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Iodine deficiency in children

Julia Elisabeth von Oettingen, Tesha Dawn Brathwaite, Christopher Carpenter, Ric Bonnell, Xuemei He, Lewis E Braverman, Elizabeth N Pearce, Philippe Larco, Nancy Charles Larco, Eddy Jean-Baptiste, Rosalind S Brown
CONTEXT: Iodine deficiency is the leading cause of preventable neurodevelopmental delay in children worldwide. It is a possible public health concern in Haiti. OBJECTIVE: To perform a population iodine survey in Haitian young children, and its influence by environmental factors. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study, March-June 2015. SETTING: Community churches in 3 geographical regions in Haiti. PARTICIPANTS: 299 healthy Haitian children aged 9 months to 6 years; 100 enrolled in coastal (C) and mountainous (M) regions, and 99 in an urban region (U)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Sarah C Bath, Victor J M Pop, Victoria L Furmidge-Owen, Maarten Broeren, Margaret P Rayman
Background Though iodine deficiency in pregnancy is a matter of public-health concern, a functional measure of iodine status is lacking. The thyroid-specific protein, thyroglobulin (Tg), which reflects thyroid size, has shown promise as a functional measure in studies of children and adults, but data in pregnancy are sparse. In a cohort of mildly-to-moderately iodine-deficient pregnant women, we aimed to explore whether serum Tg is a sensitive functional biomarker of iodine status and to examine longitudinal change in Tg with gestational age...
October 20, 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Masaharu Tsubokura, Shuhei Nomura, Hajime Watanobe, Yoshitaka Nishikawa, Chiaki Suzuki, Sae Ochi, Claire Leppold, Hirokatsu Kinoshita, Shigeaki Kato, Yasutoshi Saito
Background Iodine deficiency is an important modifier of the risk of thyroid cancer following irradiation; however, little information is available on a prevalence of iodine deficiency in Fukushima and its surroundings after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident that occurred in March, 2011. Methods To assess urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) and a prevalence of iodine deficiency and to elucidate any associations between demographic characteristics and UIC levels among children and adolescents aged 18 or younger at the time of the accident in Fukushima Prefecture and its surroundings, we evaluated the data on voluntary UIC testing conducted by Hirata Central Hospital, Fukushima...
October 19, 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Rut Anne Thomassen, Janne Anita Kvammen, Mari Borge Eskerud, Pétur Benedikt Júlíusson, Christine Henriksen, Jarle Rugtveit
OBJECTIVES: To investigate iodine status and growth in cow's milk protein allergic infants and to identify potential predictors of iodine status and growth. METHODS: Fifty-seven infants under two years of age were included in an observational cross-sectional study. Two spot urine samples were collected and analysed for iodine, together with a three-day food record and a food frequency questionnaire. Urine iodine concentrations were compared to the WHO cut-off values for iodine deficiency...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Lydie Ryšavá, Jaroslav Kříž
Diseases caused by Iodine deficit are preventable. Inter resort Commission for the solution of Iodine deficiency (MKJD) at State Institute for Health (SZU) in Prague has been taking effective measures which satisfied requirements of the Principles for sustainable elimination of diseases caused by Iodine deficiency ICCD WHO: 96 % of households is using iodized salt, average Iodine content is 25 mg/1 kg of salt. Data from studies show ioduria less 100 mcg/l in only 9 per cent of seniors, 5 % of children 7-10 years, 3 % of children 10-12 years...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Lydie Ryšavá, Jaroslav Kříž, Lucie Kašparová, Tereza Křížová, Monika Žoltá, Petra Lisníková
Monitoring of Ioduria and Iodine saturation are essential tools for evaluation of effectivness of measures aimed at elimination of diseases caused by iodine deficiency. Between 1995 and 2016 monitoring of ioduria was udertaken in various population groups in Czech Republic. The most recent study (2015) found only 37 % of pregnant women in optimal range of ioduria (150-300 mcg/l), in iodopenic range 27 %, while 6 % of these had severe iodopenia below 50 mcg/l. In a group of 3y old children investigated in the same year, 57 % were found to have Ioduria within the recommended range (90-299 mcg/l), 24 % had higher than recommended Ioduria (300-499 mcg/l) and 8 % excessive saturation (over 500 mcg/l)...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Radovan Bílek, Nataša Kaňová, Veronika Mindžáková, David Neumann, Jan Jiskra, Lydie Ryšavá, Václav Zamrazil
