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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226082/stroke-occurring-in-patients-with-cognitive-impairment-or-dementia
#1
Solène Moulin, Didier Leys
Objective: To determine how pre-stroke cognitive impairment can be detected, its mechanism, and influence on outcome and management. Methods: Literature search. Results: (i) A systematic approach with the Informant Questionnaire of Cognitive Decline in the Elderly is recommended; (ii) Pre-stroke cognitive impairment may be due to brain lesions of vascular, degenerative, or mixed origin; (iii) Patients with pre-stroke dementia, have worse outcomes, more seizures, delirium, and depression, and higher mortality rates; they often need to be institutionalised after their stroke; (iv) Although the safety profile of treatment is not as good as that of cognitively normal patients, the risk:benefit ratio is in favour of treating these patients like others...
February 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211813/classification-of-depression-cognitive-disorders-and-co-morbid-depression-and-cognitive-disorders-with-perfusion-spect-neuroimaging
#2
Daniel G Amen, Pavitra Krishnamani, Somayeh Meysami, Andrew Newberg, Cyrus A Raji
BACKGROUND: Depression and cognitive disorders (CDs) are two common co-morbid afflictions that commonly present with overlapping symptoms. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if perfusion neuroimaging with brain SPECT can distinguish persons with depression from those with CDs or both conditions. METHODS: Inclusion criteria were DSM-IV defined depression or CDs (Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, dementia not otherwise specified, and amnestic disorders not otherwise specified) including persons with both (total n = 4,541; 847 CDs, 3,269 depression, 425 with both)...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163495/using-multistate-observational-studies-to-determine-role-of-hypertension-and-diabetes-as-risk-factors-for-dementia
#3
Mitasha Singh, Des Raj, Sunil Kumar Raina, Manoj Kumar Gandhi, Vishav Chander
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that modifiable risk factors which can be targeted by prevention are vascular diseases, such as diabetes, midlife hypertension (HTN), midlife obesity, midlife cholesterol, mid- and late-life depression as well as lifestyle factors such as smoking, physical inactivity, and poor diet. METHODS: A comprehensive search of the National Library of Medicine's PubMed database and Google Scholar was conducted. A combinations of medical subject headings and free text words that included search terms related to the exposure (e...
December 2016: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105501/-diagnostics-and-multimodal-treatment-of-depression-in-old-age-new-developments
#4
Gerhard W Eschweiler
Depressive disorders in elderly persons are frequent and can either first be manifested at a younger age and show a recurrent pattern during later life (ICD 10, F33.*) or have an onset beyond 60 years, which is termed late onset depression (LOD). This LOD has a higher tendency to chronification and implies an increased risk of progression, especially to vascular dementia. The multifactorial genesis of depression in old age includes psychosocial, vascular and metabolic factors and requires multimodal therapy modules at the biological and psychosocial level, which is now increasingly being empirically proven...
February 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095900/post-stroke-dementia-a-comprehensive-review
#5
REVIEW
Milija D Mijajlović, Aleksandra Pavlović, Michael Brainin, Wolf-Dieter Heiss, Terence J Quinn, Hege B Ihle-Hansen, Dirk M Hermann, Einor Ben Assayag, Edo Richard, Alexander Thiel, Efrat Kliper, Yong-Il Shin, Yun-Hee Kim, SeongHye Choi, San Jung, Yeong-Bae Lee, Osman Sinanović, Deborah A Levine, Ilana Schlesinger, Gillian Mead, Vuk Milošević, Didier Leys, Guri Hagberg, Marie Helene Ursin, Yvonne Teuschl, Semyon Prokopenko, Elena Mozheyko, Anna Bezdenezhnykh, Karl Matz, Vuk Aleksić, DafinFior Muresanu, Amos D Korczyn, Natan M Bornstein
Post-stroke dementia (PSD) or post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) may affect up to one third of stroke survivors. Various definitions of PSCI and PSD have been described. We propose PSD as a label for any dementia following stroke in temporal relation. Various tools are available to screen and assess cognition, with few PSD-specific instruments. Choice will depend on purpose of assessment, with differing instruments needed for brief screening (e.g., Montreal Cognitive Assessment) or diagnostic formulation (e...
