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Chuanbo Xie, Nan Shao, Longjun He, Xiuhong Li, Cong Li, Jibin Li, Dongfang Su
Background Reproductive factors have been well-documented risk factors for breast cancer. Few studies have examined whether the associations between reproductive factors and breast cancer differed across races/ethnicities. Methods We analyzed a sub-sample (70, 734) of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) dataset. Participants with valid baseline questionnaire and without breast cancer at enrollment were included into analysis. We stratified the participants into subgroups based on their races/ethnicities then estimated the effects of the reproductive factors on breast cancer within each group using Cox-proportion regression models...
2018: Journal of Cancer
Jillian T Henderson, Elizabeth M Webber, George F Sawaya
Importance: Ovarian cancer is relatively rare but the fifth-leading cause of cancer mortality among United States women. Objective: To systematically review evidence on benefits and harms of ovarian cancer screening among average-risk women to inform the United States Preventive Services Task Force. Data Sources: MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Collaboration Registry of Controlled Trials; studies published in English from January 1, 2003, through January 31, 2017; ongoing surveillance in targeted publications through November 22, 2017...
February 13, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Jiali Zheng, Anwar T Merchant, Michael D Wirth, Jiajia Zhang, Samuel O Antwi, Azza Shoaibi, Nitin Shivappa, Rachael Z Stolzenberg-Solomon, James R Hebert, Susan E Steck
Inflammation plays a central role in pancreatic cancer etiology and can be modulated by diet. We aimed to examine the association between the inflammatory potential of diet, assessed with the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®), and pancreatic cancer risk in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial prospective cohort. Our study included 101,449 participants aged 52 to 78 years at baseline who completed both baseline questionnaire and a diet history questionnaire. Energy-adjusted DII (E-DII) scores were computed based on food and supplement intake...
January 22, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Richard B Hayes, Jiyoung Ahn, Xiaozhou Fan, Brandilyn A Peters, Yingfei Ma, Liying Yang, Ilir Agalliu, Robert D Burk, Ian Ganly, Mark P Purdue, Neal D Freedman, Susan M Gapstur, Zhiheng Pei
Importance: Case-control studies show a possible relationship between oral bacteria and head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). Prospective studies are needed to examine the temporal relationship between oral microbiome and subsequent risk of HNSCC. Objective: To prospectively examine associations between the oral microbiome and incident HNSCC. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nested case-control study was carried out in 2 prospective cohort studies: the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort (CPS-II) and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO)...
January 11, 2018: JAMA Oncology
Harry J de Koning, Roman Gulati, Sue M Moss, Jonas Hugosson, Paul F Pinsky, Christine D Berg, Anssi Auvinen, Gerald L Andriole, Monique J Roobol, E David Crawford, Vera Nelen, Maciej Kwiatkowski, Marco Zappa, Marcos Luján, Arnauld Villers, Tiago M de Carvalho, Eric J Feuer, Alex Tsodikov, Angela B Mariotto, Eveline A M Heijnsdijk, Ruth Etzioni
BACKGROUND: The European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) demonstrated that prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening significantly reduced prostate cancer mortality (rate ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.69-0.91). The US Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) trial indicated no such reduction but had a wide 95% CI (rate ratio for prostate cancer mortality, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.87-1.36). Standard meta-analyses are unable to account for key differences between the trials that can impact the estimated effects of screening and the trials' point estimates...
March 15, 2018: Cancer
Daisuke Kawakita, Yuan-Chin Amy Lee, Lisa H Gren, Saundra S Buys, Carlo La Vecchia, Mia Hashibe
BACKGROUND: Although low levels of folate leads to disturbances in DNA replication, DNA methylation and DNA repair, the association between dietary folate intake and head and neck cancer (HNC) risk remains unclear. METHODS: We evaluated the association between folate intake and HNC risk using prospective cohort data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial. This study included 101 700 participants and 186 cases with confirmed incident HNC...
November 21, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
Sarah M Temkin, Eric A Miller, Goli Samimi, Christine D Berg, Paul Pinsky, Lori Minasian
AIM: A mortality benefit from screening for ovarian cancer has never been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the screening outcomes for different histologic subtypes of ovarian cancers. METHODS: Women in the screening arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Screening Trial underwent CA-125 and transvaginal ultrasound annually for 3-5 years. We compared screening test characteristics (including overdiagnosis) and outcomes by tumour type (type II versus other) and study arm (screening versus usual care)...
