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high altitude adaptation strategies

Weizhao Yang, Yin Qi, Bin Lu, Liang Qiao, Yayong Wu, Jinzhong Fu
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide investigation of molecular mechanisms for high-altitude adaptation has attracted great attention in the last few years. In order to understand the contribution of gene expression level variations to high-altitude adaptation in Asiatic toads (Bufo gargarizans), we implemented a reciprocal transplant experiment between low- and high-altitude sites and sequenced 12 transcriptomes from brain, heart, and liver tissues. RESULTS: A large number of genes with expression differences (DEGs) between high- and low-altitude individuals (193 fixed and 844 plastic) were identified, and the majority of them were tissue specific...
July 3, 2017: BMC Genetics
Sarita Nehra, Varun Bhardwaj, Anju Bansal, Deepika Saraswat
BACKGROUND: Chronic hypobaric hypoxia (cHH) mediated cardiac insufficiencies are associated with pathological damage. Sustained redox stress and work load are major causative agents of cardiac insufficiencies under cHH. Despite the advancements made in pharmacological (anti-oxidants, vasodilators) and non-pharmacological therapeutics (acclimatization strategies and schedules), only partial success has been achieved in improving cardiac acclimatization to cHH. This necessitates the need for potent combinatorial therapies to improve cardiac acclimatization at high altitudes...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Víctor H Nieto Estrada, Daniel Molano Franco, Roger David Medina, Alejandro G Gonzalez Garay, Arturo J Martí-Carvajal, Ingrid Arevalo-Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: High altitude illness (HAI) is a term used to describe a group of cerebral and pulmonary syndromes that can occur during travel to elevations above 2500 metres (8202 feet). Acute hypoxia, acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude cerebral oedema (HACE) and high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPE) are reported as potential medical problems associated with high altitude. In this review, the first in a series of three about preventive strategies for HAI, we assess the effectiveness of six of the most recommended classes of pharmacological interventions...
June 27, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
V N Ibañez, F J Berli, R W Masuelli, R A Bottini, C F Marfil
Climate change could lead to an upward shift in plant distribution, exposing populations to higher levels of ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation. In the framework of an in situ strategy for conserving potato wild relatives, we evaluated the effect of high UV-B levels on natural population of Solanum kurtzianum. The hypothesis is that plants from naturally higher altitudes are more adapted to increased UV-B radiation. Two populations from low and high altitudes were field supplemented using UV-B-lamps (+UV-B) or excluded from it with plastic filters...
August 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Tangjian Peng, Liyuan Ma, Xue Feng, Jiemeng Tao, Meihua Nan, Yuandong Liu, Jiaokun Li, Li Shen, Xueling Wu, Runlan Yu, Xueduan Liu, Guanzhou Qiu, Weimin Zeng
Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans is an acidophile that often occurs in low temperature acid mine drainage, e.g., that located at high altitude. Being able to inhabit the extreme environment, the bacterium must possess strategies to copy with the survival stress. Nonetheless, information on the strategies is in demand. Here, genomic and transcriptomic assays were performed to illuminate the adaptation mechanisms of an A. ferrivorans strain YL15, to the alpine acid mine drainage environment in Yulong copper mine in southwest China...
2017: PloS One
Kaiqi Sun, Angelo D'alessandro, Yang Xia
Transfusion of stored blood is regarded as one of the great advances in modern medicine. However, during storage in the blood bank, red blood cells (RBCs) undergo a series of biochemical and biomechanical changes that affect cell morphology and physiology and potentially impair transfusion safety and efficacy. Despite reassuring evidence from clinical trials, it is universally accepted that the storage lesion(s) results in the altered physiology of long-stored RBCs and helps explain the rapid clearance of up to one-fourth of long-stored RBCs from the recipient's bloodstream at 24 hours after administration...
April 12, 2017: Blood Transfusion, Trasfusione del Sangue
Simona Colabrese, Kristian Gustavsson, Antonio Celani, Luca Biferale
Smart active particles can acquire some limited knowledge of the fluid environment from simple mechanical cues and exert a control on their preferred steering direction. Their goal is to learn the best way to navigate by exploiting the underlying flow whenever possible. As an example, we focus our attention on smart gravitactic swimmers. These are active particles whose task is to reach the highest altitude within some time horizon, given the constraints enforced by fluid mechanics. By means of numerical experiments, we show that swimmers indeed learn nearly optimal strategies just by experience...
