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fungal infection and neutropenia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915301/assessing-the-risk-of-false-positive-serum-galactomannan-among-patients-receiving-piperacillin-tazobactam-for-febrile-neutropenia
#1
Hayati Demiraslan, M Altay Atalay, Esma Eren, Koray Demir, Leylagul Kaynar, A Nedret Koc, Mehmet Doganay
Galactomannan (GM) assay is commonly used as an early diagnostic tool for invasive fungal infection (IFI) in high-risk hematology patients. False positivity is frequently observed in GM with the use of piperacillin/tazobactam. The usage of generic drugs over the original brand has a significant cost advantage. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of GM test among patients receiving original and generic piperacillin/tazobactam formulations. The study included 85 adult patients; 62.4% were male with hematological malignancy currently receiving piperacillin/tazobactam...
December 2, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904061/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-mucormycosis-in-patients-with-hematological-malignancies
#2
Yuki Asano-Mori
The risk of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) is extremely high in patients with hematological malignancies due to the prolonged and profound neutropenia and immunosuppression after chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. There has been increasing interest in mucormycosis despite its relatively uncommon occurrence, because occasional breakthrough infections have been observed under anti-aspergillus prophylaxis. The aggressive nature of mucormycosis easily leads to high mortality because of delays in diagnosis and incorrect treatment decisions, which are due in part to lack of adjunctive diagnostic tools and having similar clinical and radiological features with aspergillosis...
2016: Medical Mycology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875707/mucormycosis-causing-ludwig-angina-a-unique-presentation
#3
Ryan P McSpadden, James R Martin, Swati Mehrotra, Eric Thorpe
Mucormycosis is a rare fungal infection with a yearly incidence of 1.7 cases per million in the United States. It often occurs in patients with metabolic abnormalities or immunocompromised patients with prolonged neutropenia but can occur in patients without any underlying disease process. The treatment of choice is surgical debridement of necrotic tissue and systemic antifungal therapy, including amphotericin B. A dilemma for the surgeon when faced with head and neck mucormycosis is the morbidity of surgical debridement from a functional and cosmetic standpoint...
October 29, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849440/use-of-cidofovir-for-cytomegalovirus-disease-refractory-to-ganciclovir-in-solid-organ-recipients
#4
Hugo Bonatti, Costi D Sifri, Clara Larcher, Stefan Schneeberger, Camille Kotton, Christian Geltner
BACKGROUND: Solid organ transplantation (SOT) frequently is complicated by cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. Cidofovir (CDV) is active against CMV, including many ganciclovir (GCV)-resistant mutants, but often is considered to be too nephrotoxic for use after organ transplantation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seven males and two females (median age 50.1 years), including two kidney/pancreas, four lung, one small bowel, and two hand recipients, received CDV for refractory CMV disease...
November 16, 2016: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832748/invasive-mucormycosis-in-children-an-epidemiologic-study-in-european-and-non-european-countries-based-on-two-registries
#5
Zoi Dorothea Pana, Danila Seidel, Anna Skiada, Andreas H Groll, Georgios Petrikkos, Oliver A Cornely, Emmanuel Roilides
BACKGROUND: Mucormycosis has emerged as a rare but frequently fatal invasive fungal disease. Current knowledge on paediatric mucormycosis is based on case reports and small series reported over several decades. Contemporary data on a large cohort of patients is lacking. METHODS: Two large international registries (Zygomyco.net and FungiScope™) were searched for mucormycosis cases in ≤19 year-old patients. Cases enrolled between 2005 and 2014 were extracted, and dual entries in the two databases merged...