December 2017: European Journal of Cancer
Joshua A Halpern, Clara Oromendia, Jonathan E Shoag, Sameer Mittal, Michael F Cosiano, Karla V Ballman, Andrew J Vickers, Jim C Hu
PURPOSE: Guidelines from the National Cancer Care Network (NCCN) advocate digital rectal examination (DRE) screening only in men with elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA). We sought to investigate the effect of PSA on the association between DRE and clinically significant prostate cancer (CSPC) in a large, US cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Men who underwent DRE (n=35,350) within the screening arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening trial were evaluated for development of CSPC (Gleason ≥ 7) with follow-up of 343,273 person-years...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Urology
Maryam Doroudi, Robert E Schoen, Paul F Pinsky
BACKGROUND: Screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) with flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) has been shown to reduce CRC mortality. The current study examined whether the observed mortality reduction was due primarily to the prevention of incident CRC via removal of adenomatous polyps or to the early detection of cancer and improved survival. METHODS: The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial randomized 154,900 men and women aged 55 to 74 years...
December 15, 2017: Cancer
Alex Tsodikov, Roman Gulati, Eveline A M Heijnsdijk, Paul F Pinsky, Sue M Moss, Sheng Qiu, Tiago M de Carvalho, Jonas Hugosson, Christine D Berg, Anssi Auvinen, Gerald L Andriole, Monique J Roobol, E David Crawford, Vera Nelen, Maciej Kwiatkowski, Marco Zappa, Marcos Luján, Arnauld Villers, Eric J Feuer, Harry J de Koning, Angela B Mariotto, Ruth Etzioni
Background: The ERSPC (European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer) found that screening reduced prostate cancer mortality, but the PLCO (Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial) found no reduction. Objective: To evaluate whether effects of screening on prostate cancer mortality relative to no screening differed between the ERSPC and PLCO. Design: Cox regression of prostate cancer death in each trial group, adjusted for age and trial...
October 3, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
Jonathan Shoag, Oleksander Savenkov, Paul J Christos, Sameer Mittal, Joshua A Halpern, Gulce Askin, Daniel Shoag, Ron Golan, Daniel J Lee, Padraic O'Malley, Bobby Najari, Brian Eisner, Jim C Hu, Douglas Scherr, Peter Schlegel, Christopher E Barbieri
Background: Vasectomy has been implicated as a risk factor for prostate cancer in multiple epidemiologic studies over the past 25 years. Whether this relationship is causal remains unclear. This study examines the association between vasectomy and prostate cancer in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial, which randomized men to usual care or annual prostate cancer screening. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 13-year screening and outcomes data from the PLCO trial...
November 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Susan R Sturgeon, J Richard Pilsner, Kathleen F Arcaro, Kaoru Ikuma, Haotian Wu, Soon-Mi Kim, Nayha Chopra-Tandon, Adam R Karpf, Regina G Ziegler, Catherine Schairer, Raji Balasubramanian, David A Reckhow
BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested that global DNA methylation in circulating white blood cells (WBC) is associated with breast cancer risk. METHODS: To address conflicting results and concerns that the findings for WBC DNA methylation in some prior studies may reflect disease effects, we evaluated the relationship between global levels of WBC DNA methylation in white blood cells and breast cancer risk in a case-control study nested within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) cohort...
August 18, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
Cristina Menni, Marie Migaud, Gabi Kastenmüller, Tess Pallister, Jonas Zierer, Annette Peters, Robert P Mohney, Tim D Spector, Vincenzo Bagnardi, Christian Gieger, Steve C Moore, Ana M Valdes
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between long-term weight change and blood metabolites. METHODS: Change in BMI over 8.6 ± 3.79 years was assessed in 3,176 females from the TwinsUK cohort (age range: 18.3-79.6, baseline BMI: 25.11 ± 4.35) measured for 280 metabolites at follow-up. Statistically significant metabolites (adjusting for covariates) were included in a multivariable least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) model. Findings were replicated in the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) study (n = 1,760; age range: 25-70, baseline BMI: 27...
September 2017: Obesity
Alison L Van Dyke, Krystle A Lang Kuhs, Meredith S Shiels, Jill Koshiol, Britton Trabert, Erikka Loftfield, Mark P Purdue, Nicolas Wentzensen, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Hormuzd A Katki, Allan Hildesheim, Troy J Kemp, Ligia A Pinto, Anil K Chaturvedi, Mahboobeh Safaeian
Inflammation is increasingly thought to be associated with diabetes; however, only a few inflammation markers have been assessed concurrently in relation to history of diabetes. In the most comprehensive evaluation of inflammation markers and diabetes to date using a Luminex bead-based assay, we measured 78 inflammation-, immune-, and metabolic-related markers detectable in at least 10% of serum samples collected from participants from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer (PLCO) screening trial (n = 1,814)...
