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high altitude adaptation strategies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894791/post-translational-modifications-of-enos-augment-nitric-oxide-availability-and-facilitates-hypoxia-adaptation-in-ladakhi-women
#1
Pooja, Dishari Ghosh, Kalpana Bhargava, Niroj Kumar Sethy
The lower inhaled oxygen per volume at high altitude poses an intimidating challenge for humans to survive and reproduce. Indigenous populations of the Himalayas reportedly exhibit higher microcirculatory blood flow accompanied by higher orders of magnitude of nitric oxide (NO) products in lung, plasma and red blood cells as a vascular adaptation strategy for hypobaric hypoxia. The precise mechanism of such observed higher NO metabolites for hypoxia adaptation remains elusive. Studying high altitude native Ladakhi women, we observed significant higher eNOS mRNA and protein in blood/plasma as compared to lowland women...
June 9, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860301/nitric-oxide-in-red-blood-cell-adaptation-to-hypoxia
#2
Yajin Zhao, Xiang Wang, Milody Noviana, Man Hou
Nitric oxide (NO) appears to be involved in virtually every aspect of cardiovascular biology. Most attention has been focused on the role of endothelial-derived NO in basal blood flow regulation by relaxing vascular smooth muscle; however, it is now known that NO derived from red blood cells (RBCs) plays a fundamental role in vascular homeostasis by enhancing oxygen (O2) release at the cellular and physiological level. Hypoxia is an often seen problem in diverse conditions; systemic adaptations to hypoxia permit people to adjust to the hypoxic environment at high altitudes and to disease processes...
June 1, 2018: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29849885/autophagy-is-a-promoter-for-aerobic-exercise-performance-during-high-altitude-training
#3
REVIEW
Ying Zhang, Ning Chen
High altitude training is one of the effective strategies for improving aerobic exercise performance at sea level via altitude acclimatization, thereby improving oxygen transport and/or utilization. But its underlying molecular mechanisms on physiological functions and exercise performance of athletes are still vague. More recent evidence suggests that the recycling of cellular components by autophagy is an important process of the body involved in the adaptive responses to exercise. Whether high altitude training can activate autophagy or whether high altitude training can improve exercise performance through exercise-induced autophagy is still unclear...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728761/adaptation-strategies-of-yak-to-seasonally-driven-environmental-temperatures-in-its-natural-habitat
#4
G Krishnan, V Paul, T K Biswas, V S Chouhan, P J Das, V Sejian
The gradual increase of ambient temperature (TA) at high altitude can cause heat stress as an effect of climate change and may shift the traditional habitat of yak to further higher altitude. Therefore, an attempt has been made in this study to evaluate the thermo-adaptability of yaks to different seasons at high altitude. The adaptive capabilities of yaks were assessed based on different heat tolerance tests in relation to changes in rectal temperature (RT; °F), respiration rate (RR; breaths/min), pulse rate (PR; beats/min), and plasma heat shock protein (HSP) profile...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721151/strategies-for-high-altitude-adaptation-revealed-from-high-quality-draft-genome-of-non-violacein-producing-janthinobacterium-lividum-ergs5-01
#5
Rakshak Kumar, Vishal Acharya, Dharam Singh, Sanjay Kumar
A light pink coloured bacterial strain ERGS5:01 isolated from glacial stream water of Sikkim Himalaya was affiliated to Janthinobacterium lividum based on 16S rRNA gene sequence identity and phylogenetic clustering. Whole genome sequencing was performed for the strain to confirm its taxonomy as it lacked the typical violet pigmentation of the genus and also to decipher its survival strategy at the aquatic ecosystem of high elevation. The PacBio RSII sequencing generated genome of 5,168,928 bp with 4575 protein-coding genes and 118 RNA genes...