November 10, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811055/m-csf-improves-protection-against-bacterial-and-fungal-infections-after-hematopoietic-stem-progenitor-cell-transplantation
#6
Prashanth K Kandalla, Sandrine Sarrazin, Kaaweh Molawi, Carole Berruyer, David Redelberger, Anne Favel, Christophe Bordi, Sophie de Bentzmann, Michael H Sieweke
Myeloablative treatment preceding hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and progenitor cell (HS/PC) transplantation results in severe myeloid cytopenia and susceptibility to infections in the lag period before hematopoietic recovery. We have previously shown that macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF-1; M-CSF) directly instructed myeloid commitment in HSCs. In this study, we tested whether this effect had therapeutic benefit in improving protection against pathogens after HS/PC transplantation. M-CSF treatment resulted in an increased production of mature myeloid donor cells and an increased survival of recipient mice infected with lethal doses of clinically relevant opportunistic pathogens, namely the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus M-CSF treatment during engraftment or after infection efficiently protected from these pathogens as early as 3 days after transplantation and was effective as a single dose...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800196/chronic-disseminated-candidiasis-complicated-by-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-in-child-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#7
Olga Zając-Spychała, Bogna Ukielska, Katarzyna Jończyk-Potoczna, Benigna Konatkowska, Jacek Wachowiak
Hepatosplenic candidiasis also known as chronic disseminated candidiasis is a rare manifestation of invasive fungal infection typically observed in patients with acute leukemia in prolonged, deep neutropenia. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is an inflammatory disorder triggered by rapid resolution of neutropenia. Diagnosis and treatment of IRIS are still challenging due to a variety of clinical symptoms, lack of certain diagnostic criteria, and no standards of treatment. The diagnosis of IRIS is even more difficult in patients with hematological malignancies complicated by "probable" invasive fungal infection, when fungal pathogen is still uncertain...
2016: Case Reports in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729140/invasive-fungal-sinusitis-in-the-pediatric-population-systematic-review-with-quantitative-synthesis-of-the-literature
#8
Aaron Smith, Vikrum Thimmappa, Brandon Shepherd, Meredith Ray, Anthony Sheyn, Jerome Thompson
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal sinusitis (IFS) represents an often fatal condition within the pediatric population. In an effort to characterize demographics, treatment modalities, and prognostic factors, we performed a systematic review. METHODS: We systematically reviewed EMBASE, Medline, TRIPdatabase, SCOPUS and the Cochrane database for invasive fungal nasal and sinus infections limited to individuals <18 years of age. Case series including 3 or more patients were included...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704258/radial-ultrasound-assisted-transbronchial-biopsy-a-new-diagnostic-approach-for-non-resolving-pulmonary-infiltrates-in-neutropenic-hemato-oncological-patients
#9
Maurizio Bernasconi, Alessio Casutt, Angela Koutsokera, Igor Letovanec, Frédéric Tissot, Laurent P Nicod, Alban Lovis
The role of radial-endobronchial ultrasound (R-EBUS) assisted transbronchial biopsy (TBB) for the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary lesions is well established. However, no study has addressed its safety and value in hemato-oncological patients presenting with non-resolving infiltrates during persistent febrile neutropenia. To assess safety and feasibility of R-EBUS assisted TBB in severe thrombocytopenic and neutropenic patients. Over a period of 18 months, eight patients were assessed with R-EBUS assisted TBB after adequate platelet transfusion...
October 4, 2016: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704020/serum-amyloid-p-component-and-systemic-fungal-infection-does-it-protect-the-host-or-is-it-a-trojan-horse
#10
Stephen A Klotz, Richard E Sobonya, Peter N Lipke, Melissa C Garcia-Sherman
It is a striking observation that tissue of patients invaded by the deep mycoses often lacks evidence of an inflammatory response. This lack of host response is often attributed to neutropenia secondary to chemotherapy. However, systematic studies do not support this simplistic explanation. However, invasive fungal lesions are characterized by abundant fungal functional amyloid, which in turn is bound by serum amyloid P component (SAP). We postulate that SAP is important in the local immune response in invasive fungal infections...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703016/posaconazole-plasma-concentrations-in-pediatric-patients-receiving-antifungal-prophylaxis-during-neutropenia
#11
Michaela Döring, Karin Melanie Cabanillas Stanchi, Hartwig Klinker, Melinda Eikemeier, Judith Feucht, Franziska Blaeschke, Carl-Philipp Schwarze, Martin Ebinger, Tobias Feuchtinger, Rupert Handgretinger, Werner J Heinz
Invasive fungal infections are one of the major complications in pediatric patients during prolonged neutropenia after chemotherapy. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of the triazole posaconazole in these patients is missing. This multicenter survey analyzed trough concentrations of 33 pediatric patients with a median age of 8 years during 108 neutropenic episodes who received prophylactic posaconazole oral suspension. A total of 172 posaconazole trough levels were determined to median 438 ng/ml (range 111-2011 ng/ml; mean 468 ± 244 ng/ml)...