INTRODUCTION: Iodine deficiency is a global public health problem which is particularly noticeable in pregnant or breastfeeding women and their children. Even mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy can lead to damage to the developing brain and thus affecting the fetus intelligence, his cognitive and neurological function, embryogenesis and growth. PATIENTS: In the period 2010-2015 was determined by spectrophotometry at the Institute of Endocrinology the basal urinary iodine in 532 pregnant women at the age of 32 ± 5 (18-44) years, which came from Prague, Hradec Kralove and Mlada Boleslav...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Huseyin Kurku, Ali Gencer, Ozgur Pirgon, Muammer Buyukinan, Nagehan Aslan
BACKGROUND: Iodine is a part of thyroid hormones and has been reported to act directly as an antioxidant or induce indirectly antioxidant enzymes. This study aimed to assess the urinary iodine concentration and its relationship between the antioxidant and oxidative stress capacity in healthy school-aged children. METHODS: In total, 196 students from five primary schools, randomly selected between 9 and 12 years (mean age: 10.2±1.2 years), were enrolled in the study...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
J E C Santos, M Freitas, C P Fonseca, P Castilho, I M Carreira, J L Rombeau, M C Branco
BACKGROUND: The goal of eliminating iodine deficiency (ID) by the year 2000 has still not been achieved in several countries. More than 2 billion people worldwide (over 260 million school age children) remain ID. In Europe, there are still countries, such as Portugal, without national general population data on iodine nutrition (IN). This study aims at evaluating combined complementary data of the IN of the general population through urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and the thyroid histology profile from the inland region of Beira Interior (BI), in Portugal...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Ahmad Nadeem Aslami, Mohammed A Ansari, N Khalique, Umesh Kapil
We carried out this study to assess iodine deficiency disorders among school children of 6-12 years age group in Aligarh district of India. The prevalence of goiter was 5.2%. Median Urinary Iodine Excretion level was 150 ug/L; 22.5% of students had biochemical iodine deficiency. 50.4% households were consuming adequately iodized salt.
August 8, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
J Podoba, K Racova, H Urbankova, M Srbecky
OBJECTIVE: Prophylaxis of iodine deficiency-related disorders with iodized salt in Slovakia was introduced in 1951. This prophylactic measure yielded remarkably good results. Endemic goiter and endemic cretinism disappeared. Sufficient iodine intake, mainly in children and adolescents, was confirmed in several local and international studies carried out in the period 1991-95. Unfortunately, since seventies, there has been no institution which would have dealt with iodine prophylaxis in such an extent as this important measure of Slovak preventive medicine would require...
January 2016: Endocrine Regulations
M H Al-Dakheel, H K Haridi, B M Al-Bashir, A Al-Shingiti, S Al-Shehri, M A Gassem, I Hussein
This study aimed at establishing updated data on iodine nutrition among schoolchildren in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional cluster survey among schoolchildren aged 8-10 years was conducted during February-April 2012. Children were clinically examined for goitre, urine and household salt samples were collected to estimate urinary iodine concenteration (UIC) and iodine content in salt. The overall goitre prevalence at the national level among 4 016 children was 4.2%. The prevalence was < 5% in all regions of the country except southern region with a prevalence of 12...
May 2016: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
Selekane A Motadi, Vanessa Mbhatsani, Kulani O Shilote
BACKGROUND: Globally, there is evidence that three micronutrients deficiencies are of public health concern among children. They are vitamin A, iodine and iron deficiencies. Communities particularly affected are those in situations where poverty, unemployment, civil unrest, war and exploitation remain endemic. Malnutrition is an impediment to productivity, economic growth and poverty eradication. It is estimated that 32% of the global burden would be removed by eliminating malnutrition, including micronutrients deficiencies...