2018: Standards in Genomic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678953/metabolic-adjustment-to-high-altitude-hypoxia-from-genetic-signals-to-physiological-implications
#6
REVIEW
Andrew J Murray, Hugh E Montgomery, Martin Feelisch, Michael P W Grocott, Daniel S Martin
Ascent to high altitude is associated with physiological responses that counter the stress of hypobaric hypoxia by increasing oxygen delivery and by altering tissue oxygen utilisation via metabolic modulation. At the cellular level, the transcriptional response to hypoxia is mediated by the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway and results in promotion of glycolytic capacity and suppression of oxidative metabolism. In Tibetan highlanders, gene variants encoding components of the HIF pathway have undergone selection and are associated with adaptive phenotypic changes, including suppression of erythropoiesis and increased blood lactate levels...
April 20, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673051/strategies-of-leaf-water-uptake-based-on-anatomical-traits
#7
Daniela Boanares, Rosy Mary Dos Santos Isaias, Hildeberto Caldas de Sousa, Alessandra Rodrigues Kozovits
- The ability of leaves to absorb fog water can positively contribute to the water and carbon balance of plants in montane ecosystems, especially in periods of soil water deficit. However, the ecophysiological traits and mechanisms responsible for variations in the speed and total water absorption capacity of leaves are still poorly known. - This study investigated leaf anatomical attributes of seven species occurring in seasonal tropical high-altitude ecosystems (rocky outcrop and forest), which could explain differences in leaf water uptake (LWU) capacities...
April 19, 2018: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569108/rhodobacter-sp-rb3-an-aerobic-anoxygenic-phototroph-which-thrives-in-the-polyextreme-ecosystem-of-the-salar-de-huasco-in-the-chilean-altiplano
#8
Vilma Pérez, Cristina Dorador, Verónica Molina, Carolina Yáñez, Martha Hengst
The Salar de Huasco is an evaporitic basin located in the Chilean Altiplano, which presents extreme environmental conditions for life, i.e. high altitude (3800 m.a.s.l.), negative water balance, a wide salinity range, high daily temperature changes and the occurrence of the highest registered solar radiation on the planet (> 1200 W m-2 ). This ecosystem is considered as a natural laboratory to understand different adaptations of microorganisms to extreme conditions. Rhodobacter, an anoxygenic aerobic phototrophic bacterial genus, represents one of the most abundant groups reported based on taxonomic diversity surveys in this ecosystem...
March 22, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540485/adaptive-remodeling-of-skeletal-muscle-energy-metabolism-in-high-altitude-hypoxia-lessons-from-altitudeomics
#9
Adam J Chicco, Catherine H Le, Erich Gnaiger, Hans C Dreyer, Jonathan B Muyskens, Angelo D'Alessandro, Travis Nemkov, Austin D Hocker, Jessica E Prenni, Lisa M Wolfe, Nathan M Sindt, Andrew T Lovering, Andrew W Subudhi, Robert C Roach
Metabolic responses to hypoxia play important roles in cell survival strategies and disease pathogenesis in humans. However, the homeostatic adjustments that balance changes in energy supply and demand to maintain organismal function under chronic low oxygen conditions remain incompletely understood, making it difficult to distinguish adaptive from maladaptive responses in hypoxia-related pathologies. We integrated metabolomic and proteomic profiling with mitochondrial respirometry and blood gas analyses to comprehensively define the physiological responses of skeletal muscle energy metabolism to 16 days of high-altitude hypoxia (5260 m) in healthy volunteers from the AltitudeOmics project...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530765/complete-genome-sequence-of-pseudomonas-frederiksbergensis-erdd5-01-revealed-genetic-bases-for-survivability-at-high-altitude-ecosystem-and-bioprospection-potential
#10
Rakshak Kumar, Vishal Acharya, Srijana Mukhia, Dharam Singh, Sanjay Kumar
Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis ERDD5:01 is a psychrotrophic bacteria isolated from the glacial stream flowing from East Rathong glacier in Sikkim Himalaya. The strain showed survivability at high altitude stress conditions like freezing, frequent freeze-thaw cycles, and UV-C radiations. The complete genome of 5,746,824 bp circular chromosome and a plasmid of 371,027 bp was sequenced to understand the genetic basis of its survival strategy. Multiple copies of cold-associated genes encoding cold active chaperons, general stress response, osmotic stress, oxidative stress, membrane/cell wall alteration, carbon storage/starvation and, DNA repair mechanisms supported its survivability at extreme cold and radiations corroborating with the bacterial physiological findings...
