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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426172/distinct-roles-of-th17-and-th1-cells-in-inflammatory-responses-associated-with-the-presentation-of-paucibacillary-leprosy-and-leprosy-reactions-th17-immune-response-in-leprosy
#1
Márcio Bezerrra Santos, Daniela Teles de Oliveira, Rodrigo Anselmo Cazzaniga, Crisuelle Santana Varjão, Priscila Lima Dos Santos, Micheli L B Santos, Cristiane Bane Correia, Daniela R Faria, Marise do Vale Simon, João Santana Silva, Walderez O Dutra, Steven G Reed, Malcolm S Duthie, Roque Pahceco de Almeida, Amélia Ribeiro de Jesus
It is well established that helper T cell responses influence resistance or susceptibility to Mycobacterium leprae infection, but the role of more recently described helper T cell subsets in determining severity is less clear. To investigate the involvement of Th17 cells in the pathogenesis of leprosy, we determined the immune profile with variant presentations of leprosy. Firstly, IL-17A, IFN-γ and IL-10 were evaluated in conjunction with CD4(+) T cell staining by confocal microscopy of lesion biopsies from tuberculoid (TT) and lepromatous (LL) patients...
April 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419120/structural-and-functional-changes-in-the-microcirculation-of-lepromatous-leprosy-patients-observation-using-orthogonal-polarization-spectral-imaging-and-laser-doppler-flowmetry-iontophoresis
#2
Curt Treu, Maria das Graças Coelho de Souza, Omar Lupi, Fernando Lencastre Sicuro, Priscila Alves Maranhão, Luiz Guilherme Kraemer-Aguiar, Eliete Bouskela
Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous infection of skin and peripheral nerves caused by Mycobacterium leprae and is considered the main infectious cause of disability worldwide. Despite the several studies regarding leprosy, little is known about its effects on microvascular structure and function in vivo. Thus, we have aimed to compare skin capillary structure and functional density, cutaneous vasomotion (spontaneous oscillations of arteriolar diameter), which ensures optimal blood flow distribution to skin capillaries) and cutaneous microvascular blood flow and reactivity between ten men with lepromatous leprosy (without any other comorbidity) and ten age- and gender-matched healthy controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417702/quinolone-resistance-associated-amino-acid-substitutions-affect-enzymatic-activity-of-mycobacterium-leprae-dna-gyrase
#3
Tomoyuki Yamaguchi, Kazumasa Yokoyama, Chie Nakajima, Yasuhiko Suzuki
Quinolones are important antimicrobials for treatment of leprosy, a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Although it is well known that mutations in DNA gyrase are responsible for quinolone resistance, the effect of those mutations on the enzymatic activity is yet to be studied in depth. Hence, we conducted in vitro assays to observe supercoiling reactions of wild type and mutated M. leprae DNA gyrases. DNA gyrase with amino acid substitution Ala91Val possessed the highest activity among the mutants...
April 18, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411775/comparing-the-sensitivity-of-auramine-rhodamine-fluorescence-to-polymerase-chain-reaction-in-the-detection-of-mycobacterium-leprae-in-fite-negative-tissue-sections
#4
Dirk M Elston, Maritza O Liranzo, David M Scollard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355218/scd163-levels-as-a-biomarker-of-disease-severity-in-leprosy-and-visceral-leishmaniasis
#5
Ricardo Luís Louzada Silva, Marcio B Santos, Priscila L S Almeida, Thayse S Barros, Lucas Magalhães, Rodrigo A Cazzaniga, Patrícia R M Souza, Nívea F Luz, Jaqueline França-Costa, Valeria M Borges, Djalma S Lima-Junior, Michael W Lipscomb, Malcolm S Duthie, Steven G Reed, Roque Pacheco Almeida, Amélia Ribeiro Jesus
BACKGROUND: CD163, receptor for the haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex, is expressed on monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils. A soluble form of CD163 (sCD163) has been associated with the M2 macrophage phenotype, and M2 macrophages have been shown to down-modulate inflammatory responses. In particular, previous studies have shown that M2 is closely associated with the most severe clinical presentation of leprosy (i.e. lepromatous leprosy (LL)), as well as tuberculosis. We hypothesized that sCD163 correlates with severity of diseases caused by intracellular pathogens...
March 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351089/leptin-and-its-receptors-in-human-placenta-of-small-adequate-and-large-for-gestational-age-newborns
#6
Maria-Luisa Lazo-de-la-Vega-Monroy, Martha I González-Domínguez, Silvio Zaina, Myrna Sabanero, Leonel Daza-Benítez, Juan Manuel Malacara, Gloria Barbosa-Sabanero
Alterations in birth weight impact postnatal outcome and adult metabolic health. Therefore, fetal growth regulation is crucial for preventing chronic metabolic diseases. Leptin has been suggested to play an important role in placental and fetal growth, albeit its specific mechanisms of action have not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to analyze leptin concentrations in placenta, cord blood, and maternal blood of SGA, AGA, and LGA (small, adequate and large for gestational age, respectively) newborns, as well as placental leptin receptor (LEPRa and LEPRb) protein expression...
