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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673051/strategies-of-leaf-water-uptake-based-on-anatomical-traits
#1
Daniela Boanares, Rosy Mary Dos Santos Isaias, Hildeberto Caldas de Sousa, Alessandra Rodrigues Kozovits
- The ability of leaves to absorb fog water can positively contribute to the water and carbon balance of plants in montane ecosystems, especially in periods of soil water deficit. However, the ecophysiological traits and mechanisms responsible for variations in the speed and total water absorption capacity of leaves are still poorly known. - This study investigated leaf anatomical attributes of seven species occurring in seasonal tropical high-altitude ecosystems (rocky outcrop and forest), which could explain differences in leaf water uptake (LWU) capacities...
April 19, 2018: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569108/rhodobacter-sp-rb3-an-aerobic-anoxygenic-phototroph-which-thrives-in-the-polyextreme-ecosystem-of-the-salar-de-huasco-in-the-chilean-altiplano
#2
Vilma Pérez, Cristina Dorador, Verónica Molina, Carolina Yáñez, Martha Hengst
The Salar de Huasco is an evaporitic basin located in the Chilean Altiplano, which presents extreme environmental conditions for life, i.e. high altitude (3800 m.a.s.l.), negative water balance, a wide salinity range, high daily temperature changes and the occurrence of the highest registered solar radiation on the planet (> 1200 W m-2 ). This ecosystem is considered as a natural laboratory to understand different adaptations of microorganisms to extreme conditions. Rhodobacter, an anoxygenic aerobic phototrophic bacterial genus, represents one of the most abundant groups reported based on taxonomic diversity surveys in this ecosystem...
March 22, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540485/adaptive-remodeling-of-skeletal-muscle-energy-metabolism-in-high-altitude-hypoxia-lessons-from-altitudeomics
#3
Adam J Chicco, Catherine H Le, Erich Gnaiger, Hans C Dreyer, Jonathan B Muyskens, Angelo D'Alessandro, Travis Nemkov, Austin D Hocker, Jessica E Prenni, Lisa M Wolfe, Nathan M Sindt, Andrew T Lovering, Andrew W Subudhi, Robert C Roach
Metabolic responses to hypoxia play important roles in cell survival strategies and disease pathogenesis in humans.  However, the homeostatic adjustments that balance changes in energy supply and demand to maintain organismal function under chronic low oxygen conditions remain incompletely understood, making it difficult to distinguish adaptive from maladaptive responses in hypoxia-related pathologies.  We integrated metabolomic and proteomic profiling with mitochondrial respirometry and blood gas analyses to comprehensively define the physiological responses of skeletal muscle energy metabolism to 16 days of high-altitude hypoxia (5260 m) in healthy volunteers from the AltitudeOmics project...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530765/complete-genome-sequence-of-pseudomonas-frederiksbergensis-erdd5-01-revealed-genetic-bases-for-survivability-at-high-altitude-ecosystem-and-bioprospection-potential
#4
Rakshak Kumar, Vishal Acharya, Srijana Mukhia, Dharam Singh, Sanjay Kumar
Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis ERDD5:01 is a psychrotrophic bacteria isolated from the glacial stream flowing from East Rathong glacier in Sikkim Himalaya. The strain showed survivability at high altitude stress conditions like freezing, frequent freeze-thaw cycles, and UV-C radiations. The complete genome of 5,746,824 bp circular chromosome and a plasmid of 371,027 bp was sequenced to understand the genetic basis of its survival strategy. Multiple copies of cold-associated genes encoding cold active chaperons, general stress response, osmotic stress, oxidative stress, membrane/cell wall alteration, carbon storage/starvation and, DNA repair mechanisms supported its survivability at extreme cold and radiations corroborating with the bacterial physiological findings...
