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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105739/validation-of-daily-increment-deposition-and-early-growth-of-mud-carp-cirrhinus-molitorella
#1
Y Huang, F Chen, W Tang, Z Lai, X Li
In this study, laboratory reared Cirrhinus molitorella from hatching through to the juvenile stage were used to validate daily increment deposition. Lapilli were suitable for ageing C. molitorella. The slope of the linear relationships between increment counts and age was not significantly different from 1 (n = 258, P > 0·05), indicating that growth increments are deposited daily. The first increment following the first-feeding check formed 3 days post hatch (dph). One hundred and twenty-three juveniles, ranging from 36·4 to 84·7 mm in body length (LB ), were collected in the Pear River estuary from July to January in both 2014 and 2015 and used to estimate growth rate...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105691/the-alcohol-sensitive-period-during-early-octavolateral-organ-development-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#2
Lilliann Y Zamora, Kayla C Miguel, Zhongmin Lu
Fetal alcohol exposure can cause Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD), completely preventable developmental disabilities characterized by permanent birth defects. However, specific gestational timing when developing organs are most sensitive to alcohol exposure is unclear. In this study, we examined the temporal effects of embryonic alcohol exposure on octavolateral organs in zebrafish (Danio rerio), including inner ears and lateral line neuromasts that function in hearing, balance, and hydrodynamic detection, respectively...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104018/-the-ultrastructure-of-utricular-maculae-of-mouse
#3
L J Yang, L J Li, T Liu, L W Wang, P Shen
Objective: Using scanning electron microscope to observe the ultrastructure of utricular maculae of mouse. Methods: Ten young (6 to 8 weeks) and ten old (>12 months) mice were executed, and their utricles were harvested and the specimens were processed, using scanning electron microscope to observe the structures of the utricles from the surface of otoconia layer to the roots of hair cell cilia. Results: Under the scanning electron microscope, several ultrastructures were observed, including otoconia layer, unstructured gelatinous extracellular matrix layer, honeycomb-like gelatinous extracellular matrix layer, inter-cilia otoconia and hair cell cilia associated with these structures...
January 7, 2017: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091665/trace-element-protein-interactions-in-endolymph-from-the-inner-ear-of-fish-implications-for-environmental-reconstructions-using-fish-otolith-chemistry
#4
Oliver R B Thomas, Katherine Ganio, Blaine R Roberts, Stephen E Swearer
Otoliths, the biomineralised hearing "ear stones" from the inner ear of fish, grow throughout the lifespan of an individual, with deposition of alternating calciferous and proteinaceous bands occurring daily. Trace element : calcium ratios within daily increments measured by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) are often used in fisheries science to reconstruct environmental histories. There is, however, considerable uncertainty as to which elements are interacting with either the proteinaceous or calciferous zones of the otolith, and thus their utility as indicators of environmental change...
January 16, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077930/before-the-freeze-otoliths-from-the-eocene-of-seymour-island-antarctica-reveal-dominance-of-gadiform-fishes-teleostei
#5
Werner Schwarzhans, Thomas Mörs, Andrea Engelbrecht, Marcelo Reguero, Jürgen Kriwet
The first record of fossil teleostean otoliths from Antarctica is reported. The fossils were obtained from late Early Eocene shell beds of the La Meseta Formation, Seymour Island that represent the last temperate marine climate phase in Antarctica prior to the onset of cooling and subsequent glaciation during the late Eocene. A total of 17 otolith-based teleost taxa are recognized, with 10 being identifiable to species level containing nine new species and one new genus: Argentina antarctica sp. nov., Diaphus? marambionis sp...
2017: Journal of Systematic Palaeontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075326/transformation-of-spatiotemporal-dynamics-in-the-macaque-vestibular-system-from-otolith-afferents-to-cortex
#6
Jean Laurens, Sheng Liu, Xiong-Jie Yu, Raymond Chan, David Dickman, Gregory C DeAngelis, Dora E Angelaki
Sensory signals undergo substantial recoding when neural activity is relayed from sensors through pre-thalamic and thalamic nuclei to cortex. To explore how temporal dynamics and directional tuning are sculpted in hierarchical vestibular circuits, we compared responses of macaque otolith afferents with neurons in the vestibular and cerebellar nuclei, as well as five cortical areas, to identical three-dimensional translational motion. We demonstrate a remarkable spatio-temporal transformation: otolith afferents carry spatially aligned cosine-tuned translational acceleration and jerk signals...
