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Prostate Cancer Screening Test

Stacey A Fedewa, Ted Gansler, Robert Smith, Ann Goding Sauer, Richard Wender, Otis W Brawley, Ahmedin Jemal
PURPOSE: Previous studies report infrequent use of shared decision making for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing. It is unknown whether this pattern has changed recently considering increased emphasis on shared decision making in prostate cancer screening recommendations. Thus, the objective of this study is to examine recent changes in shared decision making. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study among men aged 50 years and older in the United States using 2010 and 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data (n = 9,598)...
March 2018: Annals of Family Medicine
Veronica L Cox, Anas A Saeed Bamashmos, Wai Chin Foo, Shiva Gupta, Sireesha Yedururi, Naveen Garg, Hyunseon Christine Kang
Lynch syndrome is the most common hereditary cancer syndrome, the most common cause of heritable colorectal cancer, and the only known heritable cause of endometrial cancer. Other cancers associated with Lynch syndrome include cancers of the ovary, stomach, urothelial tract, and small bowel, and less frequently, cancers of the brain, biliary tract, pancreas, and prostate. The oncogenic tendency of Lynch syndrome stems from a set of genomic alterations of mismatch repair proteins. Defunct mismatch repair proteins cause unusually high instability of regions of the genome called microsatellites...
March 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Visalini Nair-Shalliker, Albert Bang, Marianne Weber, David E Goldsbury, Michael Caruana, Jon Emery, Emily Banks, Karen Canfell, Dianne L O'Connell, David P Smith
Australia has one of the highest incidence rates of prostate cancer (PC) worldwide, due in part to widespread prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing. We aimed to identify factors associated with PSA testing in Australian men without a diagnosis of prostate cancer or prior prostate disease. Participants were men joining the 45 and Up Study in 2006-2009, aged ≥45 years at recruitment. Self-completed questionnaires were linked to cancer registrations, hospitalisations, health services data and deaths. Men with a history of PC, radical prostatectomy or a "monitoring" PSA test for prostate disease were excluded...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nina Klemann, Martin Andreas Røder, John Thomas Helgstrand, Klaus Brasso, Birgitte G Toft, Ben Vainer, Peter Iversen
OBJECTIVE: Incidence rates of prostate cancer in Denmark resemble those of countries that endorse prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening. So far, no studies have described the consequences of PSA testing on diagnostic activity on a population level. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency of systematic transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy (TRUS-gb) activity, including rebiopsy rates, in Denmark between 1995 and 2011. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All men who underwent TRUS-gb during the period were identified in the Danish Prostate Cancer Registry...
March 8, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Urology
Richard M Martin, Jenny L Donovan, Emma L Turner, Chris Metcalfe, Grace J Young, Eleanor I Walsh, J Athene Lane, Sian Noble, Steven E Oliver, Simon Evans, Jonathan A C Sterne, Peter Holding, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Peter Brindle, Naomi J Williams, Elizabeth M Hill, Siaw Yein Ng, Jessica Toole, Marta K Tazewell, Laura J Hughes, Charlotte F Davies, Joanna C Thorn, Elizabeth Down, George Davey Smith, David E Neal, Freddie C Hamdy
Importance: Prostate cancer screening remains controversial because potential mortality or quality-of-life benefits may be outweighed by harms from overdetection and overtreatment. Objective: To evaluate the effect of a single prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening intervention and standardized diagnostic pathway on prostate cancer-specific mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Cluster Randomized Trial of PSA Testing for Prostate Cancer (CAP) included 419 582 men aged 50 to 69 years and was conducted at 573 primary care practices across the United Kingdom...
March 6, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Jérôme Viguier, Jean-François Morère, Xavier Pivot, Chantal Touboul, Christine Lhomel, Sébastien Couraud, Thibault de La Motte Rouge, François Eisinger
BACKGROUND: The EDIFICE surveys have assessed cancer screening behavior in the French population since 2005. METHODS: The 2016 edition was conducted among a representative sample of 1501 individuals (age, 50-75 years). The current analysis focuses on breast, colorectal, prostate, lung, and cervical cancer screening. RESULTS: The rate of women (50 to 74 years) declaring having had at least one breast cancer screening test in their lifetime remained stable and high between 2005 and 2016...
