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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192426/multibacillary-leprosy-by-population-groups-in-brazil-lessons-from-an-observational-study
#1
Mauricio Lisboa Nobre, Ximena Illarramendi, Kathryn Margaret Dupnik, Mariana de Andrea Hacker, José Augusto da Costa Nery, Selma Maria Bezerra Jerônimo, Euzenir Nunes Sarno
BACKGROUND: Leprosy remains an important public health problem in Brazil where 28,761 new cases were diagnosed in 2015, the second highest number of new cases detected globally. The disease is caused by Mycobacterium leprae, a pathogen spread by patients with multibacillary (MB) leprosy. This study was designed to identify population groups most at risk for MB disease in Brazil, contributing to new ideas for early diagnosis and leprosy control. METHODS: A national databank of cases reported in Brazil (2001-2013) was used to evaluate epidemiological characteristics of MB leprosy...
February 13, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167593/a-review-on-dapsone-hypersensitivity-syndrome-among-chinese-patients-with-an-emphasis-on-preventing-adverse-drug-reactions-with-genetic-testing
#2
REVIEW
Na Wang, Leela Parimi, Hong Liu, Furen Zhang
Dapsone is a bactericidal and bacteriostatic against Mycobacterium leprae, a causative agent of leprosy. Dapsone is also applied in a range of medical fields because of its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Dapsone hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS) is a rare yet serious adverse drug reaction (ADR) caused by dapsone involving multiple organs. We performed a systematic review of published articles describing dapsone-induced hypersensitivity syndrome, including all Chinese articles and the latest literature available in online databases published between October 2009 and October 2015...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162092/the-influence-of-innate-and-adaptative-immune-responses-on-the-differential-clinical-outcomes-of-leprosy
#3
REVIEW
Adriana Barbosa de Lima Fonseca, Marise do Vale Simon, Rodrigo Anselmo Cazzaniga, Tatiana Rodrigues de Moura, Roque Pacheco de Almeida, Malcolm S Duthie, Steven G Reed, Amelia Ribeiro de Jesus
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. According to official reports from 121 countries across five WHO regions, there were 213 899 newly diagnosed cases in 2014. Although leprosy affects the skin and peripheral nerves, it can present across a spectrum of clinical and histopathological forms that are strongly influenced by the immune response of the infected individuals. These forms comprise the extremes of tuberculoid leprosy (TT), with a M. leprae-specific Th1, but also a Th17, response that limits M...
February 6, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159794/rifz-amed_0655-is-a-pathway-specific-regulator-for-rifamycin-biosynthesis-in-amycolatopsis-mediterranei
#4
Chen Li, Xinqiang Liu, Chao Lei, Han Yan, Zhihui Shao, Ying Wang, Guoping Zhao, Jin Wang, Xiaoming Ding
: Rifamycin and its derivatives are particularly effective against the pathogenic mycobacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae Although the biosynthetic pathway of rifamycin has been extensively studied in Amycolatopsis mediterranei, little is known about the regulation in rifamycin biosynthesis. Here, an in vivo transposon system was employed to identify genes involved in the regulation of rifamycin production in A. mediterranei U32. Totally, nine rifamycin-defecient mutants were isolated, among which three mutants had the transposon inserted in AMED_0655 (namely rifZ, encoding a LuxR_family regulator)...
February 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137508/nasal-pcr-assay-for-the-detection-of-mycobacterium-leprae-pra-gene-to-study-subclinical-infection-in-a-community
#5
Kamalanathan Arunagiri, Gopalakrishnan Sangeetha, Padmavathy Krishnan Sugashini, Sekar Balaraman, M K Showkath Ali
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Identification of Mycobacterium leprae is difficult in part due to the inability of the leprosy bacillus to grow in vitro. A number of diagnostic methods for leprosy diagnosis have been proposed. Both serological tests and molecular probes have shown certain potential for detection and identification of Mycobacterium leprae in patients. In this study, we have investigated whether Mycobacterium leprae DNA from the nasal secretion of healthy household contacts and the non contacts could be detected through PCR amplification as a method to study the sub clinical infection in a community...
January 27, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134679/pathogenic-mechanisms-of-intracellular-bacteria
#6
Hans Helmut Niller, Roland Masa, Annamária Venkei, Sándor Mészáros, Janos Minarovits
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We wished to overview recent data on a subset of epigenetic changes elicited by intracellular bacteria in human cells. Reprogramming the gene expression pattern of various host cells may facilitate bacterial growth, survival, and spread. RECENT FINDINGS: DNA-(cytosine C5)-methyltransferases of Mycoplasma hyorhinis targeting cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) dinucleotides and a Mycobacterium tuberculosis methyltransferase targeting non-CpG sites methylated the host cell DNA and altered the pattern of gene expression...