2017: PloS One
Catherine L Callahan, Kendra Schwartz, Julie J Ruterbusch, Brian Shuch, Barry I Graubard, Qing Lan, Richard Cawthon, Andrea A Baccarelli, Wong-Ho Chow, Nathaniel Rothman, Jonathan N Hofmann, Mark P Purdue
BACKGROUND: Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a potential biomarker of cancer prognosis; however, evidence for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is inconsistent. METHODS: We investigated LTL and RCC-specific survival among 684 cases from the US kidney cancer study (USKC) and 241 cases from the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial (PLCO). Leukocyte telomere length was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) computed using multivariable Cox models...
August 22, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
Summer S Han, S Ayca Erdogan, Iakovos Toumazis, Ann Leung, Sylvia K Plevritis
BACKGROUND: The US preventive services task force (USPSTF) recently recommended that individuals aged 55-80 with heavy smoking history be annually screened by low-dose computed tomography (LDCT), thereby extending the stopping age from 74 to 80 compared to the national lung screening trial (NLST) entry criterion. This decision was made partly with model-based analyses from cancer intervention and surveillance modeling network (CISNET), which assumed perfect compliance to screening. METHODS: As part of CISNET, we developed a microsimulation model for lung cancer (LC) screening and calibrated and validated it using data from NLST and the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial (PLCO), respectively...
September 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Fangyi Gu, Han Zhang, Paula L Hyland, Sonja Berndt, Susan M Gapstur, William Wheeler, The Ellipse Consortium, Christopher I Amos, Stephane Bezieau, Heike Bickeböller, Hermann Brenner, Paul Brennan, Jenny Chang-Claude, David V Conti, Jennifer Anne Doherty, Stephen B Gruber, Tabitha A Harrison, Richard B Hayes, Michael Hoffmeister, Richard S Houlston, Rayjean J Hung, Mark A Jenkins, Peter Kraft, Kate Lawrenson, James McKay, Sarah Markt, Lorelei Mucci, Catherine M Phelan, Conghui Qu, Angela Risch, Mary Anne Rossing, H-Erich Wichmann, Jianxin Shi, Eva Schernhammer, Kai Yu, Maria Teresa Landi, Neil E Caporaso
Circadian disruption has been linked to carcinogenesis in animal models, but the evidence in humans is inconclusive. Genetic variation in circadian rhythm genes provides a tool to investigate such associations. We examined associations of genetic variation in nine core circadian rhythm genes and six melatonin pathway genes with risk of colorectal, lung, ovarian and prostate cancers using data from the Genetic Associations and Mechanisms in Oncology (GAME-ON) network. The major results for prostate cancer were replicated in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial, and for colorectal cancer in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO)...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Charles E Birse, Jennifer L Tomic, Harvey I Pass, William N Rom, Robert J Lagier
BACKGROUND: The number of pulmonary nodules detected in the US is expected to increase substantially following recent recommendations for nationwide CT-based lung cancer screening. Given the low specificity of CT screening, non-invasive adjuvant methods are needed to differentiate cancerous lesions from benign nodules to help avoid unnecessary invasive procedures in the asymptomatic population. We have constructed a serum-based multi-biomarker panel and assessed its clinical accuracy in a retrospective analysis of samples collected from participants with suspicious radiographic findings in the Prostate, Lung, Chest and Ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial...
2017: Clinical Proteomics
Adetunji T Toriola, Mark Ziegler, Yize Li, Michael Pollak, Rachael Stolzenberg-Solomon
BACKGROUND: Prediagnosis obesity and diabetes are associated with survival from pancreatic cancer, but the underlying mechanisms have not been characterized. Because both are associated with dysregulation in circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF) levels, we evaluated the associations of prediagnosis IGF levels (IGF-I, IGF-II) and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) with pancreatic cancer survival. METHODS: Participants were subjects enrolled in the intervention arm of the PLCO Cancer Screening Trial who developed exocrine pancreatic cancer during follow-up (N = 178, 116 men and 67 women)...
October 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Miguelle Marous, Wen-Yi Huang, Charles S Rabkin, Richard B Hayes, John F Alderete, Bernard Rosner, Robert L Grubb, Anke C Winter, Siobhan Sutcliffe
PURPOSE: Results from previous sero-epidemiologic studies of Trichomonas vaginalis infection and prostate cancer (PCa) support a positive association between this sexually transmitted infection and aggressive PCa. However, findings from previous studies are not entirely consistent, and only one has investigated the possible relation between T. vaginalis seropositivity and PCa in African-American men who are at highest risk of both infection and PCa. Therefore, we examined this possible relation in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, including separate analyses for aggressive PCa and African-American men...
August 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
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