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Norma Julieta Salazar Lopez, Guadalupe Loarca-Piña, Rocío Campos-Vega, Marcela Gaytán Martínez, Eduardo Morales Sánchez, J Marina Esquerra-Brauer, Gustavo A Gonzalez-Aguilar, Maribel Robles Sánchez
Approximately 80% of sorghum phenolic compounds are linked to arabinoxylans by ester bonds, which are capable of resisting the digestion process in the upper gastrointestinal tract, compromising their bioaccessibility and biological potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the extrusion process on the content of phenolic compounds in sorghum bran and its impact on phenolic compounds and antiradical and anti-inflammatory capacity. Results revealed that the extrusion process increased total phenol content in sorghum bran compared to nonextruded sorghum, particularly for extrusion at 180°C with 20% moisture content (2...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Gregory C Wernecke, Ian A Harrris, Bradley G Seeto, Darren B Chen, Samuel J MacDessi
BACKGROUND: Rotational alignment of prosthetic components in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is important to successful outcomes. Component malrotation is a known cause of revision and understanding normal rotational alignment may help recreate normal joint kinematics. To date, no large MRI study assessing femorotibial rotational alignment in nonarthritic knees has been undertaken. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: Is Insall's tibial axis a reliable rotational landmark against common femoral rotational axes in the nonarthritic patient population? METHODS: We reviewed 544 knee MRI scans performed for suspected soft tissue pathology and identified Insall's tibial rotational axis as well as the femoral clinical trans-epicondylar axis (TEAc), femoral surgical trans-epicondylar axis (TEAs), posterior condylar articular axis (PCA), and a modified Eckhoff's cylindrical axis...
October 2016: HSS Journal: the Musculoskeletal Journal of Hospital for Special Surgery
Li Fu, WenQing Lu, XiaoMin Zhou
In our previous study, we have found that persimmon, guava, and sweetsop owned considerably high antioxidant activity and contained high total phenolic contents as well. In order to further supply information on the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of these three tropic fruits, they were extracted by 80% methanol. We then examined the extractions about their phenolic compounds and also studied the extractions and phenolic contents about their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against twelve targeted pathogens including 8 standard strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Monilia albican, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and 4 multidrug-resistant strains (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, ESBLs-producing Escherichia coli, carbapenems-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii), which are common and comprehensive in clinic...
2016: BioMed Research International
J Saúl García-Pérez, Sara P Cuéllar-Bermúdez, Alejandra Arévalo-Gallegos, José Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Hafiz M N Iqbal, Roberto Parra-Saldivar
Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is a sustainable technique used for the extraction of lipophilic metabolites such as pigments and fatty acids. Arnica plant is considered a potential candidate material with high antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Therefore, in this study, a locally available Heterotheca inuloides, also known as Mexican arnica, was analyzed for the extraction of high-value compounds. Based on different pressure (P), temperature (T), and co-solvent (CoS), four treatments (T) were prepared...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jose Sergio Possomato-Vieira, Victor Hugo Gonçalves-Rizzi, Tamiris Uracs Sales Graça, Regina Aparecida Nascimento, Carlos A Dias-Junior
Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) has presented antihypertensive and antioxidant effects and may reduce circulating soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1). We examined whether NaHS prevents maternal and fetal detrimental changes in a model of hypertension in pregnancy induced by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Forty pregnant rats were divided into four groups (n = 10 per group): Norm-Preg, Preg + NaHS, HTN-Preg, or HTN-Preg + NaHS. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), number of viable fetuses, litter size, pups, and placentae weights were recorded...
September 12, 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Abraham Wall-Medrano, Gustavo A González-Aguilar, Guadalupe F Loarca-Piña, José A López-Díaz, Mónica A Villegas-Ochoa, Orlando Tortoledo-Ortiz, Francisco J Olivas-Aguirre, Arnulfo Ramos-Jiménez, Ramón Robles-Zepeda
The fruit of Guamúchil is an excellent source of bioactive compounds for human health although their natural occurrence could be affected by the ripening process. The aim was to evaluate some physicochemical, chemical and antioxidant changes in guamúchil fruit during six ripening stages (I to VI). A defined trend (p ≤ 0.003) was observed for color [°Hue, 109 (light green) to 20 (dark red)], anthocyanins (+571 %), soluble solids (+0.33 (o)Brix), ash (+16 %), sucrose (-91 %), proanthocyanidins (63 %), ascorbic acid (-52 %) and hydrolysable PC (-21 %)...