January 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061922/respiratory-and-pulse-changes-due-to-vestibular-stimulations-in-a-motion-based-simulator
#7
Savas Ilbasmis, Safak Yildiz
INTRODUCTION: One of the mechanisms leading to spatial disorientation (SD) is overstimulation of the vestibular system by various aircraft maneuvers. The objective of this study was to observe respiratory rate and pulse changes during vestibular system stimulations with the help of two selected SD training profiles. METHODS: The respiration and pulse rates of 15 subjects were recorded in response to 2 sequential SD training profiles on a motion-based simulator. The session started with a motionless instruction period (IP), continued with a Coriolis profile (CP) which stimulated the semicircular canals, and ended with a Dark Takeoff profile (DP) which stimulated the otolith organs...
January 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039767/static-otolithic-drive-alters-presynaptic-inhibition-in-soleus-motor-pool
#8
Apollonia Fox, David Koceja
The vestibular system has both direct and indirect connections to the soleus motor pool via the vestibulospinal and reticulospinal tracts. The exact nature of how this vestibular information is integrated within the spinal cord is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify whether changes in static otolithic drive altered the amount of presynaptic inhibition in the soleus H-reflex pathway. Changes in static otolithic drive were investigated in sixteen healthy participants using a tilt table...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000175/adaptation-to-microgravity-deconditioning-and-countermeasures
#9
REVIEW
Kunihiko Tanaka, Naoki Nishimura, Yasuaki Kawai
Humans are generally in standing or sitting positions on Earth during the day. The musculoskeletal system supports these positions and also allows motion. Gravity acting in the longitudinal direction of the body generates a hydrostatic pressure difference and induces footward fluid shift. The vestibular system senses the gravity of the body and reflexively controls the organs. During spaceflight or exposure to microgravity, the load on the musculoskeletal system and hydrostatic pressure difference is diminished...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990639/reconstructing-larval-growth-and-habitat-use-in-an-amphidromous-goby-using-otolith-increments-and-microchemistry
#10
J D Hogan, R Kozdon, M J Blum, J F Gilliam, J W Valley, P B McIntyre
High-resolution analysis of growth increments, trace element chemistry and oxygen isotope ratios (δ(18) O) in otoliths were combined to assess larval and post-larval habitat use and growth of Awaous stamineus, an amphidromous goby native to Hawai'i. Otolith increment widths indicate that all individuals experience a brief period of rapid growth during early life as larvae and that the duration of this growth anomaly is negatively correlated with larval duration. A protracted high-growth period early in larval life is associated with a lower ratio of Sr:Ca, which may reflect low salinity conditions in nearshore habitats...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988598/identifying-i-neogobius-i-species-from-the-southern-caspian-sea-by-otolith-shape-teleostei-gobiidae
#11
Parisa Davoodi, Hassan Rahimian
Three Neogobius species are common in the southern Caspian Sea. Identification of these species, especially from remains, is not fully understood. The present study compares the morphological characteristics of sagittal otoliths of N. caspius, N. pallasi and N. melanostomus. Furthermore, it also provides a dichotomous identification key based on otoliths morphology.
December 4, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981582/lake-sturgeon-acipenser-fulvescens-and-shovelnose-sturgeon-scaphirhynchus-platorynchus-environmental-life-history-revealed-using-pectoral-fin-ray-microchemistry-implications-for-interjurisdictional-conservation-through-fishery-closure-zones
#12
Q E Phelps, R N Hupfeld, G W Whitledge
This study inferred that the majority of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus captured in the upper Mississippi River probably originated from locations outside the upper Mississippi River (Missouri River, middle Mississippi River); whereas, lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens exhibit infrequent movement outside of the upper Mississippi River, but may move throughout these interconnected large rivers at various life stages. By using pectoral fin-ray microchemistry (a non-lethal alternative to using otoliths), it is suggest that interjurisdictional cooperation will probably be needed to ensure sustainability of the S...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942898/assessment-of-endolymphatic-hydrops-and-otolith-function-in-patients-with-m%C3%A3-ni%C3%A3-re-s-disease
#13
Tomoko Okumura, Takao Imai, Yasumitsu Takimoto, Noriaki Takeda, Tadashi Kitahara, Atsuhiko Uno, Takefumi Kamakura, Yasuhiro Osaki, Yoshiyuki Watanabe, Hidenori Inohara
Ménière's disease is associated with hydrops of the inner ear endolymphatic space, and histopathologically, the cochlea and vestibule are usually involved. We used gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and measured cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and the gain in the utricular induced linear vestibulo-ocular reflex to test the hypothesis that vestibular hydrops in Ménière's disease patients is associated with otolith organ dysfunction. We evaluated 21 patients diagnosed with unilateral definitive Ménière's disease using gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging to detect endolymphatic hydrops in the cochlea and vestibule...