January 18, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018503/neurocognitive-improvement-in-patients-undergoing-carotid-endarterectomy-for-atherosclerotic-occlusive-carotid-artery-disease
#6
Rashid Usman, Muhammad Jamil, Imran Ul Haq, Amir Ali Memon
Objectives: To assess the improvement in neurocognitive functions after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) under local anesthesia (LA) in patients with carotid bifurcation occlusive disease. Place and duration of study: Department of Vascular Surgery, Combined Military Hospital Lahore from January 2013 to January 2015. Patients and Methods: A total of 79 patients with carotid artery occlusive disease, having no history of major stroke, depression, or dementia underwent CEA under LA. Cognitive functions were assessed 3 days before surgery and then 4 weeks and 12 weeks after the surgery using the Addenbrookes cognitive examination (ACE) score and General Practitioner Assessment of Cognition (GPCOG) Score...
2016: Annals of Vascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012505/reversible-cognitive-frailty-dementia-and-all-cause-mortality-the-italian-longitudinal-study-on-aging
#7
Vincenzo Solfrizzi, Emanuele Scafato, Davide Seripa, Madia Lozupone, Bruno P Imbimbo, Angela D'Amato, Rosanna Tortelli, Andrea Schilardi, Lucia Galluzzo, Claudia Gandin, Marzia Baldereschi, Antonio Di Carlo, Domenico Inzitari, Antonio Daniele, Carlo Sabbà, Giancarlo Logroscino, Francesco Panza
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive frailty, a condition describing the simultaneous presence of physical frailty and mild cognitive impairment, has been recently defined by an international consensus group. We estimated the predictive role of a "reversible" cognitive frailty model on incident dementia, its subtypes, and all-cause mortality in nondemented older individuals. We verified if vascular risk factors or depressive symptoms could modify this predictive role. DESIGN: Longitudinal population-based study with 3...
January 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938433/deep-microbleeds-and-periventricular-white-matter-disintegrity-are-independent-predictors-of-attention-executive-dysfunction-in-non-dementia-patients-with-small-vessel-disease
#8
Wen-Wei Cao, Yao Wang, Quan Dong, Xue Chen, Yan-Sheng Li, Yan Zhou, Li Gao, Ye Deng, Qun Xu
BACKGROUND: Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is the common cause of cognitive decline in the old population. MRI can be used to clarify its mechanisms. However, the surrogate markers of MRI for early cognitive impairment in SVD remain uncertain to date. We investigated the cognitive impacts of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and brain volumetric measurements in a cohort of post-stroke non-dementia SVD patients. METHODS: Fifty five non-dementia SVD patients were consecutively recruited and categorized into two groups as no cognitive impairment (NCI) (n = 23) or vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI) (n = 32)...
December 12, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911311/risk-factors-and-pathological-substrates-associated-with-agitation-aggression-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-preliminary-study-using-nacc-data
#9
Simrin Sennik, Tom A Schweizer, Corinne E Fischer, David G Munoz
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common manifestations of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A number of studies have targeted psychosis, i.e., hallucinations and delusions in AD, but few have assessed agitation/aggression in AD. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors and pathological substrates associated with presence [A(+)] and absence [A(-)] of agitation/aggression (A) in autopsy-confirmed AD. METHODS: Data was collected from the UDS data as of 2015 on the NACC database...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905359/-clinical-and-neuropsychological-features-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-the-combination-with-cerebrovascular-disease
#10
N A Trusova, O S Levin, A V Arablinsky
AIM: To study clinical/neuropsychological and neuroimaging characteristics of Alzheimer's disease in the combination with cerebrovascular disease (CVD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety patients with dementia, including 35 patients with AD, 35 patients with mixed dementia (MD) and 20 patients with vascular dementia, were examined. The character of dementia was established according to NINCDS-ADRDA and NINDS-AIREN criteria. The neuropsychological battery included Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-R), Montreal Cognitive Assessment scale (MoCA), fluency test and the visual memory test (SCT)...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787891/a-brief-dietary-assessment-predicts-executive-dysfunction-in-an-elderly-cohort-results-from-the-einstein-aging-study
#11
Erin E Sundermann, Mindy J Katz, Richard B Lipton, Alice H Lichtenstein, Carol A Derby
OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between diet and executive function, episodic memory and global verbal cognition in the Einstein Aging Study (EAS) cohort and determine whether race modifies this relationship. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Community. PARTICIPANTS: EAS participants without dementia who completed the Rapid Eating and Activity Assessment for Patients (REAP) (N = 492). MEASUREMENTS: The previously validated REAP is based on the 2000 U...