October 4, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699447/antibiotic-prophylaxis-with-teicoplanin-on-alternate-days-reduces-rate-of-viridans-sepsis-and-febrile-neutropenia-in-pediatric-patients-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#12
Heidrun Boztug, Nora Mühlegger, Ulrike Pötschger, Andishe Attarbaschi, Christina Peters, Georg Mann, Michael Dworzak
Intensive chemotherapy directed against acute myeloid leukemia of childhood is followed by profound neutropenia and high risk for bacterial and fungal infections, including viridans group streptococci as a common cause for gram-positive septicemia. Few retrospective studies have shown the efficacy of various antibiotic prophylactic regimens in children. We retrospectively studied 50 pediatric patients treated on the AML-BFM 2004 protocol between 2005 and 2015 at St. Anna Children's Hospital and assessed the effect of antibiotic prophylaxis on the frequency of febrile neutropenia and bacterial sepsis...
October 4, 2016: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698695/rare-case-of-disseminated-fusariosis-in-a-young-patient-with-graft-vs-host-disease-following-an-allogeneic-transplant
#13
Alina Tanase, Anca Colita, Gabriel Ianosi, Daniela Neagoe, Daciana Elena Branisteanu, Daniela Calina, Anca Oana Docea, Aristidis Tsatsakis, Simona Laura Ianosi
Fusarium infection is a severe fungal infection caused by fungi of the genus Fusarium. It most commonly occurs in immunocompromised patients with malignant hematological comorbidities or secondary to hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The classical route of contamination is through inhalation but infection may also occur through contiguity with a skin lesion. This report describes the case of a 24-year-old woman who developed graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) at 220 days after receiving an allogeneic stem cell transplant from a sibling donor for Hodgkin disease...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696283/a-multicenter-phase-2-study-of-empirical-low-dose-liposomal-amphotericin-b-in-patients-with-refractory-febrile-neutropenia
#14
Kotaro Miyao, Masashi Sawa, Mio Kurata, Ritsuro Suzuki, Reona Sakemura, Toshiyasu Sakai, Tomonori Kato, Satomi Sahashi, Natsuko Tsushita, Yukiyasu Ozawa, Motohiro Tsuzuki, Akio Kohno, Tatsuya Adachi, Keisuke Watanabe, Kaneyuki Ohbayashi, Yuichiro Inagaki, Yoshiko Atsuta, Nobuhiko Emi
Invasive fungal infection (IFI) is a major life-threatening problem encountered by patients with hematological malignancies receiving intensive chemotherapy. Empirical antifungal agents are therefore important. Despite the availability of antifungal agents for such situations, the optimal agents and administration methods remain unclear. We conducted a prospective phase 2 study of empirical 1 mg/kg/day liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB) in 80 patients receiving intensive chemotherapy for hematological malignancies...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682882/risk-stratification-for-invasive-fungal-infections-in-patients-with-hematological-malignancies-seifem-recommendations
#15
Livio Pagano, Alessandro Busca, Anna Candoni, Chiara Cattaneo, Simone Cesaro, Rosa Fanci, Gianpaolo Nadali, Leonardo Potenza, Domenico Russo, Mario Tumbarello, Annamaria Nosari, Franco Aversa
Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Patients with hematological malignancies undergoing conventional chemotherapy, autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are considered at high risk, and Aspergillus spp. represents the most frequently isolated micro-organisms. In the last years, attention has also been focused on other rare molds (e.g., Zygomycetes, Fusarium spp.) responsible for devastating clinical manifestations...
