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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048278/mycobacterium-lepromatosis-lepromatous-leprosy-in-us-citizen-who-traveled-to-disease-endemic-areas
#1
Abinash Virk, Bobbi Pritt, Robin Patel, James R Uhl, Spencer A Bezalel, Lawrence E Gibson, Barbara M Stryjewska, Margot S Peters
We report Mycobacterium lepromatosis infection in a US-born person with an extensive international travel history. Clinical symptoms, histopathology, and management are similar to those of infections caused by M. leprae. Clinicians should consider this pathogen in the diagnosis of patients with symptoms of leprosy who have traveled to endemic areas.
November 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042494/insights-from-the-genome-sequence-of-mycobacterium-lepraemurium-massive-gene-decay-and-reductive-evolution
#2
Andrej Benjak, Tanvi P Honap, Charlotte Avanzi, Enrique Becerril-Villanueva, Iris Estrada-García, Oscar Rojas-Espinosa, Anne C Stone, Stewart T Cole
Mycobacterium lepraemurium is the causative agent of murine leprosy, a chronic, granulomatous disease similar to human leprosy. Due to the similar clinical manifestations of human and murine leprosy and the difficulty of growing both bacilli axenically, Mycobacterium leprae and M. lepraemurium were once thought to be closely related, although it was later suggested that M. lepraemurium might be related to Mycobacterium avium In this study, the complete genome of M. lepraemurium was sequenced using a combination of PacBio and Illumina sequencing...
October 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031287/leprosy-associated-with-atypical-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-nicaragua-and-honduras
#3
Lucrecia Acosta Soto, Nelson Caballero, Lesny Ruth Fuentes, Pedro Torres Muñoz, Jose Ramón Gómez Echevarría, Montserrat Pérez López, Fernando Jorge Bornay Llinares, John L Stanford, Cynthia A Stanford, Helen D Donoghue
In Central America, few cases of leprosy have been reported, but the disease may be unrecognized. Diagnosis is based on clinical criteria and histology. Preliminary field work in Nicaragua and Honduras found patients, including many children, with skin lesions clinically suggestive of atypical cutaneous leishmaniasis or indeterminate leprosy. Histology could not distinguish these diseases although acid-fast organisms were visible in a few biopsies. Lesions healed after standard antimicrobial therapy for leprosy...
October 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030295/the-new-phylogeny-of-the-genus-mycobacterium-the-old-and-the-news
#4
Enrico Tortoli, Tarcisio Fedrizzi, Conor J Meehan, Alberto Trovato, Antonella Grottola, Elisabetta Giacobazzi, Giulia Fregni Serpini, Sara Tagliazucchi, Anna Fabio, Clotilde Bettua, Roberto Bertorelli, Francesca Frascaro, Veronica De Sanctis, Monica Pecorari, Olivier Jousson, Nicola Segata, Daniela M Cirillo
BACKGROUND: Phylogenetic studies of bacteria have been based so far either on a single gene (usually the 16S rRNA) or on concatenated housekeeping genes. For what concerns the genus Mycobacterium these approaches support the separation of rapidly and slowly growing species and the clustering of most species in well-defined phylogenetic groups. The advent of high-throughput shotgun sequencing leads us to revise conventional taxonomy of mycobacteria on the light of genomic data. For this purpose we investigated 89 newly sequenced species in addition to 60 retrieved from GenBank and used the Average Nucleotide Identity pairwise scores to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships within this genus...
October 10, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991896/t-cell-regulation-in-erythema-nodosum-leprosum
#5
Edessa Negera, Stephen L Walker, Kidist Bobosha, Rawleigh Howe, Abraham Aseffa, Hazel M Dockrell, Diana N Lockwood
Leprosy is a disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae where the clinical spectrum correlates with the patient immune response. Erythema Nodosum Leprosum (ENL) is an immune-mediated inflammatory complication, which causes significant morbidity in affected leprosy patients. The underlying cause of ENL is not conclusively known. However, immune-complexes and cell-mediated immunity have been suggested in the pathogenesis of ENL. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulatory T-cells in patients with ENL...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984227/leprosy-in-pre-norman-suffolk-uk-biomolecular-and-geochemical-analysis-of-the-woman-from-hoxne
#6
Sarah Inskip, G Michael Taylor, Sue Anderson, Graham Stewart
PURPOSE: A woman's skull, exhibiting features of lepromatous leprosy (LL), was recovered from a garden in Hoxne, Suffolk. The absence of post crania and lack of formal excavation meant that diagnosis and dating was uncertain. The aim of this research was to confirm the diagnosis using biomolecular means and second, to place it in context with other British leprosy cases using SNP genotyping and radiocarbon dating. METHODOLOGY: Bone from the skull was analysed by ancient DNA (aDNA) methods and subjected to radiocarbon dating...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979032/dual-infection-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-mycobacterium-leprae-at-same-site-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-an-unusual-presentation
#7
Romana Ghosh, Jayanta Kumar Barua, Abhimanyu Garg, Bhakti Pada Barman
