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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922459/therapeutic-plasma-exchange-in-the-treatment-of-complicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-a-case-report
#1
Tsong-Yih Ou, Cheng-Yen Chuang, Chun-Da Chen, Chung-Yi Cheng
Severe falciparum malaria is associated with multiple organ dysfunction and a high rate of fatal outcome. Malaria is a world-wide disease in tropical areas through the bites of vector mosquitoes. Parasitic protozoans introduced by the mosquito's saliva to the blood travel to the liver then mature and reproduce. In humans, malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum, P. malariae, P. ovale, P. vivax, and P. knowlesi, and P. falciparum causes most deaths. Typical malaria symptoms include fever, chills, fatigue, headache, nausea, and vomiting...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Apheresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922424/deletion-of-the-rodent-malaria-ortholog-for-falcipain-1-highlights-differences-between-hepatic-and-blood-stage-merozoites
#2
Christine S Hopp, Brandy L Bennett, Satish Mishra, Christine Lehmann, Kirsten K Hanson, Jing-Wen Lin, Kimberly Rousseau, Filomena A Carvalho, Wouter A van der Linden, Nuno C Santos, Matthew Bogyo, Shahid M Khan, Volker Heussler, Photini Sinnis
Proteases have been implicated in a variety of developmental processes during the malaria parasite lifecycle. In particular, invasion and egress of the parasite from the infected hepatocyte and erythrocyte, critically depend on protease activity. Although falcipain-1 was the first cysteine protease to be characterized in P. falciparum, its role in the lifecycle of the parasite has been the subject of some controversy. While an inhibitor of falcipain-1 blocked erythrocyte invasion by merozoites, two independent studies showed that falcipain-1 disruption did not affect growth of blood stage parasites...
September 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917450/a-novel-class-of-plasmodial-clpp-protease-inhibitors-as-potential-antimalarial-agents
#3
Sourabh Mundra, Vandana Thakur, Angelica M Bello, Sumit Rathore, Mohd Asad, Lianhu Wei, Jane Yang, Sai Kumar Chakka, Radhakrishnan Mahesh, Pawan Malhotra, Asif Mohmmed, Lakshmi P Kotra
The prokaryotic ATP-dependent ClpP protease, localized in the relict plastid of malaria parasite, represents a potential drug target. In the present study, we utilized in silico structure-based screening and medicinal chemistry approaches to identify a novel pyrimidine series of compounds inhibiting P. falciparum ClpP protease activity and evaluated their antiparasitic activities. Structure-activity relationship indicated that morpholine moiety at C2, an aromatic substitution at N3 and a 4-oxo moiety on the pyrimidine are important for potent inhibition of ClpP enzyme along with antiparasiticidal activity...
September 5, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916755/protein-o-fucosylation-in-plasmodium-falciparum-ensures-efficient-infection-of-mosquito-and-vertebrate-hosts
#4
Sash Lopaticki, Annie S P Yang, Alan John, Nichollas E Scott, James P Lingford, Matthew T O'Neill, Sara M Erickson, Nicole C McKenzie, Charlie Jennison, Lachlan W Whitehead, Donna N Douglas, Norman M Kneteman, Ethan D Goddard-Borger, Justin A Boddey
O-glycosylation of the Plasmodium sporozoite surface proteins CSP and TRAP was recently identified, but the role of this modification in the parasite life cycle and its relevance to vaccine design remain unclear. Here, we identify the Plasmodium protein O-fucosyltransferase (POFUT2) responsible for O-glycosylating CSP and TRAP. Genetic disruption of POFUT2 in Plasmodium falciparum results in ookinetes that are attenuated for colonizing the mosquito midgut, an essential step in malaria transmission. Some POFUT2-deficient parasites mature into salivary gland sporozoites although they are impaired for gliding motility, cell traversal, hepatocyte invasion, and production of exoerythrocytic forms in humanized chimeric liver mice...