March 9, 2018: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529715/interventions-for-preventing-high-altitude-illness-part-2-less-commonly-used-drugs
#11
REVIEW
Alejandro Gonzalez Garay, Daniel Molano Franco, Víctor H Nieto Estrada, Arturo J Martí-Carvajal, Ingrid Arevalo-Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: High altitude illness (HAI) is a term used to describe a group of mainly cerebral and pulmonary syndromes that can occur during travel to elevations above 2500 metres (˜ 8200 feet). Acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude cerebral oedema (HACE) and high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPE) are reported as potential medical problems associated with high altitude ascent. In this second review, in a series of three about preventive strategies for HAI, we assessed the effectiveness of five of the less commonly used classes of pharmacological interventions...
March 12, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503636/metagenomic-study-suggests-that-the-gut-microbiota-of-the-giant-panda-ailuropoda-melanoleuca-may-not-be-specialized-for-fiber-fermentation
#12
Wei Guo, Sudhanshu Mishra, Jiangchao Zhao, Jingsi Tang, Bo Zeng, Fanli Kong, Ruihong Ning, Miao Li, Hengzhi Zhang, Yutian Zeng, Yuanliangzi Tian, Yihang Zhong, Hongdi Luo, Yunhan Liu, Jiandong Yang, Mingyao Yang, Mingwang Zhang, Yan Li, Qingyong Ni, Caiwu Li, Chengdong Wang, Desheng Li, Hemin Zhang, Zhili Zuo, Ying Li
Bamboo-eating giant panda ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca ) is an enigmatic species, which possesses a carnivore-like short and simple gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Despite the remarkable studies on giant panda, its diet adaptability status continues to be a matter of debate. To resolve this puzzle, we investigated the functional potential of the giant panda gut microbiome using shotgun metagenomic sequencing of fecal samples. We also compared our data with similar data from other animal species representing herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores from current and earlier studies...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468019/disentangling-population-strategies-of-two-cladocerans-adapted-to-different-ultraviolet-regimes
#13
Carla E Fernández, Melina Campero, Cintia Uvo, Lars-Anders Hansson
Zooplankton have evolved several mechanisms to deal with environmental threats, such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR), and in order to identify strategies inherent to organisms exposed to different UVR environments, we here examine life-history traits of two lineages of Daphnia pulex . The lineages differed in the UVR dose they had received at their place of origin from extremely high UVR stress at high-altitude Bolivian lakes to low UVR stress near the sea level in temperate Sweden. Nine life-history variables of each lineage were analyzed in laboratory experiments in the presence and the absence of sub-lethal doses of UVR (UV-A band), and we identified trade-offs among variables through structural equation modeling (SEM)...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422638/evidence-of-thermophilisation-and-elevation-dependent-warming-during-the-last-interglacial-in-the-italian-alps
#14
V E Johnston, A Borsato, S Frisia, C Spötl, Y Dublyansky, P Töchterle, J C Hellstrom, P Bajo, R L Edwards, H Cheng
Thermophilisation is the response of plants communities in mountainous areas to increasing temperatures, causing an upward migration of warm-adapted (thermophilic) species and consequently, the timberline. This greening, associated with warming, causes enhanced evapotranspiration that leads to intensification of the hydrological cycle, which is recorded by hydroclimate-sensitive archives, such as stalagmites and flowstones formed in caves. Understanding how hydroclimate manifests at high altitudes is important for predicting future water resources of many regions of Europe that rely on glaciers and snow accumulation...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239754/characterization-of-rhodococcus-sp-a5-wh-isolated-from-a-high-altitude-andean-lake-to-unravel-the-survival-strategy-under-lithium-stress
#15
Carolina Belfiore, María V Curia, María E Farías
Lithium (Li) is widely distributed in nature and has several industrial applications. The largest reserves of Li (over 85%) are in the so-called "triangle of lithium" that includes the Salar de Atacama in Chile, Salar de Uyuni in Bolivia and Salar del Hombre Muerto in Argentina. Recently, the use of microorganisms in metal recovery such as copper has increased; however, there is little information about the recovery of lithium. The strain Rhodococcus sp. A5wh used in this work was previously isolated from Laguna Azul...