2016: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
Patricia J Bauer, Jessica A Dugan
Maternal hypothyroxinemia secondary to iodine deficiency may have neurodevelopmental effects on the specific neurocognitive domain of memory. Associated disruption of thyroid hormone-dependent protein synthesis in the hippocampus has the potential to result in compromised development of the structure with consequential impairments in memory function. Despite links between maternal iodine deficiency during gestation and lactation and abnormal hippocampal development in rat fetuses and pups, there has been little research on the specific function of memory in human infants and young children born to iodine-deficient mothers...
September 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Maaike J Bruins, Roland Kupka, Michael B Zimmermann, Georg Lietz, Reina Engle-Stone, Klaus Kraemer
Interventions to address micronutrient deficiencies have large potential to reduce the related disease and economic burden. However, the potential risks of excessive micronutrient intakes are often not well determined. During the Global Summit on Food Fortification, 9-11 September 2015, in Arusha, a symposium was organized on micronutrient risk-benefit assessments. Using case studies on folic acid, iodine and vitamin A, the presenters discussed how to maximize the benefits and minimize the risks of intervention programs to address micronutrient malnutrition...
October 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Peng Liu, Xiaohui Su, Mu Li, Hongmei Shen, Jun Yu, Patrick J Kelly, Fangang Meng, Lixiang Liu, Lijun Fan, Ming Li, Shoujun Liu, Dianjun Sun
I deficiency is a worldwide public health problem. Median urinary I concentration in school-aged children has been used globally as a proxy for all populations. This study aims to determine whether median urinary I concentration of school-aged children is an appropriate indicator of I nutritional status in different adult populations. This is a secondary data analysis of two national I Deficiency Disorder surveys (2011, 2014) and two regional surveys (in coastal areas, 2009, and in high-risk areas, 2009-2014)...
September 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Hong Chao, Yu Fu Zhang, Peng Liu, Yun Feng Han, Shou Jun Liu
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of different levels of salt iodine content on thyroid volume (ThV) distribution using data from the 1999, 2011, and 2014 Chinese national iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) surveys. METHODS: Probability proportion to size (PPS) sampling method was used to obtain a representative national sample of 34,547, 38,932, and 47,188 Chinese children aged 8-10 years in 1999, 2011, and 2014 Chinese national IDD surveys, respectively. The iodine content in household iodized salt and urinary iodine concentration were measured and thyroid ultrasound examination was performed...
June 2016: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
Kouji Masumoto
The trace elements is very important in growth of children, especially receiving nutritional management, including parenteral or enteral nutrition. Therefore, clinicians treating children should recognize regarding both the function and deficiency of trace elements. In this article, in nutritional management of children, the basic and recent knowledge was described regarding the function of some important trace elements, including zinc, copper, selenium, and iodine. In addition, the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatments in each trace element deficiency were also described...
July 2016: Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine
James P Wirth, Magali Leyvraz, Prahlad R Sodani, Grant J Aaron, Narottam D Sharma, Bradley A Woodruff
Food fortification is a cost-effective approach to prevent and control of micronutrient deficiencies in India. A cross-sectional survey of children 0-35 months of age residing in the catchment areas of anganwadi centers in the state of Telangana was conducted to assess the coverage of adequately iodized salt and the potential for rice fortification. Salt samples were collected and tested for iodine concentration using iodometric titration. Information on demographics, household rice consumption, and Telangana's rice sector was collected and interpreted...
2016: PloS One
Ye Yu, Jing Dong, Yuan Wang, Yi Wang, Hui Min, Zhongyan Shan, Weiping Teng, Jie Chen
Iodine deficiency (ID) during early pregnancy had an adverse effect on children's psychomotor and motor function. It is worth noting that maternal marginal ID tends to be a common public health problem. Whether marginal ID potentially had adverse effects on the development of cerebellum and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Therefore, our aim was to study the effects of marginal ID on the dendritic growth in filial cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) and the underlying mechanism. In the present study, we established Wistar rat models by feeding dam rats with a diet deficient in iodine and deionized water supplemented with potassium iodide...
July 22, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
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