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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891346/evaluation-of-fluorescent-staining-for-diagnosis-of-leprosy-and-its-impact-on-grading-of-the-disease-comparison-with-conventional-staining
#1
Deepa Sowkur Anandarama Adiga, Surekha B Hippargi, Gururaja Rao, Debarshi Saha, Bheemrao Ramling Yelikar, Mahesh Karigoudar
INTRODUCTION: Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae). Histopathological examination of skin lesion is the gold standard for diagnosis. We evaluated the possible role of fluorescent microscopy in this direction which is increasingly used for rapid screening. AIM: To compare the efficacy of auramine rhodamine stain with Ziehl-Neelsen and modified Fite-faraco staining in diagnosing M. leprae in tissue sections. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental, cross-sectional and retrospective study conducted for 4 years...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888674/qpcr-detection-of-mycobacterium-leprae-in-biopsies-and-slit-skin-smear-of-different-leprosy-clinical-forms
#2
Michelle de Campos Soriani Azevedo, Natália Mortari Ramuno, Luciana Raquel Vincenzi Fachin, Mônica Tassa, Patrícia Sammarco Rosa, Andrea de Faria Fernandes Belone, Suzana Madeira Diório, Cleverson Teixeira Soares, Gustavo Pompermaier Garlet, Ana Paula Favaro Trombone
Leprosy, whose etiological agent is Mycobacterium leprae, is a chronic infectious disease that mainly affects the skin and peripheral nervous system. The diagnosis of leprosy is based on clinical evaluation, whereas histopathological analysis and bacilloscopy are complementary diagnostic tools. Quantitative PCR (qPCR), a current useful tool for diagnosis of infectious diseases, has been used to detect several pathogens including Mycobacterium leprae. The validation of this technique in a robust set of samples comprising the different clinical forms of leprosy is still necessary...
November 23, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876828/common-variants-in-the-parl-and-pink1-genes-increase-the-risk-to-leprosy-in-han-chinese-from-south-china
#3
Dong Wang, Deng-Feng Zhang, Jia-Qi Feng, Guo-Dong Li, Xiao-An Li, Xiu-Feng Yu, Heng Long, Yu-Ye Li, Yong-Gang Yao
Leprosy is a chronic infectious and neurological disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, an unculturable pathogen with massive genomic decay and dependence on host metabolism. We hypothesized that mitochondrial genes PARL and PINK1 would confer risk to leprosy. Thirteen tag SNPs of PARL and PINK1 were analyzed in 3620 individuals with or without leprosy from China. We also sequenced the entire exons of PARL, PINK1 and PARK2 in 80 patients with a family history of leprosy by using the next generation sequencing technology (NGS)...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864529/subversion-of-schwann-cell-glucose-metabolism-by-mycobacterium-leprae
#4
Rychelle Clayde Affonso Medeiros, Karina do Carmo de Vasconcelos Girardi, Fernanda Karlla Luz Cardoso, Bruno de Siqueira Mietto, Thiago Gomes de Toledo Pinto, Lilian Sales Gomez, Luciana Silva Rodrigues, Mariana Gandini, Julio Jablonski Amaral, Sérgio Luiz Gomes Antunes, Suzana Corte-Real, Patricia Sammarco Rosa, Maria Cristina Vidal Pessolani, José Augusto da Costa Nery, Euzenir Nunes Sarno, Leonardo Ribeiro Batista-Silva, Mauro Sola-Penna, Marcus Fernandes de Oliveira, Milton Ozório Moraes, Flavio Alves Lara
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 18, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856491/excavating-the-surface-associated-and-secretory-proteome-of-mycobacterium-leprae-for-identifying-vaccines-and-diagnostic-markers-relevant-immunodominant-epitopes
#5
Aarti Rana, Shweta Thakur, Nupur Bhardwaj, Devender Kumar, Yusuf Akhter
For centuries Mycobacterium leprae, etiological agent of leprosy, has been afflicting mankind regardless of extensive use of live attenuated vaccines and antibiotics. Surface-associated and secretory proteins (SASPs) are attractive targets against bacteria. We have integrated biological knowledge with computational approaches and present a proteome-wide identification of SASPs. We also performed computational assignment of immunodominant epitopes as coordinates of prospective antigenic candidates in most important class of SASPs, the outer membrane proteins (OMPs)...