September 2, 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Jyh-Ferng Yang, Cheng-Hong Yang, Ming-Tsai Liang, Zi-Jie Gao, Yuh-Wern Wu, Li-Yeh Chuang
The antioxidant and antibacterial activities of wood vinegar from Litchi chinensis, and its components have been studied. The chemical compositions of wood vinegar were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 17 chemical compounds were identified, representing 83.96% of the compositions in the wood vinegar. Three major components, included 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (syringol, 29.54%), 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol, 12.36%), and 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxytoluene (11.07%), were found in the wood vinegar...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Mengmeng Huang, Yan Wei, Jun Wang, Yu Zhang
We used the support vector regression (SVR) approach to predict and unravel reduction/promotion effect of characteristic flavonoids on the acrylamide formation under a low-moisture Maillard reaction system. Results demonstrated the reduction/promotion effects by flavonoids at addition levels of 1-10000 μmol/L. The maximal inhibition rates (51.7%, 68.8% and 26.1%) and promote rates (57.7%, 178.8% and 27.5%) caused by flavones, flavonols and isoflavones were observed at addition levels of 100 μmol/L and 10000 μmol/L, respectively...
2016: Scientific Reports
Ishaku Leo Elisha, Jean-Paul Dzoyem, Lyndy Joy McGaw, Francien S Botha, Jacobus Nicolaas Eloff
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress predisposes the human and animal body to diseases like cancer, diabetes, arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis and chronic inflammatory disorders. Hence, this study seeks to determine the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities of acetone leaf extracts of nine South African medicinal plants that have been used traditionally to treat arthritis and inflammation. METHODS: The anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts was determined by investigating inhibition of nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide activated RAW 264...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Shih-Chuan Liu, Jau-Tien Lin, Chao-Chin Hu, Bo-Yan Shen, Ting-Yo Chen, Ya-Ling Chang, Chia-Huing Shih, Deng-Jye Yang
Antioxidant components and properties (assayed by scavenging DPPH radicals, TEAC, reducing power, and inhibiting Cu(2+)-induced human LDL oxidation) of leaves and stems from three inbred varieties of Lycium chinense Miller, namely ML01, ML02 and ML02-TY, harvested from January to April were studied. Their flavonoid and phenolic acid compositions were also analyzed by HPLC. For each variety, the leaves and stems collected in higher temperature month had higher contents of total phenol, total flavonoid and condensed tannin...
January 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Arturo Intiquilla, Karim Jiménez-Aliaga, Amparo I Zavaleta, Inés Arnao, Carmen Peña, Elizabeth L Chávez-Hidalgo, Blanca Hernández-Ledesma
Erythrina edulis Triana ex Micheli is a protein-enriched legume traditionally used for both dietary and medicinal purposes. In this paper, protein concentrate was obtained from the seed flour. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed a high number and intensity of bands in the range between 10 and 90 kDa. Neutrase, Flavourzyme, and Alcalase were used to hydrolyze the protein concentrate at different times. By SDS-PAGE, the lower resistance of proteins to Alcalase action was observed, providing hydrolyzates with higher radical scavenging activity...
June 2016: Natural Product Communications
Aslı Neslihan Avan, Sema Demirci Çekiç, Seda Uzunboy, Reşat Apak
Development of easy, practical, and low-cost spectrophotometric methods is required for the selective determination of phenolic antioxidants in the presence of other similar substances. As electron transfer (ET)-based total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assays generally measure the reducing ability of antioxidant compounds, thiols and phenols cannot be differentiated since they are both responsive to the probe reagent. In this study, three of the most common TAC determination methods, namely cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt/trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (ABTS/TEAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), were tested for the assay of phenolics in the presence of selected thiol and protein compounds...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Riccardo Petrelli, Giuseppe Orsomando, Leonardo Sorci, Filippo Maggi, Farahnaz Ranjbarian, Prosper C Biapa Nya, Dezemona Petrelli, Luca A Vitali, Giulio Lupidi, Luana Quassinti, Massimo Bramucci, Anders Hofer, Loredana Cappellacci
Erigeron floribundus (Asteraceae) is an herbaceous plant widely used in Cameroonian traditional medicine to treat various diseases of microbial and non-microbial origin. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro biological activities displayed by the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of E. floribundus, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Moreover, we investigated the inhibitory effects of E. floribundus essential oil on nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NadD), a promising new target for developing novel antibiotics, and Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan parasite responsible for Human African trypanosomiasis...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Camila Peres Rubio, Josefa Hernández-Ruiz, Silvia Martinez-Subiela, Asta Tvarijonaviciute, José Joaquin Ceron
