicola Mills, Hanan Khazragui, Tarnjit K Khera, David E Neal, Freddie C Hamdy
OBJECTIVES: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) deliver robust internally valid evidence but generalizability is often neglected. Design features built into the ProtecT RCT of treatments for localized prostate cancer (PCa) provided insights into its generalizability. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Population-based cluster-randomization created a prospective study of PSA-testing and a comprehensive-cohort study including groups choosing treatment or excluded from the RCT, as well as those randomized...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288122/worse-urinary-sexual-and-bowel-function-cause-emotional-distress-and-vice-versa-in-men-treated-for-prostate-cancer
#13
Heather Orom, Caitlin Biddle, Willie Underwood, Christian J Nelson
PURPOSE: Definitive therapy for prostate cancer (e.g., surgery, radiotherapy) often has side effects, including urinary, sexual, and bowel dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to test whether urinary, sexual, and bowel function contribute to emotional distress during the first two years post treatment, and whether distress may, in turn, decrease function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants were 1,148 men diagnosed with clinically localized disease who were treated with either surgery (63%) or radiotherapy (37%)...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288007/overexpression-of-semaphorin-3a-in-patients-with-urothelial-cancer
#14
Zahava Vadasz, Jacob Rubinstein, Jacob Bejar, Hilla Sheffer, Sarel Halachmi
OBJECTIVE: A highly sensitive and specific urine marker for the detection of recurrent urothelial cancer and for screening healthy population or people at risk for urothelial cancer has not been found yet. As urine cytology is not sensitive enough, patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer need lifelong follow-up involving multiple invasive cystoscopies. Our aims of study were to examine the expression of semaphorin 3A in urothelial cancer patients and to evaluate semaphorin 3A as a potential marker for urothelial cancer...
December 26, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286241/multiplexed-detection-of-tumor-markers-with-multicolor-polymer-dot-based-immunochromatography-test-strip
#15
Chia-Chia Fang, Chia-Cheng Chou, Yong-Quan Yang, Wei-Kai Tsai, Yeng-Tseng Wang, Yang-Hsiang Chan
There have been ongoing efforts to develop more sensitive and fast quantitative screening of cancer markers by use of fluorometric immunochromatographic test strip (ICTS) since the remarkable advances in fluorescent nanomaterials. Semiconducting polymer dots (Pdots) have recently emerged as a new type of biocompatible fluorescent probes with extraordinary brightness which is suitable for biological and clinical use. Here we developed Pdot-based ICTS for quantitative rapid screening of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in 10 min...
December 29, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284719/cross-sectional-analyses-of-participation-in-cancer-screening-and-use-of-hormone-replacement-therapy-and-medications-in-meat-eaters-and-vegetarians-the-epic-oxford-study
#16
Tammy Y N Tong, Paul N Appleby, Kathryn E Bradbury, Timothy J Key
OBJECTIVES: To examine differences in health-related behaviours such as screening or testing for cancer, use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and use of other medications in different diet groups. DESIGN: We studied 31 260 participants across four diet groups (18 155 meat eaters, 5012 fish eaters, 7179 vegetarians, 914 vegans) in the UK EPIC-Oxford cohort. Information was collected in 5-year (around 2000-2003) or 10-year (around 2007) follow-up questionnaires regarding participation in breast screening, cervical screening, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, use of HRT and use of medications for the past 4 weeks...
December 27, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284055/impact-of-numeracy-on-understanding-of-prostate-cancer-risk-reduction-in-psa-screening
#17
Kevin Koo, Charles D Brackett, Ellen H Eisenberg, Kelly A Kieffer, Elias S Hyams
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer in men of average risk remains controversial. Patients' ability to incorporate risk reduction data into their decision-making may depend on their numeracy. We assessed the impact of patients' numeracy on their understanding of the risk reduction benefits of PSA screening. Men attending a general internal medicine clinic were invited to complete a survey. Four versions of the survey each included a three-item numeracy test and PSA risk reduction data, framed one of four ways: absolute (ARR) versus relative risk reduction (RRR), with or without baseline risk (BR)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278842/estimating-the-sensitivity-of-a-prostate-cancer-screening-programme-for-different-psa-cut-off-levels-a-uk-case-study
#18
Jose Leal, Nicky J Welton, Richard M Martin, Jenny Donovan, Freddie Hamdy, David Neal, Sian Noble, Athene Lane, Jane Wolstenholme
INTRODUCTION: Policy decisions about prostate cancer screening require data on the natural history of histological cancers and the resulting impact of screening. However, the gold standard procedure required to identify true positive histological cancer is a full autopsy of the gland which is not possible in screening studies, leading to verification bias. We aim to estimate the sensitivity of a prostate cancer screening round (PSA result to diagnosis) relative to histological cancer...
December 23, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260910/the-association-between-the-fto-rs9939609-variant-and-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma-risk-a-case-control-study
#19
Mina S Khella, Ahmed M Salem, Omar Abdel-Rahman, Amr S Saad
AIMS: Despite the established link between malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) and asbestos exposure, genetic risk factors may play a key role in MPM pathogenesis. The rs9939609 polymorphism in the FTO gene has recently been implicated as a risk factor for some types of cancer, such as breast, pancreatic, and prostate cancers. FTO variation is associated with altered adipocytokine expression and oxidative stress inflammation, which may influence asbestos mediated-carcinogenesis. This is the first study to investigate a possible association between this polymorphism and MPM risk...
December 20, 2017: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258490/cytotoxic-antioxidative-genotoxic-and-antigenotoxic-effects-of-horchata-beverage-of-south-ecuador
#20
Natalia Bailon-Moscoso, Fani Tinitana, Ruth Martínez-Espinosa, Andrea Jaramillo-Velez, Alejandra Palacio-Arpi, Jessica Aguilar-Hernandez, Juan Carlos Romero-Benavides
BACKGROUND: "Horchata" is an herbal mixture infusion consumed in Southern Ecuador; 66% of its plants are anti-inflammatory medicinal plant, and 51% are analgesics. Anti-inflammatory substances can prevent carcinogenesis mediated by cytotoxic effects and can prevent DNA damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and apoptotic/antigenotoxic effects of horchata as well as its mechanism. METHODS: Nine different varieties of horchata were prepared in the traditional way and then freeze-dried...
December 19, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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