November 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723710/-clinical-and-neuropsychological-features-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-the-combination-with-cerebrovascular-disease
#12
N A Trusova, O S Levin, A V Arablinsky
AIM: To study clinical/neuropsychological and neuroimaging characteristics of Alzheimer's disease in the combination with cerebrovascular disease (CVD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety patients with dementia, including 35 patients with AD, 35 patients with mixed dementia (MD) and 20 patients with vascular dementia, were examined. The character of dementia was established according to NINCDS-ADRDA and NINDS-AIREN criteria. The neuropsychological battery included Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-R), Montreal Cognitive Assessment scale (MoCA), fluency test and the visual memory test (SCT)...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604604/the-gut-brain-axis-including-the-microbiome-leaky-gut-and-bacterial-translocation-mechanisms-and-pathophysiological-role-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Cristiano A Köhler, Michael Maes, Anastasiya Slyepchenko, Michael Berk, Marco Solmi, Krista L Lanctôt, André F Carvalho
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, is a progressive disorder manifested by gradual memory loss and subsequent impairment in mental and behavioral functions. Though the primary risk factor for AD is advancing age, other factors such as diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, obesity, vascular factors and depression play a role in its pathogenesis. The human gastrointestinal tract has a diverse commensal microbial population, which has bidirectional interactions with the human host that are symbiotic in health, and in addition to nutrition, digestion, plays major roles in inflammation and immunity...
September 6, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599208/systematic-evaluation-of-the-associations-between-environmental-risk-factors-and-dementia-an-umbrella-review-of-systematic-reviews-and-meta-analyses
#14
Vanesa Bellou, Lazaros Belbasis, Ioanna Tzoulaki, Lefkos T Middleton, John P A Ioannidis, Evangelos Evangelou
INTRODUCTION: Dementia is a heterogeneous neurodegenerative disease, whose etiology results from a complex interplay between environmental and genetic factors. METHODS: We searched PubMed to identify meta-analyses of observational studies that examined associations between nongenetic factors and dementia. We estimated the summary effect size using random-effects and fixed-effects model, the 95% CI, and the 95% prediction interval. We assessed the between-study heterogeneity (I-square), evidence of small-study effects, and excess significance...
September 4, 2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536962/differences-of-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia-in-disease-severity-in-four-major-dementias
#15
Hiroaki Kazui, Kenji Yoshiyama, Hideki Kanemoto, Yukiko Suzuki, Shunsuke Sato, Mamoru Hashimoto, Manabu Ikeda, Hibiki Tanaka, Yutaka Hatada, Masateru Matsushita, Yoshiyuki Nishio, Etsuro Mori, Satoshi Tanimukai, Kenjiro Komori, Taku Yoshida, Hideaki Shimizu, Teruhisa Matsumoto, Takaaki Mori, Tetsuo Kashibayashi, Kazumasa Yokoyama, Tatsuo Shimomura, Yasunobu Kabeshita, Hiroyoshi Adachi, Toshihisa Tanaka
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSDs) negatively impact the prognosis of dementia patients and increase caregiver distress. The aims of this study were to clarify the differences of trajectories of 12 kinds of BPSDs by disease severity in four major dementias and to develop charts showing the frequency, severity, and associated caregiver distress (ACD) of BPSDs using the data of a Japan multicenter study (J-BIRD). METHODS: We gathered Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) data of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 1091), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB; n = 249), vascular dementia (VaD; n = 156), and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD; n = 102) collected during a 5-year period up to July 31, 2013 in seven centers for dementia in Japan...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531211/-late-onset-depression-pathophysiology-diagnostics-and-treatment
#16
S Notzon, J Alferink, V Arolt
Late-onset depression (LOD) is defined as depression manifesting for the first time in later life. Up to now, there has been no exact definition of the lower age limit for LOD. Psychopathological symptoms of LOD do not fundamentally differ from depression in other phases of life; however, cognitive deficits are typically more pronounced. The LOD is associated with an increased risk of developing dementia. Imaging studies show reduction in gray matter volume and white matter lesions caused by vascular diseases...