November 24, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236861/plant-species-diversity-in-a-neotropical-wetland-patterns-of-similarity-effects-of-distance-and-altitude
#16
Francielli Bao, Thales D Leandro, Maíra DA Rocha, Vanessa S Dos Santos, Thiago H Stefanello, Rafael Arruda, Arnildo Pott, Geraldo A Damasceno-Júnior
The Brazilian Pantanal is an extensive wetland with heterogeneous habitats, primarily due to the river-floodplain system and plants with differential adaptations and reproductive strategies. Factors such as altitude, distance among plant formations, and flood pulse must be considered to better understand its diversity. Aiming to assess the influence of biogeographic patterns in this system, we analyzed the floristic composition of six areas along the Paraguay River, including residual relieves, verifying the pattern of similarity, and effects of distance and altitude...
January 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186199/genetic-diversity-and-population-structure-of-prunus-mira-koehne-from-the-tibet-plateau-in-china-and-recommended-conservation-strategies
#17
Wenquan Bao, Tana Wuyun, Tiezhu Li, Huimin Liu, Zhongmao Jiang, Xuchun Zhu, Hongyan Du, Yu-E Bai
Prunus mira Koehne, an important economic fruit crop with high breeding and medicinal values, and an ancestral species of many cultivated peach species, has recently been declared an endangered species. However, basic information about genetic diversity, population structure, and morphological variation is still limited for this species. In this study, we sampled 420 P. mira individuals from 21 wild populations in the Tibet plateau to conduct a comprehensive analysis of genetic and morphological characteristics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143710/importance-of-determining-the-climatic-domains-of-sheep-breeds
#18
D Petit, I Boujenane
The main purpose of the study was to compare the capacity of the major sheep breeds in Morocco to cope with climate changes through the ranges of several climate parameters in which they can be found. We first delimitated the climatic 'domains' of each breed by constructing a database including altitude and climatic parameters (minima mean of the coldest month, maxima mean of the hottest month, annual rainfall, pluviothermic coefficient of Emberger Q 2, annual minima mean and annual maxima mean) on a 30-year period using the representative stations of each breed distribution...
November 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129021/the-effect-of-natural-or-simulated-altitude-training-on-high-intensity-intermittent-running-performance-in-team-sport-athletes-a-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Michael J Hamlin, Catherine A Lizamore, Will G Hopkins
BACKGROUND: While adaptation to hypoxia at natural or simulated altitude has long been used with endurance athletes, it has only recently gained popularity for team-sport athletes. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the effect of hypoxic interventions on high-intensity intermittent running performance in team-sport athletes. METHODS: A systematic literature search of five journal databases was performed. Percent change in performance (distance covered) in the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (level 1 and level 2 were used without differentiation) in hypoxic (natural or simulated altitude) and control (sea level or normoxic placebo) groups was meta-analyzed with a mixed model...
February 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982709/the-british-services-dhaulagiri-medical-research-expedition-2016-a-unique-military-and-civilian-research-collaboration
#20
Adrian Mellor, J Bakker-Dyos, M Howard, C Boos, M Cooke, E Vincent, P Scott, J O'Hara, S B Clarke, M Barlow, J Matu, K Deighton, N Hill, C Newman, R Cruttenden, D Holdsworth, D Woods
INTRODUCTION: High-altitude environments lead to a significant physiological challenge and disease processes which can be life threatening; operational effectiveness at high altitude can be severely compromised. The UK military research is investigating ways of mitigating the physiological effects of high altitude. METHODS: The British Service Dhaulagiri Research Expedition took place from March to May 2016, and the military personnel were invited to consent to a variety of study protocols investigating adaptation to high altitudes and diagnosis of high-altitude illness...
December 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
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