March 9, 2018: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529715/interventions-for-preventing-high-altitude-illness-part-2-less-commonly-used-drugs
#5
REVIEW
Alejandro Gonzalez Garay, Daniel Molano Franco, Víctor H Nieto Estrada, Arturo J Martí-Carvajal, Ingrid Arevalo-Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: High altitude illness (HAI) is a term used to describe a group of mainly cerebral and pulmonary syndromes that can occur during travel to elevations above 2500 metres (˜ 8200 feet). Acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude cerebral oedema (HACE) and high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPE) are reported as potential medical problems associated with high altitude ascent. In this second review, in a series of three about preventive strategies for HAI, we assessed the effectiveness of five of the less commonly used classes of pharmacological interventions...
March 12, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503636/metagenomic-study-suggests-that-the-gut-microbiota-of-the-giant-panda-ailuropoda-melanoleuca-may-not-be-specialized-for-fiber-fermentation
#6
Wei Guo, Sudhanshu Mishra, Jiangchao Zhao, Jingsi Tang, Bo Zeng, Fanli Kong, Ruihong Ning, Miao Li, Hengzhi Zhang, Yutian Zeng, Yuanliangzi Tian, Yihang Zhong, Hongdi Luo, Yunhan Liu, Jiandong Yang, Mingyao Yang, Mingwang Zhang, Yan Li, Qingyong Ni, Caiwu Li, Chengdong Wang, Desheng Li, Hemin Zhang, Zhili Zuo, Ying Li
Bamboo-eating giant panda ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca ) is an enigmatic species, which possesses a carnivore-like short and simple gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Despite the remarkable studies on giant panda, its diet adaptability status continues to be a matter of debate. To resolve this puzzle, we investigated the functional potential of the giant panda gut microbiome using shotgun metagenomic sequencing of fecal samples. We also compared our data with similar data from other animal species representing herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores from current and earlier studies...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468019/disentangling-population-strategies-of-two-cladocerans-adapted-to-different-ultraviolet-regimes
#7
Carla E Fernández, Melina Campero, Cintia Uvo, Lars-Anders Hansson
Zooplankton have evolved several mechanisms to deal with environmental threats, such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR), and in order to identify strategies inherent to organisms exposed to different UVR environments, we here examine life-history traits of two lineages of Daphnia pulex . The lineages differed in the UVR dose they had received at their place of origin from extremely high UVR stress at high-altitude Bolivian lakes to low UVR stress near the sea level in temperate Sweden. Nine life-history variables of each lineage were analyzed in laboratory experiments in the presence and the absence of sub-lethal doses of UVR (UV-A band), and we identified trade-offs among variables through structural equation modeling (SEM)...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422638/evidence-of-thermophilisation-and-elevation-dependent-warming-during-the-last-interglacial-in-the-italian-alps
#8
V E Johnston, A Borsato, S Frisia, C Spötl, Y Dublyansky, P Töchterle, J C Hellstrom, P Bajo, R L Edwards, H Cheng
Thermophilisation is the response of plants communities in mountainous areas to increasing temperatures, causing an upward migration of warm-adapted (thermophilic) species and consequently, the timberline. This greening, associated with warming, causes enhanced evapotranspiration that leads to intensification of the hydrological cycle, which is recorded by hydroclimate-sensitive archives, such as stalagmites and flowstones formed in caves. Understanding how hydroclimate manifests at high altitudes is important for predicting future water resources of many regions of Europe that rely on glaciers and snow accumulation...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239754/characterization-of-rhodococcus-sp-a5-wh-isolated-from-a-high-altitude-andean-lake-to-unravel-the-survival-strategy-under-lithium-stress
#9
Carolina Belfiore, María V Curia, María E Farías
Lithium (Li) is widely distributed in nature and has several industrial applications. The largest reserves of Li (over 85%) are in the so-called "triangle of lithium" that includes the Salar de Atacama in Chile, Salar de Uyuni in Bolivia and Salar del Hombre Muerto in Argentina. Recently, the use of microorganisms in metal recovery such as copper has increased; however, there is little information about the recovery of lithium. The strain Rhodococcus sp. A5wh used in this work was previously isolated from Laguna Azul...