November 16, 2016: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854511/a-negative-feedback-loop-between-autophagy-and-immune-responses-in-mycobacterium-leprae-infection
#6
Yuelong Ma, Li Zhang, Jie Lu, Tiejun Shui, Jia Chen, Jun Yang, Joanna Yuan, Yeqiang Liu, Degang Yang
The obligate intracellular bacterium Mycobacterium leprae is the causative agent of leprosy and primarily infects macrophages, leading to irreversible nerve damage and deformities. So far, the underlying reasons allowing M. leprae to persist and propagate in macrophages, despite the presence of cellular immunity, are still a mystery. Here, we investigated the role of autophagy, a cellular process that degrades cytosolic materials and intracellular pathogens, in M. leprae infection. We found that live M. leprae infection of macrophages resulted in significantly elevated autophagy level...
November 17, 2016: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846605/red-squirrels-in-the-british-isles-are-infected-with-leprosy-bacilli
#7
Charlotte Avanzi, Jorge Del-Pozo, Andrej Benjak, Karen Stevenson, Victor R Simpson, Philippe Busso, Joyce McLuckie, Chloé Loiseau, Colin Lawton, Janne Schoening, Darren J Shaw, Jérémie Piton, Lucio Vera-Cabrera, Jesùs S Velarde-Felix, Fergal McDermott, Stephen V Gordon, Stewart T Cole, Anna L Meredith
Leprosy, caused by infection with Mycobacterium leprae or the recently discovered Mycobacterium lepromatosis, was once endemic in humans in the British Isles. Red squirrels in Great Britain (Sciurus vulgaris) have increasingly been observed with leprosy-like lesions on the head and limbs. Using genomics, histopathology, and serology, we found M. lepromatosis in squirrels from England, Ireland, and Scotland, and M. leprae in squirrels from Brownsea Island, England. Infection was detected in overtly diseased and seemingly healthy animals...
November 11, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795222/-immunological-evaluation-during-treatment-of-a-case-of-borderline-lepromatous-leprosy
#8
Blanca María Morfín-Maciel, María Carmen Jiménez Martínez
BACKGROUND: Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous infection that affects skin and peripheral nerves. Its prevalence has declined, but is still observed mainly in poor rural areas. CASE REPORT: A male city dweller with photophobia and chronic dermatosis in the face: nodular and erythematous lesions, pustules, keratitis and entropion, partial eyebrows loss, and edema on eyelids, chin, and nose bridge. The rest of the body had no lesion or lymphadenopathy. Biopsy revealed Langhans giant cell proliferation in the superficial dermis without epidermal atrophy...