April 14, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Diego M Toneatti, Virginia H Albarracín, Maria R Flores, Lubos Polerecky, María E Farías
At an altitude of 3,570 m, the volcanic lake Socompa in the Argentinean Andes is presently the highest site where actively forming stromatolite-like structures have been reported. Interestingly, pigment and microsensor analyses performed through the different layers of the stromatolites (50 mm-deep) showed steep vertical gradients of light and oxygen, hydrogen sulfide and pH in the porewater. Given the relatively good characterization of these physico-chemical gradients, the aim of this follow-up work was to specifically address how the bacterial diversity stratified along the top six layers of the stromatolites which seems the most metabolically important and diversified zone of the whole microbial community...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Oliver R Gibson, Lee Taylor, Peter W Watt, Neil S Maxwell
To prepare for extremes of heat, cold or low partial pressures of oxygen (O2), humans can undertake a period of acclimation or acclimatization to induce environment-specific adaptations, e.g. heat acclimation (HA), cold acclimation (CA), or altitude training. While these strategies are effective, they are not always feasible due to logistical impracticalities. Cross-adaptation is a term used to describe the phenomenon whereby alternative environmental interventions, e.g. HA or CA, may be a beneficial alternative to altitude interventions, providing physiological stress and inducing adaptations observable at altitude...
April 7, 2017: Sports Medicine
Zhanying Zhang, Jinjie Li, Yinghua Pan, Jilong Li, Lei Zhou, Hongli Shi, Yawen Zeng, Haifeng Guo, Shuming Yang, Weiwei Zheng, Jianping Yu, Xingming Sun, Gangling Li, Yanglin Ding, Liang Ma, Shiquan Shen, Luyuan Dai, Hongliang Zhang, Shuhua Yang, Yan Guo, Zichao Li
Low temperature is a major factor limiting rice productivity and geographical distribution. Improved cold tolerance and expanded cultivation to high-altitude or high-latitude regions would help meet growing rice demand. Here we explored a QTL for cold tolerance and cloned the gene, CTB4a (cold tolerance at booting stage), encoding a conserved leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase. We show that different CTB4a alleles confer distinct levels of cold tolerance and selection for variation in the CTB4a promoter region has occurred on the basis of environmental temperature...
March 23, 2017: Nature Communications
Philip Lewis, Ken D O'Halloran
The diaphragm is the primary inspiratory pump muscle of breathing. Notwithstanding its critical role in pulmonary ventilation, the diaphragm like other striated muscles is malleable in response to physiological and pathophysiological stressors, with potential implications for the maintenance of respiratory homeostasis. This review considers hypoxic adaptation of the diaphragm muscle, with a focus on functional, structural, and metabolic remodeling relevant to conditions such as high altitude and chronic respiratory disease...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Johannes Charlier, Aklilu H Ghebretinsae, Bruno Levecke, Els Ducheyne, Edwin Claerebout, Jozef Vercruysse
Helminth parasites of grazing ruminants are highly prevalent globally and impact negatively on animal productivity and food security. There is a growing concern that climate change increases helminth disease frequency and intensity. In Europe, these concerns stem from case reports and theoretical life cycle models assessing the effects of climate change scenarios on helminth epidemiology. We believe this study is the first to investigate climate-driven trends in helminth infections of cattle on a cohort of randomly selected farms...
December 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
Yongzheng Xu, Guizhen Yu, Yunpeng Wang, Xinkai Wu, Yalong Ma
A new hybrid vehicle detection scheme which integrates the Viola-Jones (V-J) and linear SVM classifier with HOG feature (HOG + SVM) methods is proposed for vehicle detection from low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images. As both V-J and HOG + SVM are sensitive to on-road vehicles' in-plane rotation, the proposed scheme first adopts a roadway orientation adjustment method, which rotates each UAV image to align the roads with the horizontal direction so the original V-J or HOG + SVM method can be directly applied to achieve fast detection and high accuracy...