Occurrence of two mycobacterial infections Tuberculosis & Leprosy in a single immunocompetent person and at single site is very unusual even in endemic countries like India. We report the case of 23yr old male, who previously presented with trophic ulcer under the ball of right great toe one yr back and diagnosed as a case of Multibacillary leprosy, now presented with chronic discharging sinus, ulceration, granulation and crusting over same site even under treatment with MDT MB. Such clinical presentation, in corroboration with proper diagnostic test likes AFB staining and BACTEC culture evaluation with no evidence immunosuppression prompted us to make a diagnosis of dual infection with M...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977675/a-pleiotropic-effect-of-the-apoe-gene-association-of-apoe-polymorphisms-with-multibacillary-leprosy-in-han-chinese-from-southwest-china
#8
D Wang, D F Zhang, G D Li, R Bi, Y Fan, Y Wu, X F Yu, H Long, Y Y Li, Y G Yao
BACKGROUND: Leprosy patients had a very low risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and the β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition was significantly lower in the brain tissues of elderly leprosy patients than those of age-matched controls. The APOE played critical roles in lipid metabolic pathways and in brain to facilitate the proteolytic clearance of Aβ. We hypothesized that APOE would confer risk to leprosy as lipid metabolism was involved in Mycobacterium leprae infection. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential genetic associations between APOE and leprosy in two independent Chinese case-control cohorts from the Yuxi and Wenshan Prefectures, Yunnan Province of Southwest China...
October 4, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970833/differential-expression-of-micrornas-in-leprosy-skin-lesions
#9
Cleverson T Soares, Ana P F Trombone, Luciana R V Fachin, Patricia S Rosa, Cássio C Ghidella, Rodrigo F Ramalho, Mabel G Pinilla, Alex F Carvalho, Dirce N Carrara, Fernando A Soares, Andrea F F Belone
Leprosy, a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, is a major public health problem in poor and developing countries of the Americas, Africa, and Asia. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which are small non-coding RNAs (18-24 nucleotides), play an important role in regulating cell and tissue homeostasis through translational downregulation of messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Deregulation of miRNA expression is important for the pathogenesis of various neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases and has been the focus of many publications; however, studies on the expression of miRNAs in leprosy are rare...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969977/partners-in-crime-phenolic-glycolipids-and-macrophages
#10
Alok Kumar Singh, William R Bishai
Two recent articles advance our understanding of mycobacterial pathogenesis, revealing key roles for bacterially derived phenolic glycolipids (PGLs). In leprosy, Mycobacterium leprae PGL-1 uniquely subverts local macrophages to produce neurotoxic nitric oxide (NO), leading to nerve demyelination. In a related model, Mycobacterium marinum PGL stimulates the recruitment of growth-conducive monocytes to sites of initial infection as an early immune evasion strategy.
September 29, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966530/type-i-lepra-reaction-as-the-presenting-sign-of-histoid-leprosy
#11
Jingru Sun, Ping Tu, Shengguo Yi, Wenjing Fu, Yang Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Annals of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958595/the-mtdna-replication-related-genes-tfam-and-polg-are-associated-with-leprosy-in-han-chinese-from-southwest-china
#12
Dong Wang, Guo-Dong Li, Yu Fan, Deng-Feng Zhang, Rui Bi, Xiu-Feng Yu, Heng Long, Yu-Ye Li, Yong-Gang Yao
BACKGROUND: The pathogen Mycobacterium leprae of leprosy is heavily dependent on the host energy metabolites and nutritional products for survival. Previously we and others have identified associations of several mitochondrion-related genes and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number alterations with leprosy and/or its subtype. We hypothesized that genetic variants of mtDNA replication-related genes would affect leprosy. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify genetic associations between the mtDNA replication-related genes TFAM, POLG and leprosy...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934421/a-zebrafish-model-of-mycobacterium-leprae-granulomatous-infection
#13
Cressida A Madigan, James Cameron, Lalita Ramakrishnan
Understanding the pathogenesis of leprosy granulomas has been hindered by a paucity of tractable experimental animal models. Mycobacterium leprae, which causes leprosy, grows optimally at approximately 30°C, so we sought to model granulomatous disease in the ectothermic zebrafish. We found that noncaseating granulomas develop rapidly and eventually eradicate infection. rag1 mutant zebrafish, which lack lymphocytes, also form noncaseating granulomas with similar kinetics, but these control infection more slowly...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930653/fishing-for-answers-in-human-mycobacterial-infections
#14
Miriam Bolz, Joel D Ernst
Two recent studies (Cambier et al., 2017; Madigan et al., 2017) reveal in vivo functions for specific phenolic glycolipids (PGLs) in the mycobacteria that cause tuberculosis or leprosy. M. tuberculosis (and M. marinum) PGL promotes bacterial spread to growth-permissive macrophages, while M. leprae PGL-1 induces macrophages to cause nerve demyelination characteristic of human leprosy.