December 10, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941522/nystagmus-and-central-vestibular-disorders
#14
Jeong-Yoon Choi, Ji-Soo Kim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will cover the recent advances in clinical and laboratory features, pathophysiology, and treatment of central vestibular disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Several features and mechanisms of central nystagmus have been identified over the years. Application of head impulse tests and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials has expanded our understanding of altered processing of canal-driven and otolith-driven vestibular signals in lesions involving the central vestibular structures...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930443/otolith-dysfunction-in-persons-with-both-diabetes-and-benign-paroxysmal-positional-vertigo
#15
Linda J DʼSilva, Hinrich Staecker, James Lin, Christy Maddux, John Ferraro, Hongying Dai, Patricia M Kluding
OBJECTIVE: Vestibular dysfunction is a well-recognized complication of type 2 diabetes (DM) that may contribute to increased fall risk. The prevalence of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is higher in people with DM. The impact of DM on the otolith organs of the vestibular system in people with BPPV is unknown. The purpose of this study was to analyze otolith function using vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) tests in people with DM and concurrent BPPV (BPPV + DM), and to examine the relationships between VEMP variables and diabetes-related variables...
December 7, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909402/upright-perception-and-ocular-torsion-change-independently-during-head-tilt
#16
Jorge Otero-Millan, Amir Kheradmand
We maintain a stable perception of the visual world despite continuous movements of our eyes, head and body. Perception of upright is a key aspect of such orientation constancy. Here we investigated whether changes in upright perception during sustained head tilt were related to simultaneous changes in torsional position of the eyes. We used a subjective visual vertical (SVV) task, modified to track changes in upright perception over time, and a custom video method to measure ocular torsion simultaneously. We tested 12 subjects in upright position, during prolonged (~15 min) lateral head tilts of 20 degrees, and also after the head returned to upright position...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889628/effect-of-betel-nut-chewing-on-the-otolithic-reflex-system
#17
Chuan-Yi Lin, Yi-Ho Young
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effect of betel nut chewing on the otolithic reflex system. METHODS: Seventeen healthy volunteers without any experience of chewing betel nut (fresh chewers) and 17 habitual chewers underwent vital sign measurements, ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP), and cervical VEMP (cVEMP) tests prior to the study. Each subject then chewed two pieces of betel nut for 2min (dosing). The same paradigm was repeated immediately, 10min, and 20min after chewing...
January 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877114/ontogenetic-development-of-vestibulo-ocular-reflexes-in-amphibians
#18
REVIEW
Francisco Branoner, Boris P Chagnaud, Hans Straka
Vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR) ensure gaze stability during locomotion and passively induced head/body movements. In precocial vertebrates such as amphibians, vestibular reflexes are required very early at the onset of locomotor activity. While the formation of inner ears and the assembly of sensory-motor pathways is largely completed soon after hatching, angular and translational/tilt VOR display differential functional onsets and mature with different time courses. Otolith-derived eye movements appear immediately after hatching, whereas the appearance and progressive amelioration of semicircular canal-evoked eye movements is delayed and dependent on the acquisition of sufficiently large semicircular canal diameters...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875020/linking-otolith-microchemistry-and-dendritic-isoscapes-to-map-heterogeneous-production-of-fish-across-river-basins
#19
Sean R Brennan, Daniel E Schindler
Production patterns of highly mobile species, such as anadromous fish, often exhibit high spatial and temporal heterogeneity across landscapes. Such variability is often asynchronous in time among habitats, which stabilizes production at aggregate scales of complexity. Reconstructing production patterns explicitly in space and time across multiple scales, however, remains difficult but is important for prioritizing habitat conservation. This is especially true for fishes inhabiting river basins due to long-range dispersal, high mortality at early life stages, complex population structure and elusive life history variation...
November 22, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866074/environmentally-induced-tissue-responses-of-hematopoietic-system-in-abu-mullet-liza-abu-and-tiger-tooth-croaker-otolithes-ruber-from-the-persian-gulf
#20
Negin Salamat, Abdolali Movahedinia, Parvin Kheradmand
The present investigation aimed to assess the possibility of using plasma levels of erythropoietin (EPO) hormone and tissue changes of hematopoietic organs as biomarkers of environmental pollution in abu mullet (Liza abu) and tiger tooth croaker (Otolithes ruber) collected from Musa Creek (northwest of the Persian Gulf). 120 L. abu and O. ruber were collected from five stations at the Musa Creek: Petrochemical, Ghanam, Doragh, Zangi and Patil stations. Blood samples were obtained from the caudal vein. Tissue samples were also taken from the spleen and head kidney, and tissue sections were prepared according to routine histological methods...
February 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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