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Prostate Cancer Screening Test

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943200/determinants-of-the-overuse-of-imaging-in-low-risk-prostate-cancer-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Allison H Oakes, Ritu Sharma, Madeline Jackson, Jodi B Segal
BACKGROUND: The overuse of radiologic services, where imaging tests are provided in circumstances where the propensity for harm exceeds the propensity for benefit, comprises a risk to patient safety and a burden on health care systems. Advanced imaging in the staging of low-risk prostate cancer is considered an overused procedure by many professional societies, yet the determinants that drive this phenomenon are not fully appreciated. METHODS: We systematically searched published literature within MEDLINE and Embase from January 1998 to March 2017...
September 21, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925877/4-aryl-heteroaryl-4h-fused-pyrans-as-anti-proliferative-agents-design-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation
#2
Dinesh Kumar, Gurpreet Singh, Pooja Sharma, Arem Quayum, Girish Mahajan, M J Mintoo, Shashank Kumar Singh, Dilip Manikrao Mondhe, Pms Bedi, Subheet K Jain, Girish Kumar Gupta
The current study is focused on the design and synthesis of 4-aryl/heteroaryl-4H-fused pyrans as anti-proliferative agents. All the synthesized molecules were screened against a panel of human carcinoma cell lines. Significant inhibition was exhibited by the compounds against HCT-116 (Colon) and PC-3 (Prostate) cell lines while A-549 (Lung) cell lines, MiaPaCa-2 (Pancreatic) cell lines and HL-60 (Leukemia Cancer) cell lines were almost resistant to the exposure of the test compounds. Compound FP-(v)n displayed noteworthy cytotoxicity towards HCT-116 malignant cells with IC50 value of 0...
September 18, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918559/prostate-cancer-screening-by-prostate-specific-antigen-psa-a-relevant-approach-for-the-small-population-of-the-cayman-islands
#3
Shravana Kumar Jyoti, Camille Blacke, Pallavi Patil, Vibha P Amblihalli, Amanda Nicholson
INTRODUCTION: The common tool for diagnosing prostate cancer is prostate-specific antigen (PSA), but the high sensitivity and low specificity of PSA testing are the problems in clinical practice. There are no proper guidelines to investigate the suspected prostate cancer in the Cayman Islands. We correlated PSA levels with the incidence of prostate cancers by tissue diagnosis and proposed logical protocol for prostate screening by using PSA test in this small population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 165 Afro Caribbean individuals who had prostate biopsy done after the investigations for PSA levels from year 2005 to 2015 were studied retrospectively...
September 16, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917937/pyrazole-based-compounds-in-chitosan-liposomal-emulsion-for-antimicrobial-cotton-fabrics
#4
Ahmed Nada, Marwa Al-Moghazy, Ahmed A F Soliman, Gehan M T Rashwan, Taghreed Hosny Ahmed Eldawy, Ashraf Abd Elhakim Hassan, Galal Hosni Sayed
The chemistry of pyrazoles has gained increasing attention due to its diverse pharmacological properties such as antiviral, antagonist, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-prostate cancer, herbicidal, acaricidal and insecticidal activities. 1-Phenyl pyrazole-3, 5-diamine, 4-[2-(4-methylphenyl) diazenyl] and 1H- pyrazole-3 (1), 5-diamine, 4-[2-(4-methylphenyl) diazenyl] (2) were synthesized, characterized and encapsulated into liposomal chitosan emulsions for textile finishing. The chemical modifications of cotton fabrics were demonstrated by infrared analysis...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912198/frequency-of-low-value-care-in-alberta-canada-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#5
Finlay A McAlister, Meng Lin, Jeff Bakal, Stafford Dean
OBJECTIVE: To determine how frequently 10 low-value services highlighted by Choosing Wisely are done and what factors influence their provision. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study using routinely collected health data from five linked data sets from 2012 to 2015 in the Canadian province of Alberta to determine the frequency with which 10 low-value services were provided. RESULTS: Between 2012 and 2015, 162 143 people (4% of all 3 814 536 adult Albertans and 5% of the 3 423 135 who saw a physician at least once in that time frame) received at least one of the 10 low-value services, including 29...