September 19, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919618/molecular-detection-and-differentiation-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-and-non-tuberculous-mycobacterium-in-the-clinical-specimens-by-real-time-pcr
#15
M M Rahman, M R Rahim, A Khaled, T A Nasir, F Nasrin, M A Hasan
Mycobacteria are subdivided into three groups: the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, the non-tuberculous mycobacteria called NTM or MOTT (Mycobacteria Other Than Tuberculosis) and Mycobacterium leprae. Over the past few decades, the incidence of infections caused by NTM has increased world wide. The differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex from NTM is of primary importance for infection control and choice of antimicrobial therapy. However, there is so far no report in Bangladesh about the detection of NTM and hence differentiation of MTB and NTM...
July 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910627/dancing-with-the-stars-phenolic-glycolipids-partners-with-macrophages
#16
Micah D Dunlap, Shabaana A Khader
How Mycobacterium leprae infection causes demyelination to mediate leprosy pathogenesis has been a long-standing question. In a recent Cell paper, Madigan et al. (2017) use a zebrafish model of M. leprae infection to show that infected macrophages patrol axons to trigger mitochondrial damage and induce demyelination of nerve cells.
September 13, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902286/specific-antigen-serologic-tests-in-leprosy-implications-for-epidemiological-surveillance-of-leprosy-cases-and-household-contacts
#17
Ana Paula Mendes Carvalho, Angélica da Conceição Oliveira Coelho, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Félix Lana
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of straightforward tests for field application and known biomarkers for predicting leprosy progression in infected individuals. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to analyse the response to infection by Mycobacterium leprae based on the reactivity of specific antigens: natural disaccharide linked to human serum albumin via an octyl (NDOHSA), a semisynthetic phenolic glycolipid-I (PGL-I); Leprosy Infectious Disease Research Institute Diagnostic-1 (LID-1) and natural disaccharide octyl - Leprosy Infectious Disease Research Institute Diagnostic-1 (NDOLID)...
September 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879146/trends-in-leprosy-case-detection-in-rwanda-1995-2011-analysis-of-17-years-of-laboratory-data
#18
Innocent Uwimana, Nestor Bizimungu, Fabrice Ingabire, Elyse Mukamukwiye, Odette Sharangabo, Semuto C Ngabonziza, Elaine Kamanzi
BACKGROUND: Leprosy, or Hansen's disease, is a chronic, infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. It remains one of the leading causes of deformity and physical disability. OBJECTIVE: We analysed laboratory records to assess trends in prevalence rates and case detection rates (CDRs) in Rwanda. METHODS: A retrospective review of detected leprosy cases from the records of the Rwanda National Reference Laboratory over a 17-year period (1995-2011) was conducted...
2017: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875310/simultaneous-analysis-of-multiple-t-helper-subsets-in-leprosy-reveals-distinct-patterns-of-th1-th2-th17-and-tregs-markers-expression-in-clinical-forms-and-reactional-events
#19
Michelle de Campos Soriani Azevedo, Heloisa Marques, Larissa Sarri Binelli, Mariana Silva Vieira Malange, Amanda Carreira Devides, Eliane Aparecida Silva, Luciana Raquel Vincenzi Fachin, Cassio Cesar Ghidella, Cleverson Teixeira Soares, Gustavo Pompermaier Garlet, Patrícia Sammarco Rosa, Andrea de Farias Fernandes Belone, Ana Paula Favaro Trombone
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Previous studies have demonstrated that the difference among clinical forms of leprosy can be associated with the immune response of patients, mainly by T helper (Th) and regulatory T cells (Tregs). Then, aiming at clarifying the immune response, the expression of cytokines related to Th1, Th2, Th17 and Tregs profiles were evaluated by qPCR in 87 skin biopsies from leprosy patients. Additionally, cytokines and anti-PGL-1 antibodies were determined in serum by ELISA...
September 5, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875176/lactoferricin-peptides-increase-macrophages-capacity-to-kill-mycobacterium-avium
#20
Tânia Silva, Ana C Moreira, Kamran Nazmi, Tânia Moniz, Nuno Vale, Maria Rangel, Paula Gomes, Jan G M Bolscher, Pedro N Rodrigues, Margarida Bastos, Maria Salomé Gomes
Mycobacterial infections cause a significant burden of disease and death worldwide. Their treatment is long, toxic, costly, and increasingly prone to failure due to bacterial resistance to currently available antibiotics. New therapeutic options are thus clearly needed. Antimicrobial peptides represent an important source of new antimicrobial molecules, both for their direct activity and for their immunomodulatory potential. We have previously reported that a short version of the bovine antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin with amino acids 17 to 30 (LFcin17-30), along with its variants obtained by specific amino acid substitutions, killed Mycobacterium avium in broth culture...
July 2017: MSphere
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