March 28, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345639/genomic-characterization-of-nontuberculous-mycobacteria
#7
Tarcisio Fedrizzi, Conor J Meehan, Antonella Grottola, Elisabetta Giacobazzi, Giulia Fregni Serpini, Sara Tagliazucchi, Anna Fabio, Clotilde Bettua, Roberto Bertorelli, Veronica De Sanctis, Fabio Rumpianesi, Monica Pecorari, Olivier Jousson, Enrico Tortoli, Nicola Segata
Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae have remained, for many years, the primary species of the genus Mycobacterium of clinical and microbiological interest. The other members of the genus, referred to as nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), have long been underinvestigated. In the last decades, however, the number of reports linking various NTM species with human diseases has steadily increased and treatment difficulties have emerged. Despite the availability of whole genome sequencing technologies, limited effort has been devoted to the genetic characterization of NTM species...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336312/old-antibiotics-for-emerging-multidrug-resistant-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-mdr-xdr-tb
#8
Philippe Brouqui, Fanny Quenard, Michel Drancourt
Recently, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has become a therapeutic challenge. In addition to drug resistance, drug adverse events, intravenous delivery, cost and availability of some antibiotics in low-income countries have led to a look back to old drugs, especially those efficient against closely related organisms such as Mycobacterium leprae. Here we review the available drugs that respect the conditions above and could be upgraded to first-line therapy for treating MDR-TB and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB)...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328616/borderline-tuberculoid-leprosy-masquerading-as-granuloma-annulare-a-clinical-and-histological-pitfall
#9
Tian Hao Zhu, Faranak Kamangar, Marc Silverstein, Maxwell A Fung
INTRODUCTION: Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, an intracellular acid-fast bacillus that tends to infect the skin and peripheral nerves. Because of the wide array of cutaneous manifestation, diagnosis is not always straightforward, especially in nonendemic regions of the world such as the United States. CASE REPORT: The authors report an unusual case of borderline tuberculoid leprosy in an 80-year-old white woman from California...
April 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327791/a-tale-of-two-neglected-tropical-infections-using-gis-to-assess-the-spatial-and-temporal-overlap-of-schistosomiasis-and-leprosy-in-a-region-of-minas-gerais-brazil
#10
David Alexander Phillips, José Antonio Ferreira, Deidra Ansah, Herica Sa Teixeira, Uriel Kitron, Thelma de Filippis, Marcelo H de Alcântara, Jessica K Fairley
BACKGROUND: Despite public health efforts to reduce the global burden of leprosy, gaps remain in the knowledge surrounding transmission of infection. Helminth co-infections have been associated with a shift towards the lepromatous end of the disease spectrum, potentially increasing transmission in co-endemic areas. OBJECTIVES: Using this biologically plausible association, we conducted a geographic information systems (GIS) study to investigate the spatial associations of schistosomiasis and leprosy in an endemic area of Minas Gerais (MG), Brazil...
April 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327786/polymorphisms-in-genes-tlr1-2-and-4-are-associated-with-differential-cytokine-and-chemokine-serum-production-in-patients-with-leprosy
#11
Nadja de Lima Santana, Jamile Leão Rêgo, Joyce Moura Oliveira, Lucas Frederico de Almeida, Marcos Braz, Lídia Maria Medeiros Machado, Paulo Roberto Lima Machado, Léa Cristina Castellucci
BACKGROUND: Leprosy or hansen's disease is a spectral disease whose clinical forms mostly depends on host's immune and genetic factors. Different Toll-like receptors (TLR) variants have been described associated with leprosy, but with some lack of replication across different populations. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of polymorphisms in genes TLR1, TLR2 and TLR4 and susceptibility to leprosy in a genetic case control study; to verify the association between genotypes of these markers and the immunological profile in the serum of patients with leprosy...