January 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126361/antigen-specific-secretion-of-ifn%C3%AE-and-cxcl10-in-whole-blood-assay-detects-mycobacterium-leprae-infection-but-does-not-discriminate-asymptomatic-infection-from-symptomatic-leprosy
#7
Emerith Mayra Hungria, Aline Araújo Freitas, Maria Araci Andrade Pontes, Heitor Sá Gonçalves, Ana Lúcia Osório Maroccolo Sousa, Maurício Barcelos Costa, Mirian Lane Oliveira Rodrigues Castilho, Malcolm S Duthie, Mariane Martins Araújo Stefani
To advance toward a whole blood assay (WBA)-based test capable of facilitating the diagnosis of paucibacillary (PB) leprosy, we evaluated a prototype in-tube WBA using combinations of Mycobacterium leprae antigens. Blood was collected from newly diagnosed untreated PB (n=38), multibacillary (MB) (n=30), healthy household contacts (HHC) of MB (n=27), and endemic controls (n=61) residing in Goiânia and Fortaleza, Brazil. Blood was incubated with M. leprae cell sonicate, recombinant proteins (46f+LID-1; ML0276+LID-1), or controls (phosphate-buffered saline, phytohemagglutinin, M...
January 5, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125649/investigation-of-a-medieval-pilgrim-burial-excavated-from-the-leprosarium-of-st-mary-magdalen-winchester-uk
#8
Simon Roffey, Katie Tucker, Kori Filipek-Ogden, Janet Montgomery, Jamie Cameron, Tamsin O'Connell, Jane Evans, Phil Marter, G Michael Taylor
We have examined the remains of a Pilgrim burial from St Mary Magdalen, Winchester. The individual was a young adult male, aged around 18-25 years at the time of death. Radiocarbon dating showed the remains dated to the late 11th-early 12th centuries, a time when pilgrimages were at their height in Europe. Several lines of evidence in connection with the burial suggested this was an individual of some means and prestige. Although buried within the leprosarium cemetery, the skeleton showed only minimal skeletal evidence for leprosy, which was confined to the bones of the feet and legs...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114411/evaluation-and-monitoring-of-mycobacterium-leprae-transmission-in-household-contacts-of-patients-with-hansen-s-disease-in-colombia
#9
Marcela Romero-Montoya, Juan Camilo Beltran-Alzate, Nora Cardona-Castro
Leprosy in Colombia is in a stage of post elimination-since 1997, prevalence of the disease is less than 1/10000. However, the incidence of leprosy has remained stable, with 400-500 new cases reported annually, with MB leprosy representing 70% of these case and 10% having grade 2 disability. Thus, leprosy transmission is still occurring, and household contacts (HHCs) of leprosy patients are a population at high risk of contracting and suffering from the effects of the disease during their lifetime. We performed a cross-sectional study with the aim of evaluating leprosy transmission within Family Groups (FGs) from four Colombian departments: Antioquia, Bolívar, Córdoba and Sucre...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110210/il-12-and-il-23-modulate-plasticity-of-foxp3-regulatory-t-cells-in-human-leprosy
#10
Mohd Tarique, Chaman Saini, Raza Ali Naqvi, Neena Khanna, Alpana Sharma, D N Rao
Leprosy is a bacterial disease caused by M. leprae. Its clinical spectrum reflects the host's immune response to the M. leprae and provide an ideal model to investigate the host pathogen interaction and immunological dysregulation. Tregs are high in leprosy patients and responsible for immune suppression of the host by producing IL-10 and TGF-β cytokines. In leprosy, plasticity of Tregs remain unstudied. This is the first study describing the conversion of Tregs into Th1-like and Th17-like cells using in vitro cytokine therapy in leprosy patients...
March 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110121/s100a12-friend-or-foe-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#11
Vahid Bagheri
In humans, S100A12 (also named Calgranulin C and EN-RAGE) is mainly expressed and secreted by neutrophil granulocytes. Extracellular S100A12 is involved in innate immune responses against microorganisms and parasites. S100A12 is a ligand for the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), which is a cell surface receptor on macrophages, endothelium, and lymphocytes. In a recent study, Realegeno et al. showed that S100A12 exerts antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium leprae in infected human macrophages...