September 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916443/aq-13-an-investigational-antimalarial-versus-artemether-plus-lumefantrine-for-the-treatment-of-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-a-randomised-phase-2-non-inferiority-clinical-trial
#5
Ousmane A Koita, Lansana Sangaré, Haiyan D Miller, Aliou Sissako, Moctar Coulibaly, Trevor A Thompson, Saharé Fongoro, Youssouf Diarra, Mamadou Ba, Ababacar Maiga, Boubakar Diallo, David M Mushatt, Frances J Mather, Jeffrey G Shaffer, Asif H Anwar, Donald J Krogstad
BACKGROUND: Chloroquine was used for malaria treatment until resistant Plasmodium falciparum was identified. Because 4-aminoquinolines with modified side chains, such as AQ-13, are active against resistant parasites, we compared AQ-13 against artemether plus lumefantrine for treatment of uncomplicated P falciparum malaria. METHODS: We did a randomised, non-inferiority trial. We screened men (≥18 years) with uncomplicated malaria in Missira (northeast Mali) and Bamako (capital of Mali) for eligibility (≥2000 asexual P falciparum parasites per μL of blood)...
September 12, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915896/placental-malaria-and-its-effect-on-pregnancy-outcomes-in-sudanese-women-from-blue-nile-state
#6
Samia A Omer, Hagir E Idress, Ishag Adam, Mutasim Abdelrahim, Ali N Noureldein, Abdelrahim M Abdelrazig, Mohammed O Elhassan, Suad M Sulaiman
BACKGROUND: Malaria infection during pregnancy can result in placental malaria and is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes particularly among primigravidae. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors for placental malaria and its effect on pregnancy outcomes in Blue Nile state, Sudan. METHODS: A cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted consecutively during January 2012-December 2015 in three main hospitals in Blue Nile State, Sudan...
September 16, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915892/modelling-the-impact-of-the-long-term-use-of-insecticide-treated-bed-nets-on-anopheles-mosquito-biting-time
#7
Claudia P Ferreira, Silas P Lyra, Franciane Azevedo, David Greenhalgh, Eduardo Massad
BACKGROUND: Evidence of changing in biting and resting behaviour of the main malaria vectors has been mounting up in recent years as a result of selective pressure by the widespread and long-term use of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs), and indoor residual spraying. The impact of resistance behaviour on malaria intervention efficacy has important implications for the epidemiology and malaria control programmes. In this context, a theoretical framework is presented to understand the mechanisms determining the evolution of feeding behaviour under the pressure of use of ITNs...
September 15, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914402/analytical-modeling-of-the-mechanics-of-early-invasion-of-a-merozoite-into-a-human-erythrocyte
#8
Tamer Abdalrahman, Thomas Franz
In this study, we used a continuum model based on contact mechanics to understand the mechanics of merozoite invasion into human erythrocytes. This model allows us to evaluate the indentation force and work as well as the contact pressure between the merozoite and erythrocyte for an early stage of invasion (γ = 10%). The model predicted an indentation force of 1.3e (-11)N and an indentation work of 1e (-18)J. The present analytical model can be considered as a useful tool not only for investigations in mechanobiology and biomechanics but also to explore novel therapeutic targets for malaria and other parasite infections...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913784/managing-wastes-as-green-resources-cigarette-butt-synthesized-pesticides-are-highly-toxic-to-malaria-vectors-with-little-impact-on-predatory-copepods
#9
Kadarkarai Murugan, Udaiyan Suresh, Chellasamy Panneerselvam, Rajapandian Rajaganesh, Mathath Roni, Al Thabiani Aziz, Jiang-Shiou Hwang, Kuppusamy Sathishkumar, Aruliah Rajasekar, Suresh Kumar, Abdullah A Alarfaj, Akon Higuchi, Giovanni Benelli
The development of novel mosquito control tools is a key prerequisite to build effective and reliable Integrated Vector Management strategies. Here, we proposed a novel method using cigarette butts for the synthesis of Ag nanostructures toxic to young instars of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, chloroquine (CQ)-resistant malaria parasites Plasmodium falciparum and microbial pathogens. The non-target impact of these nanomaterials in the aquatic environment was evaluated testing them at sub-lethal doses on the predatory copepod Mesocyclops aspericornis...