2016: Sensors
Anna Bogdanova, Irina Y Petrushanko, Pablo Hernansanz-Agustín, Antonio Martínez-Ruiz
Control over the Na,K-ATPase function plays a central role in adaptation of the organisms to hypoxic and anoxic conditions. As the enzyme itself does not possess O2 binding sites its "oxygen-sensitivity" is mediated by a variety of redox-sensitive modifications including S-glutathionylation, S-nitrosylation, and redox-sensitive phosphorylation. This is an overview of the current knowledge on the plethora of molecular mechanisms tuning the activity of the ATP-consuming Na,K-ATPase to the cellular metabolic activity...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Andy M Reynolds, Don R Reynolds, Sanjay P Sane, Gao Hu, Jason W Chapman
High-flying insect migrants have been shown to display sophisticated flight orientations that can, for example, maximize distance travelled by exploiting tailwinds, and reduce drift from seasonally optimal directions. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the theoretical and empirical evidence for the mechanisms underlying the selection and maintenance of the observed flight headings, and the detection of wind direction and speed, for insects flying hundreds of metres above the ground. Different mechanisms may be used-visual perception of the apparent ground movement or mechanosensory cues maintained by intrinsic features of the wind-depending on circumstances (e...
September 26, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Louise Brousseau, Dragos Postolache, Martin Lascoux, Andreas D Drouzas, Thomas Källman, Cristina Leonarduzzi, Sascha Liepelt, Andrea Piotti, Flaviu Popescu, Anna M Roschanski, Peter Zhelev, Bruno Fady, Giovanni Giuseppe Vendramin
BACKGROUND: Local adaptation is a key driver of phenotypic and genetic divergence at loci responsible for adaptive traits variations in forest tree populations. Its experimental assessment requires rigorous sampling strategies such as those involving population pairs replicated across broad spatial scales. METHODS: A hierarchical Bayesian model of selection (HBM) that explicitly considers both the replication of the environmental contrast and the hierarchical genetic structure among replicated study sites is introduced...
2016: PloS One
Deborah S Vidigal, Alexandre C S S Marques, Leo A J Willems, Gonda Buijs, Belén Méndez-Vigo, Henk W M Hilhorst, Leónie Bentsink, F Xavier Picó, Carlos Alonso-Blanco
The temporal control or timing of the life cycle of annual plants is presumed to provide adaptive strategies to escape harsh environments for survival and reproduction. This is mainly determined by the timing of germination, which is controlled by the level of seed dormancy, and of flowering initiation. However, the environmental factors driving the evolution of plant life cycles remain largely unknown. To address this question we have analysed nine quantitative life history traits, in a native regional collection of 300 wild accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana...
August 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Claudia Cocozza, Caterina Palombo, Roberto Tognetti, Nicola La Porta, Monica Anichini, Alessio Giovannelli, Giovanni Emiliani
Seasonal analyses of cambial cell production and day-by-day stem radial increment can help to elucidate how climate modulates wood formation in conifers. Intra-annual dynamics of wood formation were determined with microcores and dendrometers and related to climatic signals in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). The seasonal dynamics of these processes were observed at two sites of different altitude, Savignano (650 m a.s.l.) and Lavazè (1800 m a.s.l.) in the Italian Alps. Seasonal dynamics of cambial activity were found to be site specific, indicating that the phenology of cambial cell production is highly variable and plastic with altitude...
July 2016: Tree Physiology
José López-Barneo, Patricia Ortega-Sáenz, Patricia González-Rodríguez, M Carmen Fernández-Agüera, David Macías, Ricardo Pardal, Lin Gao
Acute O2 sensing is necessary for the activation of cardiorespiratory reflexes (hyperventilation and sympathetic activation), which permit the survival of individuals under hypoxic environments (e.g. high altitude) or medical conditions presenting with reduced capacity for gas exchange between the lung alveoli and the blood. Changes in blood O2 tension are detected by the arterial chemoreceptors, in particular the carotid body (CB), which act in concert with the adrenal medulla (AM) to facilitate rapid adaptations to hypoxia...
February 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Josu Gomez-Ezeiza, Cristina Granados, Jordan Santos-Concejero
The aim of this case study was to compare the competition approaches for the Race Walking World Cup and the Olympic Games of a world-class 50-km racewalker. Total training volumes, intensity distribution, performance tests, high altitude stages and the evolution of his haematological values during the season were analysed. The last 12 weeks before the Race Walking World Cup (Approach 1) and the Olympic Games (Approach 2) were used for data analysis. Approach 1 was characterized by lower training volumes (791...
November 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
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