November 24, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236861/plant-species-diversity-in-a-neotropical-wetland-patterns-of-similarity-effects-of-distance-and-altitude
#10
Francielli Bao, Thales D Leandro, Maíra DA Rocha, Vanessa S Dos Santos, Thiago H Stefanello, Rafael Arruda, Arnildo Pott, Geraldo A Damasceno-Júnior
The Brazilian Pantanal is an extensive wetland with heterogeneous habitats, primarily due to the river-floodplain system and plants with differential adaptations and reproductive strategies. Factors such as altitude, distance among plant formations, and flood pulse must be considered to better understand its diversity. Aiming to assess the influence of biogeographic patterns in this system, we analyzed the floristic composition of six areas along the Paraguay River, including residual relieves, verifying the pattern of similarity, and effects of distance and altitude...
December 7, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186199/genetic-diversity-and-population-structure-of-prunus-mira-koehne-from-the-tibet-plateau-in-china-and-recommended-conservation-strategies
#11
Wenquan Bao, Tana Wuyun, Tiezhu Li, Huimin Liu, Zhongmao Jiang, Xuchun Zhu, Hongyan Du, Yu-E Bai
Prunus mira Koehne, an important economic fruit crop with high breeding and medicinal values, and an ancestral species of many cultivated peach species, has recently been declared an endangered species. However, basic information about genetic diversity, population structure, and morphological variation is still limited for this species. In this study, we sampled 420 P. mira individuals from 21 wild populations in the Tibet plateau to conduct a comprehensive analysis of genetic and morphological characteristics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143710/importance-of-determining-the-climatic-domains-of-sheep-breeds
#12
D Petit, I Boujenane
The main purpose of the study was to compare the capacity of the major sheep breeds in Morocco to cope with climate changes through the ranges of several climate parameters in which they can be found. We first delimitated the climatic 'domains' of each breed by constructing a database including altitude and climatic parameters (minima mean of the coldest month, maxima mean of the hottest month, annual rainfall, pluviothermic coefficient of Emberger Q 2, annual minima mean and annual maxima mean) on a 30-year period using the representative stations of each breed distribution...
November 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129021/the-effect-of-natural-or-simulated-altitude-training-on-high-intensity-intermittent-running-performance-in-team-sport-athletes-a-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Michael J Hamlin, Catherine A Lizamore, Will G Hopkins
BACKGROUND: While adaptation to hypoxia at natural or simulated altitude has long been used with endurance athletes, it has only recently gained popularity for team-sport athletes. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the effect of hypoxic interventions on high-intensity intermittent running performance in team-sport athletes. METHODS: A systematic literature search of five journal databases was performed. Percent change in performance (distance covered) in the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (level 1 and level 2 were used without differentiation) in hypoxic (natural or simulated altitude) and control (sea level or normoxic placebo) groups was meta-analyzed with a mixed model...
February 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982709/the-british-services-dhaulagiri-medical-research-expedition-2016-a-unique-military-and-civilian-research-collaboration
#14
Adrian Mellor, J Bakker-Dyos, M Howard, C Boos, M Cooke, E Vincent, P Scott, J O'Hara, S B Clarke, M Barlow, J Matu, K Deighton, N Hill, C Newman, R Cruttenden, D Holdsworth, D Woods
INTRODUCTION: High-altitude environments lead to a significant physiological challenge and disease processes which can be life threatening; operational effectiveness at high altitude can be severely compromised. The UK military research is investigating ways of mitigating the physiological effects of high altitude. METHODS: The British Service Dhaulagiri Research Expedition took place from March to May 2016, and the military personnel were invited to consent to a variety of study protocols investigating adaptation to high altitudes and diagnosis of high-altitude illness...