March 5, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Jean-François Morère, François Eisinger, Chantal Touboul, Christine Lhomel, Sébastien Couraud, Jérôme Viguier
BACKGROUND: We studied cancer screening over time and social vulnerability via surveys of representative populations. METHODS: Individuals aged 50-75 years with no personal history of cancer were questioned about lifetime participation in screening tests, compliance (adherence to recommended intervals [colorectal, breast and cervical cancer]) and opportunistic screening (prostate and lung cancer). RESULTS: The proportion of vulnerable/non-vulnerable individuals remained stable between 2011 and 2016...
March 5, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Mark H Ebell, Thuy Nhu Thai, Kyle J Royalty
Background: Recommendations regarding cancer screening vary from country to country, and may also vary within countries depending on the organization making the recommendations. The goal of this study was to summarize the cancer screening recommendations from the 21 countries with the highest per capita spending on healthcare. Main body: Cancer screening guidelines were identified for each country based on a review of the medical literature, internet searches, and contact with key informants in most countries...
2018: Public Health Reviews
S Campbell, A Gentry-Maharaj
Ovarian cancer is a low-prevalence postmenopausal cancer with a high mortality rate and is the fifth most lethal cancer in women. The most common serous subtype with TP53 mutations spreads rapidly throughout the peritoneal cavity (stage III/IV) when 5-year survival is 10%. If diagnosed while confined to the ovary (stage I), the survival rate exceeds 90%. This is the rationale for screening. Annual transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) scans used as a primary screening modality or as a second-line test following primary screening with serum CA125 (multimodal) have been investigated in several trials...
March 1, 2018: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
Seyedeh Maryam Seyedolmohadessin, Mohammad Taghi Akbari, Zahra Nourmohammadi, Abbas Basiri, Gholamreza Pourmand
Background: Prostate cancer is the second form of cancer among men worldwide. For early cancer detection, we should identify tumors in initial stages before the physical signs become visible. The present study aims to evaluate the diagnostic value of cell-free DNA (cfDNA), its comparison with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level in prostate cancer screening and also in patients with localized prostate cancer, metastatic form, and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Methods: The participants of this study were selected from 126 patients with genitourinary symptoms suspected prostate cancer, rising PSA, and/or abnormal rectal examination results and 10 healthy subjects as controls...
February 24, 2018: Iranian Biomedical Journal
Gianpaolo Perletti, Elena Monti, Vittorio Magri, Tommaso Cai, Anne Cleves, Alberto Trinchieri, Emanuele Montanari
OBJECTIVE: The main outcome of this review was the association between a history of clinical chronic prostatitis (NIH category II or III) and a histologically confirmed diagnosis of prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Crude odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to analyze dichotomous data. For analysis of pooled data we adopted a random-effects model and the inverse variance weighing method. Heterogeneity was assessed by calculating the I2 value...
December 31, 2017: Archivio Italiano di Urologia, Andrologia
Michael A Maccini, Nicholas J Westfall, Adrie Van Bokhoven, Marshall Scott Lucia, Wendy Poage, Paul D Maroni, Shandra S Wilson, Leonard Michael Glodé, Paul Arangua, Jay Newmark, Mitchell Steiner, Priya N Werahera, Elward David Crawford
BACKGROUND: The 4Kscore is a new commercially available blood-based diagnostic test which predicts risk for aggressive, clinically significant prostate cancer on prostate biopsy. The 4Kscore is currently restricted to patients who have not had a digital rectal exam (DRE) in the previous 96 h, owing to prior mixed data suggesting that prostate specific antigen (PSA) isoforms may increase by a statistically significant-if not necessarily clinically significant-amount shortly after DRE...
February 19, 2018: Prostate
Pia Kirkegaard, Adrian Edwards, Trine Laura Overgaard Nielsen, Torben Falck Ørntoft, Karina Dalsgaard Sørensen, Michael Borre, Flemming Bro
BACKGROUND: Most health authorities do not recommend screening for prostate cancer with PSA tests in asymptomatic patients who are not at increased risk. However, opportunistic screening for prostate cancer is still wanted by many patients and it is widely used in primary care clinics, with potential for overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Better tools for risk assessment have been called for, to better target such opportunistic screening. Our aim was to explore perceptions about prostate cancer risk and subsequent opportunistic screening among patients who were not at increased risk of prostate cancer after a first PSA test plus a genetic lifetime risk assessment...