April 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321841/histoid-leprosy-a-retrospective-clinicopathological-study-from-central-nepal
#12
Mahesh Mathur, Ayush Jha, Ruprerna Joshi, Roshani Wagle
BACKGROUND: Histoid leprosy is a rare variant of lepromatous leprosy characterized by varied morphological and histopathological appearance while having a high bacillary load. These factors contribute to an ominous threat to the elimination status of leprosy, whereby these patients may act as a reservoir of infection. OBJECTIVE: To identify the clinicopathological characteristics of histoid leprosy in Chitwan, Nepal. METHODS: A retrospective hospital-based study spanning a period of 6 years was carried out at our department...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317806/mycobacterium-lepraemurium-uses-tlr-6-and-mr-but-not-lipid-rafts-or-dc-sign-to-gain-access-into-mouse-macrophages
#13
Mayra Silva-Miranda, Patricia Arce-Paredes, Oscar Rojas-Espinosa
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium lepraemurium (MLM), the etiologic agent of murine leprosy, is an intracellular parasite of macrophages; the mechanism used by this bacterium to enter macrophages is not known. The fate of the MLM phagosome inside macrophages is also unknown. This study was conducted to investigate how MLM enters macrophages and to define the maturation process of MLM phagosome inside macrophages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Peritoneal macrophages were incubated in the presence of mannan-bovine serum albumin (BSA), and antibodies to known macrophage receptors, including, anti-FcγRIII/RII (anti-CD16/32), anti-CD35 (anti-CR1), anti-TLR2, anti-TLR4, anti-TLR6, anti-CD14, and anti-dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN)...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317797/analysis-of-a-novel-multiplex-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-as-a-sensitive-tool-for-the-diagnosis-of-indeterminate-and-tuberculoid-forms-of-leprosy
#14
V Sundeep Chaitanya, Luz Cuello, Madhusmita Das, A Sudharsan, Pavithrra Ganesan, K Kanmani, Lakshmi Rajan, Mannam Ebenezer
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Clinical diagnosis of indeterminate and tuberculoid leprosy is often difficult due to limited and confounding signs and symptoms. In the current study, we evaluated the utility of new multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using Mycobacterium leprae-specific DNA sequences in the pseudogene regions of ML1545, ML2180, and ML2179 for PCR-based diagnosis of indeterminate leprosy (IND) and leprosy cases across the immunological spectrum. The sensitivity was compared with that of RLEP PCR...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315742/association-of-nitric-oxide-synthase2-gene-polymorphisms-with-leprosy-reactions-in-northern-indian-population
#15
Amit Dubey, Sanjay Kumar Biswas, Ekata Sinha, Joy Kumar Chakma, Raj Kamal, Mamta Arora, Harish Sagar, Mohan Natarajan, Sameer S Bhagyawant, Keshar Kunja Mohanty
The pathogen Mycobacterium leprae causes leprosy that affects mainly skin and nerves. Polymorphisms of certain genes are substantiated to be associated with the susceptibility/resistance to leprosy. The present investigation addressed the association of Nitric Oxide Synthase2 gene polymorphisms and leprosy in a population from northern part of India. A total of 323 leprosy cases and 288 healthy controls were genotyped for four NOS2 promoter variants (rs1800482, rs2779249, rs8078340 and rs2301369) using FRET technology in Real Time PCR...
March 16, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300899/leprosy-on-the-scalp
#16
Raila de Brito Macedo, Tárcio Santos, Paulyane Bezerra Sampaio Ramos, Daniela Mayumi Takano, Virgínia Sampaio Madeiro Leal
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. This bacillus has a high predilection for skin and peripheral nerves. The scalp's anatomical properties do not favor the development of such mycobacterium. We report a case of leprosy with scalp involvement, a rare occurrence in our literature.
September 2016: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296245/immunodominant-protein-mip_05962-from-mycobacterium-indicus-pranii-displays-chaperone-activity
#17
Ashish Sharma, M A Equbal, S Pandey, Javaid A Sheikh, Nasreen Z Ehtesham, Seyed E Hasnain, Tapan K Chaudhuri
Tuberculosis, a contagious disease of infectious origin is currently a major cause of deaths worldwide. Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP), a saprophytic non-pathogen and a potent immunomodulator is currently being investigated as an intervention against tuberculosis along with many other diseases with positive outcome. The apparent paradox of multiple chaperones in mycobacterial species and enigma about the cellular functions of the client proteins of these chaperones need to be explored. Chaperones are the known immunomodulators thus there is need to exploit the proteome of MIP for identification and characterization of putative chaperones...
March 10, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287297/multifaceted-role-of-lipids-in-mycobacterium-leprae
#18
Gurkamaljit Kaur, Jagdeep Kaur
Mycobacterium leprae must adopt a metabolic strategy and undergo various metabolic alterations upon infection to survive inside the human body for years in a dormant state. A change in lipid homeostasis upon infection is highly pronounced in Mycobacterium leprae. Lipids play an essential role in the survival and pathogenesis of mycobacteria. Lipids are present in several forms and serve multiple roles from being a source of nutrition, providing rigidity, evading the host immune response to serving as virulence factors, etc...
March 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270310/leprosy-trophic-skin-ulcers
#19
Najeeba Riyaz, Virendra N Sehgal
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Approximately 30% of patients with leprosy develop nerve damage. Trophic, or neuropathic, ulcer is a common complication of an anesthetic foot. The term plantar, trophic, or perforating ulcer was introduced in 1959. It was defined as a chronic ulceration of the anesthetic foot, situated in well-defined areas overlying bony prominences, resistant to local and/or systemic therapy, and characterized by a marked tendency to recur. It is responsible for much of the morbidity associated with leprosy...
2017: Skinmed
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258667/leprosy-one-of-the-many-forgotten-tropical-diseases
#20
Zofia Zwolska, Ewa Augustynowicz-Kopeć
Leprosy or Hansen disease is caused by an infection of Mycobacterium leprae. The large number of undetected cases (2000-2012 years 4 mln people) remains a threat to the elimination of leprosy. Leprosy is an unheard in Poland and generally is considered a condition so "exotic" that it is not worth to spend more attention to it. Forgotten disease in developed countries still thrives in an environment of poor and uneducated. Regardless of the conclusion that in the 21st century none infectious disease should not be treated as a disease on the designated regions of the world, other than our own, it should be recalled that the M...
February 14, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
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