September 14, 2017: BMJ Quality & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910812/what-can-be-expected-from-prostate-cancer-biomarkers-a-clinical-perspective
#6
Piotr Zapała, Bartosz Dybowski, Sławomir Poletajew, Piotr Radziszewski
Along with significant advances in prostate cancer biology research, we also observe the rapid development of modern diagnostic tests. New biomarkers are derived to detect disease while it is organ-confined to stratify the risk and to aid clinical decision-making. Majority of these tools have already been validated clinically, but only a few have received premarket clearance and administration approval. Superiority of novel tests is visible not only in improved detection accuracy but predominantly in the assessment of tumour aggressiveness and selection of patients eligible for conservative management...
September 15, 2017: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904679/knowledge-attitudes-and-screening-practices-regarding-prostatic-diseases-among-men-older-than-40-years-a-population-based-study-in-southwest-nigeria
#7
Rufus Wale Ojewola, Ezekiel Sofela Oridota, Olanrewaju Samuel Balogun, Ezra Olatunde Ogundare, Taiwo Opeyemi Alabi, Oluseyi Omotola Banjo, Adeyinka Laoye, Babatunde Adetunmbi, Bamidele Oludele Adebayo, Rotimi Oluyombo
INTRODUCTION: Despite the global increase in awareness of prostatic diseases resulting from widespread availability of screening tools, there is no evidence that the knowledge, attitudes and screening practices of Nigerian men have improved regarding prostatic diseases. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study amongst 305 community-dwelling men. Respondents were selected using multi-staged sampling techniques. Knowledge, attitudes and screening practices were determined based on responses to a semi-structured KAP questionnaire...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903742/can-you-un-ring-the-bell-a-qualitative-study-of-how-affect-influences-cancer-screening-decisions
#8
S Michelle Driedger, Gary Annable, Melissa Brouwers, Donna Turner, Ryan Maier
BACKGROUND: The belief that early detection is the best protection against cancer underlies cancer screening. Emerging research now suggests harms associated with early detection may sometimes outweigh the benefits. Governments, cancer agencies, and organizations that publish screening guidelines have found it is difficult to "un-ring the bell" on the message that "early detection is your best protection" because of its widespread communication and enduring resonance. This study explores affective factors-and their interplay with relevant analytical factors-in public/laypersons' decision making about cancer screening...
September 13, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887683/lethal-outcome-after-pelvic-salvage-radiotherapy-in-a%C3%A2-patient-with-prostate-cancer-due-to-increased-radiosensitivity-case-report-and-literature-review
#9
Antje Fahrig, T Koch, M Lenhart, P Rieckmann, R Fietkau, Luitpold Distel, B Schuster
BACKGROUND: In general, late side effects after salvage radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer are below 10%. Patients with impaired DNA repair ability and genetic instability can have significantly increased reactions after RT. CASE, CLINICAL FOLLOW-UP, AND EXAMINATION: We present a patient who experienced severe side effects after additive RT for prostate cancer and died from the complications 25 months after RT. Imaging (MR) is shown as well as three-color fluorescence in situ hybridization...
September 8, 2017: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881653/identification-of-novel-small-molecule-beclin-1-mimetics-activating-autophagy
#10
Jia Yu, Lan Lan, Seth J Lewin, Steven A Rogers, Anuradha Roy, Xiaoqing Wu, Philip Gao, John Karanicolas, Jeffrey Aubé, Baiwang Sun, Liang Xu
Anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL could block autophagy by binding to Beclin 1 protein, an essential inducer of autophagy. Compounds mimicking Beclin 1 might be able to disrupt Bcl-xL/2-Beclin 1 interaction, free out Beclin 1, and thus trigger autophagy. In order to identify small molecule Beclin 1 mimetics, a fluorescence polarization-based high-throughput screening of 50,316 compounds was carried out with a Z' score of 0.82 ± 0.05, and an outcome of 58 hits. After the structure analysis, three acridine analogues were unveiled and confirmed using the fluorescence polarization assay and the surface plasmon resonance assay...