December 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894222/discovery-of-carotenoid-red-shift-in-endolithic-cyanobacteria-from-the-atacama-desert
#15
Petr Vítek, Carmen Ascaso, Octavio Artieda, María Cristina Casero, Jacek Wierzchos
The biochemical responses of rock-inhabiting cyanobacteria towards native environmental stresses were observed in vivo in one of the Earth's most challenging extreme climatic environments. The cryptoendolithic cyanobacterial colonization, dominated by Chroococcidiopsis sp., was studied in an ignimbrite at a high altitude volcanic area in the Atacama Desert, Chile. Change in the carotenoid composition (red-shift) within a transect through the cyanobacteria dominant microbial community (average thickness ~1 mm) was unambiguously revealed in their natural endolithic microhabitat...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839002/high-altitude-champions-birds-that-live-and-migrate-at-altitude
#16
REVIEW
Sabine L Laguë
High altitude is physiologically challenging for vertebrate life for many reasons, including hypoxia (low environmental oxygen); yet, many birds thrive at altitude. Compared with mammals, birds have additional enhancements to their oxygen transport cascade, the conceptual series of steps responsible for acquiring oxygen from the environment and transporting it to the mitochondria. These adaptations have allowed them to inhabit a number of high-altitude regions. Waterfowl are a taxon prolific at altitude. This minireview explores the physiological responses of high-altitude waterfowl (geese and ducks), comparing the strategies of lifelong high-altitude residents to those of transient high-altitude performers, providing insight into how birds champion high-altitude life...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673260/gene-expression-variations-in-high-altitude-adaptation-a-case-study-of-the-asiatic-toad-bufo-gargarizans
#17
Weizhao Yang, Yin Qi, Bin Lu, Liang Qiao, Yayong Wu, Jinzhong Fu
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide investigation of molecular mechanisms for high-altitude adaptation has attracted great attention in the last few years. In order to understand the contribution of gene expression level variations to high-altitude adaptation in Asiatic toads (Bufo gargarizans), we implemented a reciprocal transplant experiment between low- and high-altitude sites and sequenced 12 transcriptomes from brain, heart, and liver tissues. RESULTS: A large number of genes with expression differences (DEGs) between high- and low-altitude individuals (193 fixed and 844 plastic) were identified, and the majority of them were tissue specific...
July 3, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672774/combinatorial-therapy-of-exercise-preconditioning-and-nanocurcumin-formulation-supplementation-improves-cardiac-adaptation-under-hypobaric-hypoxia
#18
Sarita Nehra, Varun Bhardwaj, Anju Bansal, Deepika Saraswat
BACKGROUND: Chronic hypobaric hypoxia (cHH) mediated cardiac insufficiencies are associated with pathological damage. Sustained redox stress and work load are major causative agents of cardiac insufficiencies under cHH. Despite the advancements made in pharmacological (anti-oxidants, vasodilators) and non-pharmacological therapeutics (acclimatization strategies and schedules), only partial success has been achieved in improving cardiac acclimatization to cHH. This necessitates the need for potent combinatorial therapies to improve cardiac acclimatization at high altitudes...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653390/interventions-for-preventing-high-altitude-illness-part-1-commonly-used-classes-of-drugs
#19
REVIEW
Víctor H Nieto Estrada, Daniel Molano Franco, Roger David Medina, Alejandro G Gonzalez Garay, Arturo J Martí-Carvajal, Ingrid Arevalo-Rodriguez
BACKGROUND: High altitude illness (HAI) is a term used to describe a group of cerebral and pulmonary syndromes that can occur during travel to elevations above 2500 metres (8202 feet). Acute hypoxia, acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude cerebral oedema (HACE) and high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPE) are reported as potential medical problems associated with high altitude. In this review, the first in a series of three about preventive strategies for HAI, we assess the effectiveness of six of the most recommended classes of pharmacological interventions...
June 27, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554694/influence-of-altitude-and-enhanced-ultraviolet-b-radiation-on-tuber-production-seed-viability-leaf-pigments-and-morphology-in-the-wild-potato-species-solanum-kurtzianum-bitter-wittm-collected-from-an-elevational-gradient
#20
V N Ibañez, F J Berli, R W Masuelli, R A Bottini, C F Marfil
Climate change could lead to an upward shift in plant distribution, exposing populations to higher levels of ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation. In the framework of an in situ strategy for conserving potato wild relatives, we evaluated the effect of high UV-B levels on natural population of Solanum kurtzianum. The hypothesis is that plants from naturally higher altitudes are more adapted to increased UV-B radiation. Two populations from low and high altitudes were field supplemented using UV-B-lamps (+UV-B) or excluded from it with plastic filters...
August 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
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