February 17, 2018: BMC Family Practice
Bogdan-Alexandru Manole, Daniel V Wakefield, Austin P Dove, Caleb R Dulaney, Samuel R Marcrom, David L Schwartz, Michael R Farmer
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to survey the accessibility and quality of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening information from National Cancer Institute (NCI) cancer center and public health organization Web sites. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We surveyed the December 1, 2016, version of all 63 NCI-designated cancer center public Web sites and 5 major online clearinghouses from allied public/private organizations (,,, USPSTF...
December 24, 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
Rakesh Kumar, Ranjana Maurya, Shweta Saran
Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the leading cancers in men, raising a serious health issue worldwide. Due to lack of suitable biomarker, their inhibitors and the platform for testing those inhibitors result in poor prognosis of PC. AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) is a highly conserved protein kinase found in eukaryotes that is involved in growth and development, and also acts as a therapeutic target for PC. The aim of the present study is to identify novel potent inhibitors of AMPK and propose a simple cellular model system for understanding its biology...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Peter C Elwood, Alex Whitmarsh, John Gallacher, Anthony Bayer, Richard Adams, Luke Heslop, Janet Pickering, Gareth Morgan, Julieta Galante, Sunil Dolwani, Marcus Longley, Zoe E Roberts
Context: UK Biobank is a prospective study of half a million subjects, almost all aged 40-69 years, identified in 22 centres across the UK during 2006-2010. Objective: A healthy lifestyle has been described as 'better than any pill, and no side effects [5]. We therefore examined the relationships between healthy behaviours: low alcohol intake, non-smoking, healthy BMI, physical activity and a healthy diet, and the risk of all cancers, colon, breast and prostate cancers in a large dataset...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
Markus Aly, Mark Clements, Caroline E Weibull, Tobias Nordström, Erik Näslund, Jan Adolfsson, Henrik Grönberg
BACKGROUND: Although prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing is common, little is known about the pattern of retesting by either PSA values or subsequent prostate biopsies. Poor follow-up of high PSA values may lead to delayed diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the probabilities of follow-up (including retesting, prostate biopsies, diagnosis, and cause-specific death) for men undergoing prostate cancer testing at a population level. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Cohort study design for men living in Stockholm with no previous diagnosis of prostate cancer between 2003 and 2015...
February 9, 2018: European Urology Focus
Mohammed Ibrahim, Siddhartha Yadav, Foluso Ogunleye, Dana Zakalik
BACKGROUND: Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) genes are associated with an increased risk of breast and ovarian cancers in women. The cancer characteristics of men with BRCA1/2 mutations are less well studied. This study describes the unique cancer characteristics of male BRCA1/2 mutation carriers at our institution. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review on male patients who were seen between January 2004 and December 2014 and tested positive for a BRCA1/2 mutation...
February 13, 2018: BMC Cancer
V Cuccurullo, G D di Stasio, L Evangelista, A Ciarmiello, L Mansi
Prostate Cancer (PCa) represents the most common malignant tumor in men but according to the European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines, a mass screening for PCa diagnosis should not be performed due to over-diagnosis and over-treatment related problems. An early clinical diagnosis is possible, mainly based on digital rectal examination and Prostatic Specific Agent (PSA) testing. However, the only mandatory test to define the presence of PCa is ultrasound guided-biopsy, obtained on multiple samples, which has also a high prognostic value...
March 2018: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
Joseph F Rodriguez, Scott E Eggener
The diagnosis and management of prostate cancer have substantially changed over the last 3 decades. Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was adopted for screening in the 1990s after it was found to be a sensitive indicator of disease. Because of a lack of specificity for significant disease, indiscriminate PSA testing led to overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Several biomarkers have been developed that are superior to PSA in stratifying a man's risk for harboring potentially lethal prostate cancer.
March 2018: Radiologic Clinics of North America
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