January 18, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088473/endothelium-adhesion-molecules-icam-1-icam-2-vcam-1-and-vla-4-expression-in-leprosy
#12
Juarez de Sousa, Tinara Leila Sousa Aarão, Jorge Rodrigues de Sousa, Kelly Emi Hirai, Luciana Mota Silva, Leonidas Braga Dias, Francisca Regina Oliveira Carneiro, Hellen Thais Fuzii, Juarez Antonio Simões Quaresma
Leprosy triggers a complex relationship between the pathogen and host immune response. Endothelium plays an important role in this immune response by directly influencing cell migration to infected tissues. The objective of this work is to investigate the possible role of endothelium in M. leprae infection, correlating the characteristics of endothelial markers with the expression pattern of cytokines. Thirty-six skin biopsy samples were cut into 5-μm thick sections and stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Ziehl-Neelsen for morphological analysis and then submitted to immunohistochemical analysis using monoclonal antibodies against ICAM-1, ICAM-2, VCAM-1, and VLA-4...
January 11, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059670/mycobacterial-hsp65-antigen-upregulates-the-cellular-immune-response-of-healthy-individuals-compared-to-tuberculosis-patients
#13
Pryscilla Fanini Wowk, Luís Henrique Franco, Denise Morais Fonseca, Marina Oliveira Paula, Élcio Dos Santos Oliveira Vianna, Ana Paula Wendling, Valéria Maria Augusto, Silvana Maria Elói-Santos, Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho, Flávia Dias Coelho Silva, Solange Alves Vinhas, Olindo Assis Martins-Filho, Moisés Palaci, Célio Lopes Silva, Vânia Luiza Deperon Bonato
Previously we showed that 65-kDa Mycobacterium leprae heat shock protein (Hsp65) is a target for the development of a tuberculosis vaccine. Here we evaluated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy individuals or tuberculosis patients stimulated with two forms of Hsp65 antigen, recombinant DNA that encodes Hsp65 (DNA-HSP65) or recombinant Hsp65 protein (rHsp65) in attempting to mimic a prophylactic or therapeutic study in vitro, respectively. Proliferation and cytokine-producing CD4(+) or CD8(+) cell were assessed by flow cytometry...
January 6, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056107/autophagy-is-an-innate-mechanism-associated-with-leprosy-polarization
#14
Bruno Jorge de Andrade Silva, Mayara Garcia de Mattos Barbosa, Priscila Ribeiro Andrade, Helen Ferreira, José Augusto da Costa Nery, Suzana Côrte-Real, Gilberto Marcelo Sperandio da Silva, Patricia Sammarco Rosa, Mario Fabri, Euzenir Nunes Sarno, Roberta Olmo Pinheiro
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease that may present different clinical forms according to the immune response of the host. Levels of IFN-γ are significantly raised in paucibacillary tuberculoid (T-lep) when compared with multibacillary lepromatous (L-lep) patients. IFN-γ primes macrophages for inflammatory activation and induces the autophagy antimicrobial mechanism. The involvement of autophagy in the immune response against Mycobacterium leprae remains unexplored. Here, we demonstrated by different autophagic assays that LC3-positive autophagosomes were predominantly observed in T-lep when compared with L-lep lesions and skin-derived macrophages...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038394/increased-il-35-producing-tregs-and-cd19-il-35-cells-are-associated-with-disease-progression-in-leprosy-patients
#15
Mohd Tarique, Chaman Saini, Raza Ali Naqvi, Neena Khanna, D N Rao
BACKGROUND: The clinical forms of leprosy consist of a spectrum that reflects the host's immune response to the M. leprae; it provides an ideal model to study the host pathogen interaction and immunological dysregulation in humans. IL-10 and TGF-β producing Tregs are high in leprosy patients and responsible for immune suppression and M. leprae specific T cells anergy. In leprosy, involvement of IL-35 producing Tregs and Bregs remain unstudied. OBJECTIVE: To study the role of IL-35 producing Tregs and Bregs in the human leprosy...