September 17, 2016: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642861/chest-ct-scans-are-frequently-abnormal-in-asymptomatic-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#16
Janaki Vallipuram, Sidika Dhalla, Chaim M Bell, Linda Dresser, Heekyung Han, Shahid Husain, Mark D Minden, Narinder S Paul, Miranda So, Marilyn Steinberg, Mayuran Vallipuram, Gary Wong, Andrew M Morris
Chest computed tomography (CT) findings of nodules, ground glass opacities, and consolidations are often interpreted as representing invasive fungal infection in individuals with febrile neutropenia. We assessed whether these CT findings were present in asymptomatic individuals with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) at low risk of invasive fungal disease. A retrospective study of consecutive asymptomatic adult patients with newly diagnosed AML over a 2-year period was performed at a tertiary care oncology center...
September 19, 2016: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595249/-nosocomial-pneumonia-in-patients-with-haematological-malignancies
#17
Lucía Martínez-Hernández, Diana Vilar-Compte, Patricia Cornejo-Juárez, Patricia Volkow-Fernández
INTRODUCTION: Nosocomial pneumonia (NP) in patients with hematological malignancies (HM) has an attributable mortality over 90%. There are few studies that report the incidence of nosocomial infections in patients with HM. OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology and clinical course of NP in a cohort of patients with hematologic malignancies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Single-center study of patients with leukemia, lymphoma or multiple myeloma diagnosed with NP, hospitalized between January 2011 and December 2012...
July 2016: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556666/primary-gangrenous-cutaneous-mold-infections-in-a-patient-with-cancer-and-neutropenia
#18
Abraham Yacoub, Kiran K Soni, Lysenia Mojica, Jane Mai, Jamie Morano, C Wayne Cruse, Ramon L Sandin, Sowmya Nanjappa, Chandrashekar Bohra, Ganesh Gajanan, John N Greene
BACKGROUND: Opportunistic fungal infections caused by Aspergillus and Candida followed by infections with Fusarium, Rhizopus, Mucor, and Alternaria species are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with hematological malignancies. Cutaneous mucormycosis infections are rare, and the incidence, outcomes, and factors associated with survival in the setting of hematological malignancies are not clear. METHODS: A literature search was conducted for all cases of primary cutaneous mold infections in patients with hematological malignancy, of which 50 cases were found...
July 2016: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27489464/febrile-neutropenia-in-children-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-single-center-experience
#19
Nihal Özdemir, Gülen Tüysüz, Nigar Çelik, Leman Yantri, Ethem Erginöz, Hilmi Apak, Alp Özkan, İnci Yıldız, Tiraje Celkan
AIM: An important life-threatening complication of intensive chemotherapy administered in children with leukemia is febrile neutropenia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and consequences of febrile neutropenia attacks in children who were treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Nighty-six children who received chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia in our center between January 1995 and December 2010 were included in the study...
June 2016: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27487075/dose-dependent-effect-of-granulocyte-transfusions-in-hematological-patients-with-febrile-neutropenia
#20
Luciana Teofili, Caterina Giovanna Valentini, Roberta Di Blasi, Nicoletta Orlando, Luana Fianchi, Gina Zini, Simona Sica, Valerio De Stefano, Livio Pagano
It is still under debate whether granulocyte transfusions (GTs) substantially increase survival in patients with febrile neutropenia. We retrospectively examined data relative to 96 patients with hematological malignancies receiving 491 GTs during 114 infectious episodes (IE). Patients were grouped according to the median doses of granulocytes transfused during the infectious episode (low-dose group: <1.5-x108 cells/Kg; standard-dose group: 1.5-3.0x108 cells/Kg and high-dose group: >3.0x108 cells/Kg)...
2016: PloS One
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