September 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910810/concurrent-infection-with-plasmodium-vivax-and-the-dengue-and-chikungunya-viruses-in-a-paediatric-patient-from-new-delhi-india-in-2016
#10
Ayesha Tazeen, Mohd Abdullah, Malik Hisamuddin, Sher Ali, Irshad H Naqvi, Hirday N Verma, Anwar Ahmed, Shama Parveen
Dengue and chikungunya fevers are transmitted by the common mosquito vector Aedes and malaria by Anopheles. Concurrent infections are reported due to co-circulation of these pathogens, especially in endemic regions. We report a rare case of triple infection with 3 arthropod-borne pathogens (Plasmodium vivax and the dengue and chikungunya viruses) in a 3-year-old child from New Delhi, India, in August 2016. The viruses were identified by RT-PCR and the parasite by microscopy and antigen detection. The dengue virus serotype 3 sequence was clustered in the genotype III by the phylogenetic analysis...
September 15, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906438/acetylcholinesterase-and-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-schistosomes-and-other-parasitic-helminths
#11
REVIEW
Hong You, Chang Liu, Xiaofeng Du, Donald P McManus
Schistosomiasis, which is caused by helminth trematode blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma, is a serious health and economic problem in tropical areas, and the second most prevalent parasitic disease after malaria. Currently, there is no effective vaccine available and treatment is entirely dependent on a single drug, praziquantel (PZQ), raising a significant potential public health threat due to the emergence of PZQ drug resistance. It is thus urgent and necessary to explore novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of schistosomiasis...
September 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904114/the-lives-saved-tool-list-as-a-model-for-prevention-of-anemia-in-women-of-reproductive-age
#12
REVIEW
Rebecca Heidkamp, Renee Guida, Erica Phillips, Adrienne Clermont
Background: Anemia in women is a major public health burden worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It is a complex condition with multiple nutritional and non-nutritional causes, and geographic heterogeneity of burden. The World Health Assembly has set a target of a 50% reduction in anemia among women of reproductive age (WRA) by 2025.Objective: This article seeks to identify the leading causes of anemia among women in LMICs, review the evidence supporting interventions to address anemia in these settings, and ultimately use this information to decide which interventions should be included in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) model of anemia...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903890/human-parasitic-diseases-in-bulgaria-2013-2014
#13
Iskra Rainova, Rumen Harizanov, Iskren Kaftandjiev, Nina Tsvetkova, Ognyan Mikov, Eleonora Kaneva
BACKGROUND: In Bulgaria, more than 20 autochthonous human parasitic infections have been described and some of them are widespread. Over 50 imported protozoan and helminthic infections represent diagnostic and therapeutic challenge and pose epidemiological risk due to the possibility of local transmission. AIMS: To establish the distribution of autochthonous and imported parasitic diseases among the population of the country and to evaluate their significance for the public health system...
September 13, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903777/modest-heterologous-protection-after-plasmodium-falciparum-sporozoite-immunization-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#14
Jona Walk, Isaie J Reuling, Marije C Behet, Lisette Meerstein-Kessel, Wouter Graumans, Geert-Jan van Gemert, Rianne Siebelink-Stoter, Marga van de Vegte-Bolmer, Thorsten Janssen, Karina Teelen, Johannes H W de Wilt, Quirijn de Mast, André J van der Ven, Ernest Diez Benavente, Susana Campino, Taane G Clark, Martijn A Huynen, Cornelus C Hermsen, Else M Bijker, Anja Scholzen, Robert W Sauerwein
BACKGROUND: A highly efficacious vaccine is needed for malaria control and eradication. Immunization with Plasmodium falciparum NF54 parasites under chemoprophylaxis (chemoprophylaxis and sporozoite (CPS)-immunization) induces the most efficient long-lasting protection against a homologous parasite. However, parasite genetic diversity is a major hurdle for protection against heterologous strains. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, randomized controlled trial in 39 healthy participants of NF54-CPS immunization by bites of 45 NF54-infected (n = 24 volunteers) or uninfected mosquitoes (placebo; n = 15 volunteers) against a controlled human malaria infection with the homologous NF54 or the genetically distinct NF135...
