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Iodine deficiency in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446011/continuously-sustained-elimination-of-iodine-deficiency-a-quarter-of-a-century-success-in-the-islamic-republic-of-iran
#1
H Delshad, P Mirmiran, Z Abdollahi, F Salehi, F Azizi
BACKGROUND: Iodine deficiency and related disorders were very common in Iran prior to 1996, when universal salt iodization (USI) was implemented and in 2000 Iran was declared iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) free. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of iodine intake by Iranian households in all 30 provinces of Iran, a quarter of a century after the intervention. METHODS: A total of 18,000 school-aged children (8-10 years with mean 8.7 ± 1 year) were included in this study...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413098/status-and-interrelationship-of-toenail-elements-in-pacific-children
#2
Shamshad Karatela, Neil I Ward, Irene Suilan Zeng, Janis Paterson
OBJECTIVE: Elemental deficiencies or in excess effects growth and development. Pacific population are at a disadvantage due to food insecurity as compared to New Zealand European households. This study aims to evaluate the status and interrelationship of elements (essential, non-essential and toxic) in nine-year-old Pacific children who were part of the Pacific Island Families Study living in New Zealand. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This observational study included 278 eligible nine-year-old children...
March 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402856/evaluation-of-dynamic-thiol-disulphide-homeostasis-in-children-and-adolescents-with-non-autoimmune-subclinical-hypothyroidism
#3
Seyit Ahmet Ucakturk, Murat Alışık, Çagatay Ugur, Selin Elmaogullari, Eda Mengen, Özcan Erel
<br>To evaluate the thiol/disulphide homeostasis in children with non-autoimmune subclinical hypothyroidism. <br> Materials (Subjects) and Methods<br>Thiol-disulphide homeostasis [native thiol-disulphide exchanges (native thiol (SH), disulphide (SS), and total thiol (SS+SH))] was evaluated in 60 children and adolescents who were negative for thyroid auto-antibodies (anti-thyroid peroxidase, anti-thyroglobulin) and had a TSH value higher than 5 mIU/L and in 40 sex- and age-matched healthy control subjects who were negative for thyroid auto-antibodies and had normal TSH levels...
January 25, 2018: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360482/biomonitoring-equivalents-for-interpretation-of-urinary-iodine
#4
Sean M Hays, Devika Poddalgoda, Kristin Macey, Lesa Aylward, Andy Nong
Iodine is an essential nutrient whose deficiency or excess exposure can cause adverse health effects. The primary sources of iodine exposure in the general population are iodized salt, dairy products, bread and sea food. Urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) have been measured by Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) and US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The Institute of Medicine (IOM), the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) and World Health Organization (WHO) have established exposure guidance values for nutrition (IOM Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), WHO Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI)) and toxicity (IOM Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL); ATSDR Minimal Risk Level (MRL), WHO International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI))...
January 19, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335065/effects-of-maternal-marginal-iodine-deficiency-on-interactions-between-cerebellar-bergmann-glia-cells-and-purkinje-cells-in-rat-offspring
#5
Ye Yu, Jing Dong, Yuan Wang, Yi Wang, Hui Min, Zhong Yan Shan, Wei Ping Teng, Jie Chen
Iodine deficiency (ID) during early pregnancy has an adverse effect on children's psychomotor and motor function but the mechanism has not been clarified. Therefore, our aim was to study the effect of maternal marginal ID on cerebellar neurodevelopment and the underlying mechanism. After obtaining marginal ID rats, we examined interactions between Bergmann glia cells (BGs) and Purkinje cells (PCs) using immunofluorescence and expression of the glutamate transporter and receptor by western blot. Our results showed that marginal ID reduced the number of contacted points between BGs and PCs, and disturbed expression of the glutamate transporter and receptor...
December 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303778/veganism-as-a-cause-of-iodine-deficient-hypothyroidism
#6
Olga Yeliosof, Lawrence A Silverman
BACKGROUND: Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of acquired hypothyroidism worldwide. Although uncommon in the Western world, the incidence of iodine deficiency may be rising due to the increased use of restrictive diets. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a 23-month-old boy diagnosed with iodine deficiency hypothyroidism, induced by a vegan diet. CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the risk for iodine deficiency in children on a vegan diet after discontinuation of breast/formula feeding that could lead to acquired hypothyroidism...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284787/endemic-goiter-and-iodine-deficiency-status-among-guinea-bissau-school-age-children
#7
Andre Couto Carvalho, Ana Machado, Adulai Robalo Embalo, Adriano A Bordalo
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect 25% of all school-age children around the world. Current policies concerning iodine deficiency disorders in many countries are not based on robust or recent national data. Our objective was to evaluate the current status of iodine nutrition in Guinea-Bissau (West Africa). SUBJECT/METHODS: A cross-sectional survey including 299 school-age children, aged 6-14 years old, from four distinct regions of Guinea-Bissau across a coast-hinterland gradient (Bolama, Bissau, Cambaju-Bafatá, and Gabú) was performed...