The aim of this review is to study the main spectrophotometric methods used to evaluate total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in serum samples of dogs. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) is an analyte frequently used to assess the antioxidant status of biological samples and can evaluate the antioxidant response against the free radicals produced in a given disease. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) are different assays described to determine TAC of a sample...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Kawthar Ae Diab
BACKGROUND: In recent years, there has been considerable research on recycling of agroindustrial waste for production of bioactive compounds. The food processing industry produces large amounts of citrus peels that may be an inexpensive source of useful agents. OBJECTIVE: The present work aimed to explore the phytochemical content, antioxidant, anticancer, antiproliferation, and antigenotxic activities of lemon, grapefruit, and mandarin peels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Peels were extracted using 98% ethanol and the three crude extracts were assessed for their total polyphenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant activity using DPPH (1, 1diphenyl2picrylhydrazyl)...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Merve Bacanlı, A Ahmet Başaran, Nurşen Başaran
Phenolic compounds not only contribute to the sensory qualities of fruits and vegetables but also exhibit several health protective properties. Galangin, puerarin, and ursolic acid are commonly used plant phenolics in folk medicine. In this study, the antioxidant capacities of galangin, puerarin, and ursolic acid by the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay and the cytotoxic effects by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay in V79 cells were investigated. The genotoxic potentials of galangin, puerarin, and ursolic acid were evaluated by micronucleus (MN) and alkaline COMET assays in human lymphocytes and in V79 cells...
July 27, 2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Dara Dastan, Peyman Salehi, Hossein Maroofi
Laserpitium carduchorum is frequently used as a spice, and in Bane folk medicine, the aerial parts of this are used to treat urinary infections. Variation in the quantity and quality of the essential oil of Iranian L. carduchorum at different developmental growth stages including vegetative, flowering, and seed ripening is reported. In total, 33 compounds were identified and quantified in the oils of vegetative, flowering, and seed ripening stages, representing 97.8%, 98.8%, and 98.7% of the oils, respectively...
October 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Ana María Mendoza-Wilson, Sergio Ivan Castro-Arredondo, Angélica Espinosa-Plascencia, María Del Refugio Robles-Burgueño, René Renato Balandrán-Quintana, María Del Carmen Bermúdez-Almada
The apple is a food rich in diverse classes of polyphenols (PP), among which the proanthocyanidins (PCs), which are primarily concentrated in the skin, are one of the most abundant. These compounds are of considerable interest for their possible positive health effects because of their antioxidant properties. However, depending on the classes of PP present (chemical composition) and their relative concentrations in the apple skin, their antioxidant effects vary and some of their components can even generate prooxidant effects...
February 2016: Heliyon
Luis M López-Martínez, Javier Pitarch-Jarque, Àlvar Martínez-Camarena, Enrique García-España, Roberto Tejero, Hisila Santacruz-Ortega, Rosa-Elena Navarro, Rogerio R Sotelo-Mundo, Mario Alberto Leyva-Peralta, Antonio Doménech-Carbó, Begoña Verdejo
The synthesis, acid-base behavior, and Cu(2+) coordination chemistry of a new ligand (L1) consisting of an azamacrocyclic core appended with a lateral chain containing a 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4(1H)-pyridinone group have been studied by potentiometry, cyclic voltammetry, and NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy. UV-vis and NMR studies showed that phenolate group was protonated at the highest pH values [log K = 9.72(1)]. Potentiometric studies point out the formation of Cu(2+) complexes of 1:2, 2:2, 4:3, 1:1, and 2:1 Cu(2+)/L1 stoichiometries...
August 1, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Silvina R Drago, Hanai Franco-Miranda, Raúl E Cian, David Betancur-Ancona, Luis Chel-Guerrero
The aims of the study were to study the inclusion of P. lunatus (PLH) and V. unguiculata (VUH) protein hydrolyzates with bioactive properties into a pasta-extruded product and determine residual activity after extrusion or pasta cooking. Both protein hydrolyzates showed angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACEI) and antioxidant activity (TEAC). PLH showed higher ACEI but lower TEAC than VUH (97.19 ± 0.23 vs. 91.95 ± 0.29 % and 244.7 ± 3.4 vs. 293.7 ± 3.3 μmol Trolox/g, respectively). They were included at 5 or 10 % into wheat pasta...
September 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
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