October 2016: Revista Alergia Mexico: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Mexicana de Alergia e Inmunología, A.C
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764137/role-of-teffector-memory-cells-tbx21-gene-expression-and-t-cell-homing-receptor-on-type-1-reaction-in-borderline-lepromatous-leprosy-patients
#9
Luciana Nahar Dos Santos, Pedro Henrique Lopes da Silva, Iris Maria Peixoto Alvim, José Augusto da Costa Nery, Flávio Alves Lara, Euzenir Nunes Sarno, Danuza Esquenazi
In spite of hyporesponsivity to Mycobacterium leprae, borderline lepromatous (BL) patients show clinical and immunological instability, and undergo frequent acute inflammatory episodes such as type 1 reaction (T1R), which may cause nerve damages. This work focused on the participation of T cell subsets from blood and skin at T1R onset. We observed a significantly increased ex vivo frequency of both effector and memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in T1R group. Besides, ex vivo frequency of T cell homing receptor, the Cutaneous Leukocyte-associated Antigen (CLA) was significantly increased in T cells from T1R patients...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726813/paleomicrobiology-of-leprosy
#10
Mark Spigelman, Mauro Rubini
The use of paleomicrobiological techniques in leprosy has the potential to assist paleopathologists in many important aspects of their studies on the bones of victims, solving at times diagnostic problems. With Mycobacterium leprae, because of the unique nature of the organism, these techniques can help solve problems of differential diagnosis. In cases of co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, they can also suggest a cause of death and possibly even trace the migratory patterns of people in antiquity, as well as explain changes in the rates and level of infection within populations in antiquity...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706165/leprosy-drug-resistance-surveillance-in-colombia-the-experience-of-a-sentinel-country
#11
Camilo Beltrán-Alzate, Fernando López Díaz, Marcela Romero-Montoya, Rama Sakamuri, Wei Li, Miyako Kimura, Patrick Brennan, Nora Cardona-Castro
An active search for Mycobacterium leprae drug resistance was carried out, 243 multibacillary patients from endemic regions of Colombia were included from 2004 to 2013 in a surveillance program. This program was a World Health Organization initiative for drug resistance surveillance in leprosy, where Colombia is a sentinel country. M. leprae DNA from slit skin smear and/or skin biopsy samples was amplified and sequenced to identify mutations in the drug resistance determining region (DRDR) in rpoB, folP1, gyrA, and gyrB, the genes responsible for rifampicin, dapsone and ofloxacin drug-resistance, respectively...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704524/do-leprosy-and-tuberculosis-generate-a-systemic-inflammatory-shift-setting-the-ground-for-a-new-dialogue-between-experimental-immunology-and-bioarchaeology
#12
Fabian A Crespo, Christopher K Klaes, Andrew E Switala, Sharon N DeWitte
: It is possible that during long lasting chronic infections such as tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy individuals who generate a stronger immune response will produce a chronic shift in the systemic levels of inflammatory proteins. Consequently, the systemic immunological shift could affect inflammatory responses against other persistent pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis associated with periodontal disease (PD). OBJECTIVE: To determine if in vitro exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis or M...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704298/sequential-formation-of-two-branched-intermediates-during-protein-splicing-of-class-three-inteins
#13
Kazuo Tori, Francine Perler
Inteins are the protein equivalent of introns. They are seamlessly removed during post-translational maturation of their host protein (extein). Inteins from extremophiles played a key role in understanding intein-mediated protein splicing. There are currently three classes of inteins defined by catalytic mechanism and sequence signatures. This study demonstrates splicing of three class 3 mini-inteins: Burkholderia vietnamiensis G4 Bvi IcmO intein, Mycobacterium smegmatis MC2 155 Msm DnaB-1 intein and Mycobacterium leprae strain TN Mle DnaB intein...
October 4, 2016: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703073/mycobacteriophages-as-incubators-for-intein-dissemination-and-evolution
#14
Danielle S Kelley, Christopher W Lennon, Marlene Belfort, Olga Novikova
: Inteins are self-splicing protein elements that are mobile at the DNA level and are sporadically distributed across microbial genomes. Inteins appear to be horizontally transferred, and it has been speculated that phages may play a role in intein distribution. Our attention turns to mycobacteriophages, which infect mycobacteria, where both phage and host harbor inteins. Using bioinformatics, mycobacteriophage genomes were mined for inteins. This study reveals that these mobile elements are present across multiple mycobacteriophage clusters and are pervasive in certain genes, like the large terminase subunit TerL and a RecB-like nuclease, with the majority of intein-containing genes being phage specific...