September 13, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903755/prevalence-of-k13-mutation-and-day-3-positive-parasitaemia-in-artemisinin-resistant-malaria-endemic-area-of-cambodia-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Soy Ty Kheang, Siv Sovannaroth, Sovann Ek, Say Chy, Phally Chhun, Sokkieng Mao, Sokomar Nguon, Dy Soley Lek, Didier Menard, Neeraj Kak
BACKGROUND: The presence of artemisinin-resistant malaria parasites was confirmed in western Cambodia in 2009. In 2013, mutations in the propeller domain of the kelch protein K13 was found to be associated with artemisinin resistance. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Day-3 parasitaemia, estimate the frequency of k13 molecular marker and assess their relationship in the context of operational research. METHODS: Blood smears and filter paper blood spots were collected from febrile patients in Kravanh District, Pursat Province...
September 13, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902970/a-genetic-screen-in-rodent-malaria-parasites-identifies-five-new-apicoplast-putative-membrane-transporters-one-of-which-is-essential-in-human-malaria-parasites
#16
Claire P Sayers, Vanessa Mollard, Hayley D Buchanan, Geoffrey I McFadden, Christopher D Goodman
The malaria-causing parasite, Plasmodium, contains a unique non-photosynthetic plastid known as the apicoplast. The apicoplast is an essential organelle bound by four membranes. Although membrane transporters are attractive drug targets, only two transporters have been characterised in the malaria parasite apicoplast membranes. We selected 27 candidate apicoplast membrane proteins, 20 of which are annotated as putative membrane transporters, and performed a genetic screen in P. berghei to determine blood stage essentiality and subcellular localisation...
September 13, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901366/graphene-oxide-inhibits-malaria-parasite-invasion-and-delays-parasitic-growth-in-vitro
#17
Kenry, Ying Bena Lim, Mui Hoon Nai, Jianshu Cao, Kian Ping Loh, Chwee Teck Lim
The interactions between graphene oxide (GO) and various biological entities have been actively investigated in recent years, resulting in numerous potential bioapplications of these nanomaterials. Despite this, the biological interactions between GO and disease-causing protozoan parasites have not been well elucidated and remain relatively unexplored. Here, we investigate the in vitro interactions between GO nanosheets and a particular species of malaria parasites, Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum). We hypothesize that GO nanosheets may exhibit antimalarial characteristic via action mechanisms of physical obstruction of P...
September 13, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900620/can-mixed-parasite-infections-thwart-targeted-malaria-elimination-program-in-india
#18
Upasana Shyamsunder Singh, Nisha Siwal, Veena Pande, Aparup Das
India is highly endemic to malaria with prevalence of all five species of human malaria parasites of Plasmodium genus. India is set for malaria elimination by 2030. Since cases of mixed Plasmodium species infections remain usually undetected but cause huge disease burden, in order to understand the distributional prevalence of both monospecies infections and mixed species infections in India, we collated published data on the differential infection incidences of the five different malaria parasites based on PCR diagnostic assay...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899382/carrion-crows-corvus-corone-of-southwest-germany-important-hosts-for-haemosporidian-parasites
#19
Sandrine Schmid, Katrin Fachet, Anke Dinkel, Ute Mackenstedt, Friederike Woog
BACKGROUND: Avian malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) and other Haemosporida (Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon spp.) form a diverse group of vector-transmitted blood parasites that are abundant in many bird families. Recent studies have suggested that corvids may be an important host for Plasmodium spp. and Leucocytozoon spp. METHODS: To investigate the diversity of Haemosporida of resident carrion crows (Corvus corone) and Eurasian Magpies (Pica pica) in southwest Germany, 100 liver samples of corvids were examined using a nested PCR method to amplify a 1063 bp fragment of the haemosporidian mitochondrial cytochrome b gene...
September 12, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899381/ned-19-inhibition-of-parasite-growth-and-multiplication-suggests-a-role-for-naadp-mediated-signalling-in-the-asexual-development-of-plasmodium-falciparum
#20
Pablo Suárez-Cortés, Guido Gambara, Annarita Favia, Fioretta Palombi, Pietro Alano, Antonio Filippini
BACKGROUND: Although malaria is a preventable and curable human disease, millions of people risk to be infected by the Plasmodium parasites and to develop this illness. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify new anti-malarial drugs. Ca(2+) signalling regulates different processes in the life cycle of Plasmodium falciparum, representing a suitable target for the development of new drugs. RESULTS: This study investigated for the first time the effect of a highly specific inhibitor of nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP)-induced Ca(2+) release (Ned-19) on P...
September 12, 2017: Malaria Journal
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