September 2016: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525127/correlation-between-motor-cortex-excitability-changes-and-cognitive-impairment-in-vascular-depression-pathophysiological-insights-from-a-longitudinal-tms-study
#17
Manuela Pennisi, Giuseppe Lanza, Mariagiovanna Cantone, Riccardo Ricceri, Concetto Spampinato, Giovanni Pennisi, Vincenzo Di Lazzaro, Rita Bella
Background. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) highlighted functional changes in dementia, whereas there are few data in patients with vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia (VCI-ND). Similarly, little is known about the neurophysiological impact of vascular depression (VD) on deterioration of cognitive functions. We test whether depression might affect not only cognition but also specific cortical circuits in subcortical vascular disease. Methods. Sixteen VCI-ND and 11 VD patients, age-matched with 15 controls, underwent a clinical-cognitive, neuroimaging, and TMS assessment...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503567/carotid-stiffness-is-associated-with-impairment-of-cognitive-performance-in-individuals-with-and-without-type-2-diabetes-the-maastricht-study
#18
Stefan L C Geijselaers, Simone J S Sep, Miranda T Schram, Martin P J van Boxtel, Thomas T van Sloten, Ronald M A Henry, Koen D Reesink, Abraham A Kroon, Annemarie Koster, Nicolaas C Schaper, Pieter C Dagnelie, Carla J H van der Kallen, Geert Jan Biessels, Coen D A Stehouwer
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is increasing evidence linking arterial (mainly aortic) stiffness and type 2 diabetes, a risk factor for arterial stiffness, to cognitive impairment and dementia. However, data on carotid stiffness, which may be especially relevant for cognitive performance, are scarce, and few studies have addressed the interplay between arterial stiffness, type 2 diabetes, and cognitive performance. METHODS: We studied individuals with (n = 197) and without (n = 528) type 2 diabetes, who completed a neuropsychological test battery and underwent applanation tonometry and vascular ultrasound to evaluate aortic (i...
October 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503360/peripheral-biomarkers-of-stroke-focus-on-circulatory-micrornas
#19
REVIEW
Murali Vijayan, P Hemachandra Reddy
Stroke is the second leading cause of death in the world. Stroke occurs when blood flow stops, and that stoppage results in reduced oxygen supply to neurons in the brain. The occurrence of stroke increases with age, but anyone at any age can suffer from stroke. Recent research has implicated multiple cellular changes in stroke patients, including oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammatory responses, and changes in mRNA and proteins. Recent research has also revealed that stroke is associated with modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors...
October 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27493900/carotid-stiffness-a-novel-cerebrovascular-disease-risk-factor
#20
REVIEW
Thomas T van Sloten, Coen D A Stehouwer
Carotid stiffening is considered an important element in the pathogenesis of cerebrovascular diseases. These include stroke as well as vascular dementia and depression. However, results of individual studies evaluating the association between carotid stiffening and incident stroke have been inconsistent. Therefore, we have conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis, showing that carotid stiffening is associated with incident stroke independently of cardiovascular risk factors and aortic stiffness. In addition, carotid stiffening improved stroke risk prediction beyond the Framingham stroke risk factors and aortic stiffness...
July 2016: Pulse (Basel, Switzerland)
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