December 28, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279360/iodine-intake-from-supplements-and-diet-during-pregnancy-and-child-cognitive-and-motor-development-the-inma-mother-and-child-cohort-study
#8
Mario Murcia, Mercedes Espada, Jordi Julvez, Sabrina Llop, Maria-Jose Lopez-Espinosa, Jesus Vioque, Mikel Basterrechea, Isolina Riaño, Llucia González, Mar Alvarez-Pedrerol, Adonina Tardón, Jesús Ibarluzea, Marisa Rebagliato
BACKGROUND: The effect of mild-to-moderate maternal iodine deficiency on the neuropsychological development of their offspring is uncertain. We aimed to assess the association between iodine status during pregnancy and the cognitive and motor development of children at 4-5 years. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study in four Spanish regions with recruitment of pregnant women between 2003 and 2008 and follow-up of their children up to 4-5 years (mean (SD)=4...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236073/reduced-educational-outcomes-persist-into-adolescence-following-mild-iodine-deficiency-in-utero-despite-adequacy-in-childhood-15-year-follow-up-of-the-gestational-iodine-cohort-investigating-auditory-processing-speed-and-working-memory
#9
Kristen L Hynes, Petr Otahal, John R Burgess, Wendy H Oddy, Ian Hay
There is increasing evidence that even mild gestational iodine deficiency (GID) results in adverse neurocognitive impacts on offspring. It's unclear, however, if these persist long-term and whether they can be ameliorated by iodine sufficiency in childhood. We followed a unique cohort (Gestational Iodine Cohort, n = 266) where gestation occurred during a period of mild population iodine deficiency, with children subsequently growing-up in an iodine replete environment. We investigated whether associations between mild GID and reductions in literacy outcomes, observed at age 9-years, persisted into adolescence...
December 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219141/biochemical-iodine-deficiency-in-selected-schools-of-aligarh
#10
Mohammad Athar Ansari, Zulfia Khan
The goiter prevalence reflects the iodine deficiency in past while urinary iodine excretion levels (UIEL) gives the current status of iodine nutrition. The study was conducted to assess the status of biochemical iodine deficiency in school children of 1st-5th standard (6-12 years). A total of 907 students of seven schools were included using probability proportional to size method. About 10% of urine samples from total children were tested for UIEL. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 20 (IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 20...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184815/transient-hypothyroidism-in-the-newborn-to-treat-or-not-to-treat
#11
REVIEW
Neelakanta Kanike, Ajuah Davis, Prem S Shekhawat
Transient congenital hypothyroidism (CH) refers to a temporary deficiency of thyroid hormone identified after birth, with low thyroxine (T4) and elevated thyrotropin (TSH), which later recovers to improved thyroxine production, typically in first few months of infancy. Approximately 17% to 40% of children diagnosed with CH by newborn screening (NBS) programs were later determined to have transient hypothyroidism. Causes of transient CH are prematurity, iodine deficiency, maternal thyrotropin receptor blocking antibodies, maternal intake of anti-thyroid drugs, maternal or neonatal iodine exposure, loss of function mutations and hepatic hemangiomas...
October 2017: Translational pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172409/prevalence-of-goiter-and-associated-factors-among-schoolchildren-in-northeast-ethiopia
#12
Emebet Tigabu, Kindie Bantie Bekele, Berihun Assefa Dachew
OBJECTIVES: Goiter is a major public health problem, especially in developing countries such as Ethiopia. Hence, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of goiter among children in Waghimra Zone, northeast Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 8 to 25, 2015 in northeast Ethiopia. A multistage sampling method was used to select 454 schoolchildren. Data were collected using a pre-tested structured interviewer-administered questionnaire...
2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084139/the-impact-of-iodine-status-on-the-recall-rate-of-the-screening-program-for-congenital-hypothyroidism-findings-from-two-national-studies-in-iran
#13
Ladan Mehran, Shahin Yarahmadi, Davood Khalili, Pantea Nazeri, Hossein Delshad, Zahra Abdollahi, Nasrin Azhang, Fereidoun Azizi
Back ground: Iodine deficiency is one of the important factors in increasing the recall rate in congenital hypothyroidism (CH) screening programs. The present study assessed whether the iodine status of the general population may predict the recall rate or vice versa. METHODS: In the current national study, among 1,382,229 live births delivered between March 2010 and March 2011, 1,288,237 neonates were screened for detecting CH by TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) measurement via heel prick sampling...
October 30, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072650/-caries-prevention-with-fluoridated-and-iodinated-salt-in-school-aged-children-living-in-areas-with-fluoride-and-iodine-deficiency
#14
R M Ahmedbeyli
The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of dental caries prevention program with 3 years follow-up in children living in areas with fluoride and iodine deficiency. The study involved 625 school-aged children aged 6, 12 and 15 years receiving endogenous prevention with fluoridated and iodinated salt (300±50 mgF/kg and 40±10 mgI/kg). Enamel and dentine concentrations of CA, P, F and I were measured in 98 intact deciduous teeth by X-ray microanalysis before and after prevention program. Enamel and dentin microhardness was assessed in the same 98 teeth by Vickers Hardness Test...