October 4, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682181/quantitative-lateral-flow-strip-assays-as-user-friendly-tools-to-detect-biomarker-profiles-for-leprosy
#15
Anouk van Hooij, Elisa M Tjon Kon Fat, Renate Richardus, Susan J F van den Eeden, Louis Wilson, Claudia J de Dood, Roel Faber, Korshed Alam, Jan Hendrik Richardus, Paul L A M Corstjens, Annemieke Geluk
Leprosy is a debilitating, infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Despite the availability of multidrug therapy, transmission is unremitting. Thus, early identification of M. leprae infection is essential to reduce transmission. The immune response to M. leprae is determined by host genetics, resulting in paucibacillary (PB) and multibacillary (MB) leprosy associated with dominant cellular or humoral immunity, respectively. This spectral pathology of leprosy compels detection of immunity to M. leprae to be based on multiple, diverse biomarkers...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681932/dc-159a-shows-inhibitory-activity-against-dna-gyrases-of-mycobacterium-leprae
#16
Tomoyuki Yamaguchi, Kazumasa Yokoyama, Chie Nakajima, Yasuhiko Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolones are a class of antibacterial agents used for leprosy treatment. Some new fluoroquinolones have been attracting interest due to their remarkable potency that is reportedly better than that of ofloxacin, the fluoroquinolone currently recommended for treatment of leprosy. For example, DC-159a, a recently developed 8-methoxy fluoroquinolone, has been found to be highly potent against various bacterial species. Nonetheless, the efficacy of DC-159a against Mycobacterium leprae is yet to be examined...
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659385/structure-of-the-second-single-stranded-dna-binding-protein-ssbb-from-mycobacterium-smegmatis
#17
Amandeep Singh, Umesh Varshney, M Vijayan
All mycobacteria with sequenced genomes, except M. leprae, have a second Single Stranded DNA Binding protein (SSBb) in addition to the canonical one (SSBa). This paralogue from M. smegmatis (MsSSBb) has been cloned, expressed and purified. The protein, which is probably involved in stress response, has been crystallized and X-ray analyzed in the first structure elucidation of a mycobacterial SSBb. In spite of the low sequence identity between SSBas and SSBbs in mycobacteria, the tertiary and quaternary structure of the DNA binding domain of MsSSBb is similar to that observed in mycobacterial SSBas...
December 2016: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645564/rab32-restriction-of-intracellular-bacterial-pathogens
#18
Virtu Solano-Collado, Adam Rofe, Stefania Spanò
Our immune system is engaged in a continuous battle against invading pathogens, many of which have evolved to survive in intracellular niches of mammalian hosts. A variety of cellular processes are involved in preventing bacterial invasion or in killing bacteria that successfully invade host cells. Recently, the Rab GTPase Rab32 emerged as critical regulator of a host defense pathway that can eliminate bacterial pathogens. Salmonella enterica is an intracellular bacterium and a major cause of infections and deaths in humans...
September 20, 2016: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642139/genomic-diversity-in-mycobacterium-leprae-isolates-from-leprosy-cases-in-south-india
#19
Madhusmita Das, V Sundeep Chaitanya, K Kanmani, Lakshmi Rajan, Mannam Ebenezer
OBJECTIVE: The Objective of this study was to identify the strain diversity of Mycobacterium leprae in terms of SNP types and subtypes stratified as per genomic single nucleotide polymorphisms, in clinical isolates of leprosy patients from a tertiary care leprosy center in South India. Further, the associations of SNP types with clinical outcomes in leprosy were also investigated. METHODS: DNA was extracted from excisional skin biopsies of a total of 172 newly diagnosed untreated leprosy patients from a clinic in Tamil Nadu, in south India, that also serves patients from neighboring states...
September 15, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622024/investigating-potential-exogenous-tumor-initiating-and-promoting-factors-for-cutaneous-t-cell-lymphomas-ctcl-a-rare-skin-malignancy
#20
REVIEW
Ivan V Litvinov, Anna Shtreis, Kenneth Kobayashi, Steven Glassman, Matthew Tsang, Anders Woetmann, Denis Sasseville, Niels Ødum, Madeleine Duvic
Most skin malignancies are caused by external and often preventable environmental agents. Multiple reports demonstrated that cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) can occur in married couples and cluster in families. Furthermore, recent studies document geographic clustering of this malignancy in Texas as well as in other areas of the United States. Multiple infectious, occupational, and medication causes have been proposed as triggers or promoters of this malignancy including hydrochlorothiazide diuretics, Staphylococcus aureus, dermatophytes, Mycobacterium leprae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, human T-Cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV1), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and herpes simplex virus (HSV)...
July 2016: Oncoimmunology
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