August 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875497/cancer-screening-of-older-adults-in-israel-according-to-life-expectancy-cross-sectional-study
#11
Ronen Bareket, Mara A Schonberg, Doron Comaneshter, Yochai Schonmann, Michal Shani, Arnon Cohen, Shlomo Vinker
OBJECTIVES: To examine over-screening of older Israelis for colon and breast cancer. DESIGN: Cross sectional. SETTING: Clalit Health Services (CHS), Israel's largest health maintenance organization (HMO), provides care for more than half of the country's population and operates a national age-based programs for cancer screening. PARTICIPANTS: All community-dwelling members aged 65 to 79 in 2014 (N = 370,876). MEASUREMENTS: We used CHS data warehouse to evaluate cancer screening during 2014...
September 5, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873162/mutation-detection-in-patients-with-advanced-cancer-by-universal-sequencing-of-cancer-related-genes-in-tumor-and-normal-dna-vs-guideline-based-germline-testing
#12
Diana Mandelker, Liying Zhang, Yelena Kemel, Zsofia K Stadler, Vijai Joseph, Ahmet Zehir, Nisha Pradhan, Angela Arnold, Michael F Walsh, Yirong Li, Anoop R Balakrishnan, Aijazuddin Syed, Meera Prasad, Khedoudja Nafa, Maria I Carlo, Karen A Cadoo, Meg Sheehan, Megan H Fleischut, Erin Salo-Mullen, Magan Trottier, Steven M Lipkin, Anne Lincoln, Semanti Mukherjee, Vignesh Ravichandran, Roy Cambria, Jesse Galle, Wassim Abida, Marcia E Arcila, Ryma Benayed, Ronak Shah, Kenneth Yu, Dean F Bajorin, Jonathan A Coleman, Steven D Leach, Maeve A Lowery, Julio Garcia-Aguilar, Philip W Kantoff, Charles L Sawyers, Maura N Dickler, Leonard Saltz, Robert J Motzer, Eileen M O'Reilly, Howard I Scher, Jose Baselga, David S Klimstra, David B Solit, David M Hyman, Michael F Berger, Marc Ladanyi, Mark E Robson, Kenneth Offit
Importance: Guidelines for cancer genetic testing based on family history may miss clinically actionable genetic changes with established implications for cancer screening or prevention. Objective: To determine the proportion and potential clinical implications of inherited variants detected using simultaneous sequencing of the tumor and normal tissue ("tumor-normal sequencing") compared with genetic test results based on current guidelines. Design, Setting, and Participants: From January 2014 until May 2016 at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 10 336 patients consented to tumor DNA sequencing...
September 5, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869684/prevalence-and-associations-of-general-practitioners-ordering-of-non-symptomatic-prostate-specific-antigen-tests-a-cross-sectional-analysis
#13
Parker Magin, Amanda Tapley, Andrew Davey, Simon Morgan, Kim Henderson, Elizabeth Holliday, Jean Ball, Nigel Catzikiris, Katie Mulquiney, Neil Spike, Rohan Kerr, Mieke van Driel
AIMS: Testing for asymptomatic prostate cancer with prostate specific antigen (PSA) is of uncertain benefit. Most relevant authorities recommend against screening, and for informed patient choice. We aimed to establish the prevalence and associations of "non-symptomatic" PSA-testing of men aged 40 or older by early-career general practitioners (GP registrars). METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis from the ReCEnT cohort study of registrars' consultations, 2010-2014 (analysed in 2016)...
September 4, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868131/circulating-tumor-cells-silent-predictors-of-metastasis
#14
REVIEW
LanLan Zhou, David T Dicker, Elizabeth Matthew, Wafik S El-Deiry, R Katherine Alpaugh
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) were added to the arsenal of clinical testing in 2004 for three cancer types: metastatic breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer. CTCs were found to be an independent prognostic indicator of survival for these three diseases. Multiple enrichment/isolation strategies have been developed and numerous assay applications have been performed using both single and pooled captured/enriched CTCs. We have reviewed the isolation techniques and touched on many analyses. The true utility of a CTC is that it acts as a "silent" predictor of metastatic disease...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858840/pharmacological-activities-of-some-triazinopyrazolothieno-pyrimidine-derivatives
#15
Saleh A Bahashwan
Triazinopyrazolothieno pyrimidine derivatives 1-5 were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anticancer activities and acute toxicity. Anti-inflammatory activity of the compounds was studied using the carrageenan test. All tested compounds showed analgesic activity, 3-methoxycarbonyl-4,6-dimethyl-8-[(N-methylindolyl)methyl] pyrimido [5',4':4,5]thieno [3',2'-3,4]pyrazolo [5,1-c]triazine (4) showed activity comparable to that of diclofenac. Compounds 1-5 were also screened for anticancer activity on a human lung cancer cell line (A549) and a human prostate cancer cell line (DU145) using the MTT micro-cultured tetrazolium assay method...