2017: Stomatologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063209/interrelationship-between-iodine-nutritional-status-of-lactating-mothers-and-their-absolutely-breast-fed-infants-in%C3%A2-coastal%C3%A2-districts-of%C3%A2-gangetic%C3%A2-west-bengal-in-india
#15
N Pal, S K Samanta, A Chakraborty, N K Chandra, A K Chandra
Iodine nutritional status of 128 lactating mothers and their breast-fed infants (1-3 months) from iodine-replete villages during post-salt iodization period was evaluated. Mothers' urine, blood, and breast milk (BM) and infants' urine and blood were collected and analyzed for iodine and serum FT4 and TSH estimation. Mothers' and infants' age, parity, occupation, education, and household income were recorded. Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of infants was 250 μg/L, indicating their iodine intake was more than adequate...
October 23, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050705/iodine-nutritional-status-in-asturian-schoolchildren
#16
María Riestra Fernández, Edelmiro Menéndez Torre, Francisco Díaz Cadórniga, Juan Carlos Fernández Fernández, Elías Delgado Álvarez
INTRODUCTION: Iodine deficiency is a public health problem, and iodine nutritional status should therefore be regularly measured. OBJECTIVE: To ascertain iodine nutritional status in Asturias and its relation to use of iodized salt and to other sociodemographic and nutritional parameters. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A descriptive, observational study was conducted in a random sample of schoolchildren aged 5 to 14 years, in whom urinary iodine levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography...
November 2017: Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032778/has-iodized-salt-reduced-iodine-deficiency-disorders-among-school-aged-children-in-north-west-iran-a-9-year-prospective-study
#17
Sakineh Nouri Saeidlou, Fariba Babaei, Parvin Ayremlou, Rasoul Entezarmahdi
OBJECTIVE: Low iodine intakes are associated with goitre and other iodine-deficiency disorders (IDD) that have affected billions of people worldwide. We aimed to assess total goitre rate (TGR) and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in schoolchildren between 2007 and 2015, percentage of iodized salt consumption by households, and salt iodine content at production, distribution and household levels in north-west Iran. Design/Setting/Subjects UIC assessed among schoolchildren in nine consecutive years; 240 schoolchildren aged 8-10 years selected by systematic random sampling each year in the West Azerbaijan Province...
October 16, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030199/effect-of-iodine-supplementation-in-pregnant-women-on-child-neurodevelopment-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#18
Sueppong Gowachirapant, Nidhi Jaiswal, Alida Melse-Boonstra, Valeria Galetti, Sara Stinca, Ian Mackenzie, Susan Thomas, Tinku Thomas, Pattanee Winichagoon, Krishnamachari Srinivasan, Michael B Zimmermann
BACKGROUND: Iodine deficiency during pregnancy might be associated with reduced intelligence quotient (IQ) score in offspring. We assessed the effect of iodine supplementation in mildly iodine-deficient pregnant women on neurodevelopment of their offspring in areas where schoolchildren were iodine sufficient. METHODS: In this randomised, placebo-controlled trial, pregnant women in Bangalore, India, and Bangkok, Thailand, were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 200 μg iodine orally once a day or placebo until delivery...
November 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019745/imaging-of-nonmalignant-adrenal-lesions-in-children
#19
Kiran M Sargar, Geetika Khanna, Rebecca Hulett Bowling
The adrenal glands in children can be affected by a variety of benign lesions. The diagnosis of adrenal lesions can be challenging, but assessment of morphologic changes in correlation with the clinical presentation can lead to an accurate diagnosis. These lesions can be classified by their cause: congenital (eg, discoid adrenal gland, horseshoe adrenal gland, and epithelial cysts), vascular and/or traumatic (eg, adrenal hemorrhage), infectious (eg, granulomatous diseases), enzyme deficiency disorders (eg, congenital adrenal hyperplasia [CAH] and Wolman disease), benign neoplasms (eg, pheochromocytomas, ganglioneuromas, adrenal adenomas, and myelolipomas), and adrenal mass mimics (eg, extralobar sequestration and extramedullary hematopoiesis)...
October 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969507/societal-costs-of-micronutrient-deficiencies-in-6-to-59-month-old-children-in-pakistan
#20
Simon Wieser, Beatrice Brunner, Christina Tzogiou, Rafael Plessow, Michael B Zimmermann, Jessica Farebrother, Sajid Soofi, Zaid Bhatti, Imran Ahmed, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: In Pakistan, nearly half of children younger than 5 years are stunted and 1 in 3 is underweight. Micronutrient deficiencies, a less visible form of undernutrition, are also endemic. They may lead to increased morbidity and mortality as well as to impaired cognitive and physical development. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the lifetime costs of micronutrient deficiencies in Pakistani children aged between 6 and 59 months. METHODS: We develop a health economic model of the lifetime health and cost consequences of iodine, iron, vitamin A, and zinc deficiencies...
January 1, 2017: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
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