December 27, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027305/evaluation-of-polymerase-chain-reaction-pcr-with-slit-skin-smear-examination-sss-to-confirm-clinical-diagnosis-of-leprosy-in-eastern-nepal
#16
Shraddha Siwakoti, Keshav Rai, Narayan Raj Bhattarai, Sudha Agarwal, Basudha Khanal
BACKGROUND: Detection of Mycobacterium leprae in slit skin smear (SSS) is a gold standard technique for the leprosy diagnosis. Over recent years, molecular diagnosis by using PCR has been increasingly used as an alternative for its diagnosis due to its higher sensitivity. This study was carried out for comparative evaluation of PCR and SSS microscopy in a cohort of new leprosy cases diagnosed in B. P. Koirala Institute of health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this prospective crossectional study, 50 new clinically diagnosed cases of leprosy were included...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001221/number-of-leprosy-reactions-during-treatment-clinical-correlations-and-laboratory-diagnosis
#17
Douglas Eulálio Antunes, Gabriela Porto Ferreira, Mariana Vitorino Candeiro Nicchio, Sergio Araujo, Ana Carolina Rodrigues da Cunha, Rafaela Resende Gomes, Adeilson Viera da Costa, Isabela Maria Bernardes Goulart
INTRODUCTION: The occurrence of leprosy reactions, a common event during treatment, may be mostly related to the action of multidrug therapy on Mycobacterium leprae. The clinical and laboratory monitoring of patients with reactions is important, since collecting data that assists in predicting the risk of reactions may help to prevent disability. METHODS: This was a sectional study, in order to correlate clinical and laboratory diagnosis with the number of reactions during treatment...
November 2016: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976721/a-large-scale-genome-wide-association-and-meta-analysis-identified-four-novel-susceptibility-loci-for-leprosy
#18
Zhenzhen Wang, Yonghu Sun, Xi'an Fu, Gongqi Yu, Chuan Wang, Fangfang Bao, Zhenhua Yue, Jianke Li, Lele Sun, Astrid Irwanto, Yongxiang Yu, Mingfei Chen, Zihao Mi, Honglei Wang, Pengcheng Huai, Yi Li, Tiantian Du, Wenjun Yu, Yang Xia, Hailu Xiao, Jiabao You, Jinghui Li, Qing Yang, Na Wang, Panpan Shang, Guiye Niu, Xiaojun Chi, Xiuhuan Wang, Jing Cao, Xiujun Cheng, Hong Liu, Jianjun Liu, Furen Zhang
Leprosy, a chronic infectious disease, results from the uncultivable pathogen Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae), and usually progresses to peripheral neuropathy and permanent progressive deformity if not treated. Previously published genetic studies have identified 18 gene/loci significantly associated with leprosy at the genome-wide significant level. However as a complex disease, only a small proportion of leprosy risk could be explained by those gene/loci. To further identify more susceptibility gene/loci, we hereby performed a three-stage GWAS comprising 8,156 leprosy patients and 15,610 controls of Chinese ancestry...
December 15, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941127/leprosy-in-a-patient-infected-with-hiv
#19
Clare M Galtrey, Hamid Modarres, Zane Jaunmuktane, Sebastian Brandner, Alexander M Rossor, Diana Nj Lockwood, Mary M Reilly, Hadi Manji, Fred Schon
A 60-year-old Nigerian man, who had lived in Europe for 30 years but had returned home frequently, presented with right frontalis muscle weakness and right ulnar nerve palsy, without skin lesions. Neurophysiology showed a generalised neuropathy with demyelinating features. Blood tests were positive for HIV, with a normal CD4 count. There was nerve thickening both clinically and on MRI. Nerve biopsy showed chronic endoneuritis and perineuritis (indicating leprosy) without visible mycobacteria. His neuropathy continued to deteriorate (lepra reaction) before starting treatment with WHO multidrug therapy, highly active antiretroviral therapy and corticosteroids...
December 9, 2016: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927694/th9-cytokines-response-and-its-possible-implications-in-the-immunopathogenesis-of-leprosy
#20
Jorge Rodrigues de Sousa, Carla Pagliari, Dandara Simone Maia de Almeida, Luiz Fernando Lima Barros, Francisca Regina Oliveira Carneiro, Leonidas Braga Dias, Tinara Leila de Souza Aarão, Juarez Antonio Simões Quaresma
AIMS: Leprosy is an infectious-contagious disease whose clinical evolution depends on the interaction of the infectious agent with the immune response of the host, leading to a clinical spectrum that ranges from lepromatous leprosy (susceptibility, LL) to tuberculoid leprosy (resistance, TT). The immune response profile will depend on the pattern of cytokine production and on the activity of macrophages during infection. Classically, the clinical evolution of leprosy has been associated with Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles, but the role of new cytokine profiles such as T helper 9 (Th9) remains to be elucidated...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pathology
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