September 1, 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843267/screening-for-circulating-tumour-cells-allows-early-detection-of-cancer-and-monitoring-of-treatment-effectiveness-an-observational-study
#16
Karin Ried, Peter Eng, Avni Sali
Background: Circulating-Tumour-Cells (CTC) provide a blood biomarker for early carcinogenesis, cancer progression and treatment effectiveness. An increase in CTCs is associated with cancer progression, a CTC decrease with cancer containment or remission. Several technologies have been developed to identify CTC, including the validated Isolation-by-Size-of-Epithelial-Tumour (ISET, Rarecells) technology, combining blood filtration and microscopy using standard histo-pathological criteria. Methods: This observational study compared CTC count to cancer status and cancer risk, by monitoring treatment effectiveness in cancer patients and by screening for CTC in asymptomatic patients with risk factors, including family history of cancer...
August 27, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842211/the-effects-of-beginning-population-based-psa-screening-at-age-40
#17
Christopher J Weight, Vikram M Narayan, Daniel Smith, Simon P Kim, R Jeffrey Karnes
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate population-based CaP testing of men in their 40s, given the paucity of prospective data evaluating the consequences of PSA testing in younger men for prostate cancer (CaP). METHODS: 1052 men in their 40s were followed longitudinally for prostate outcomes, from 1990 to 2010. A random subset of 268 men was selected to undergo biennial CaP testing including: PSA testing, transrectal ultrasound, and a digital rectal exam (DRE). A representative population of 609 men with a subset of 159 men who also began CaP testing in their 50s was also evaluated as a comparison group...
August 22, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822325/are-there-regional-tendencies-toward-controversial-screening-practices-a-study-of-prostate-and-breast-cancer-screening-in-a-medicare-population
#18
Eric Raffin, Tracy Onega, Julie Bynum, Andrea Austin, Donald Carmichael, Kristen Bronner, Philip Goodney, Elias S Hyams
INTRODUCTION: Prostate and breast cancer screening in older patients continue to be controversial. Balancing the desire for early detection with avoidance of over-diagnosis has led to competing and contradictory guidelines for both practices. Despite similarities, it is not known how these screening practices are related at the regional level. In this study, we examined how screening PSA and mammography are related within healthcare regions, and, to better understand what may be driving these practices, whether they are associated with local intensity of care...
August 16, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813112/what-do-cochrane-systematic-reviews-say-about-the-clinical-effectiveness-of-screening-and-diagnostic-tests-for-cancer
#19
André Tito Pereira Bueno, Vladimir Lisboa Capelasso, Rafael Leite Pacheco, Carolina de Oliveira Cruz Latorraca, Tiago Biachi de Castria, Daniela Vianna Pachito, Rachel Riera
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The purpose of screening tests for cancer is to detect it at an early stage in order to increase the chances of treatment. However, their unrestrained use may lead to unnecessary examinations, overdiagnosis and higher costs. It is thus necessary to evaluate their clinical effects in terms of benefits and harm. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review of Cochrane systematic reviews, carried out in the Discipline of Evidence-Based Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo...
July 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804579/validity-of-prostate-health-index-and-percentage-of-2-pro-prostate-specific-antigen-as-novel-biomarkers-in-the-diagnosis-of-prostate-cancer-omani-tertiary-hospitals-experience
#20
Safana S Al Saidi, Nafila B Al Riyami, Mohammed S Al Marhoon, Mohammed S Al Saraf, Salim S Al Busaidi, Riad Bayoumi, Waad-Allah S Mula-Abed
OBJECTIVES: Prostate cancer is the leading cancer in older men. The Ministry of Health Oman Cancer Incidence Registry 2013 lists cancer of the prostate as the first most common cancer in males. Therefore, early detection is important and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is widely used as an established laboratory test. However, despite its wide use, its value in screening, particularly in asymptomatic males, is controversial when considering the risks and benefits of early detection. METHODS: This prospective, observational study included 136 males (67...
July 2017: Oman Medical Journal
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