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Navya Jaiswal, Shrijeet Chakraborti, Kashinath Nayak, Shivananda Pai, B P Shelley, Saraswathy Sreeram, K C Rakshith, B V Suresh, Z K Misri, Hansraj Alva, N Shankar
Introduction: Leprosy affecting the nerve solely or with concomitant skin lesions is not an uncommon condition in clinical practice. It is responsible for extensive morbidity and often poses a diagnostic challenge. This study aims to highlight the clinicopathological features of Hansen's neuritis (HN). Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, cases of histologically diagnosed HN, from January 2010 to July 2017, were reviewed in the light of clinical features, treatment history, and outcome...
January 2018: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
Partha Sarathi Mohanty, Avi Kumar Bansal, Farah Naaz, Umesh Datta Gupta, Vivek Dhar Dwivedi, Umesh Yadava
Leprosy is a chronic infection of skin and nerve caused by Mycobacterium leprae. The treatment is based on standard multi drug therapy consisting of dapsone, rifampicin and clofazamine. The use of rifampicin alone or with dapsone led to the emergence of rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium leprae strains. The emergence of drug-resistant leprosy put a hurdle in the leprosy eradication programme. The present study aims to predict the molecular model of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), the enzyme responsible for biosynthesis of nucleotides, to screen new drugs for treatment of drug-resistant leprosy...
February 15, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Tina George, M Venkataraman, Sramana Mukhopadhyay, I Ramya
Hansen's disease can present with varied and subtle symptoms which can be missed. A middle-aged gentleman presented with swelling of face and hands. Detailed examination and investigations confirmed borderline tuberculoid leprosy with lepra reaction. A high index of suspicion with vigilance can help to make an early diagnosis in this potentially treatable condition.
July 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Mallika Lavania, Itu Singh, Ravindra P Turankar, Anuj Kumar Gupta, Madhvi Ahuja, Vinay Pathak, Utpal Sengupta
Despite more than three decades of multidrug therapy (MDT), leprosy remains a major public health issue in several endemic countries, including India. The emergence of drug resistance in Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) is a cause of concern and poses a threat to the leprosy-control program, which might ultimately dampen the achievement of the elimination program of the country. Rifampicin resistance in clinical strains of M. leprae are supposed to arise from harboring bacterial strains with mutations in the 81-bp rifampicin resistance determining region (RRDR) of the rpoB gene...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Luana Nepomueceno Costa Lima, Cristiane Cunha Frota, Phillip Noel Suffys, Amanda Nogueira Brum Fontes, Rosa Maria Salani Mota, Rosa Livia Freitas Almeida, Maria Araci de Andrade Pontes, Heitor de Sá Gonçalves, Carl Kendall, Ligia Regina Sansigolo Kerr
This study analyzed the genetic diversity by MIRU-VNTR of Mycobacterium leprae isolates from nasal cavities and related to epidemiological and clinical data. The sample consisted of 48 newly diagnosed leprosy cases that tested positive for M. leprae PCR in nasal secretion (NS) attending to the National Reference Center of Dermatology Dona Libania (CDERM), Fortaleza, Brazil. Total DNA was extracted from NS of each patient and used for amplification of four M. leprae VNTR loci. Four clusters of M. leprae isolates were formed with identical genotypes...
February 6, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Reid Oldenburg, Veronique Mayau, Jacques Prandi, Ainhoa Arbues, Catherine Astarie-Dequeker, Christophe Guilhot, Catherine Werts, Nathalie Winter, Caroline Demangel
Phenolic glycolipids (PGLs) are cell wall components of a subset of pathogenic mycobacteria, with immunomodulatory properties. Here, we show that in addition, PGLs exert antibactericidal activity by limiting the production of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in mycobacteria-infected macrophages. PGL-mediated downregulation of iNOS was complement receptor 3-dependent and comparably induced by bacterial and purified PGLs. Using Mycobacterium leprae PGL-1 as a model, we found that PGLs dampen the toll-like receptor (TLR)4 signaling pathway, with macrophage exposure to PGLs leading to significant reduction in TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) protein level...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Shruti Semwal, Deepti Joshi, Garima Goel, Neha Mittal, Kaushik Majumdar, Neelkamal Kapoor
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. The manifestations of this disease varies across the spectrum of tuberculoid (TT) to lepromatous (LL) leprosy. The course of this indolent disease is interrupted by acute exacerbations in the form of leprare actions. Erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL), a type 2 lepra reaction, occurs in lepromatous or borderline lepromatous cases, usually in response to multidrug therapy. Early detection and timely management of these patients is important to reduce the associated morbidity...
January 2018: Journal of Cytology
Tanvi P Honap, Luz-Andrea Pfister, Genevieve Housman, Sarah Mills, Ross P Tarara, Koichi Suzuki, Frank P Cuozzo, Michelle L Sauther, Michael S Rosenberg, Anne C Stone
Leprosy is caused by the bacterial pathogens Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis. Apart from humans, animals such as nine-banded armadillos in the Americas and red squirrels in the British Isles are naturally infected with M. leprae. Natural leprosy has also been reported in certain nonhuman primates, but it is not known whether these occurrences are due to incidental infections by human M. leprae strains or by M. leprae strains specific to nonhuman primates. In this study, complete M. leprae genomes from three naturally infected nonhuman primates (a chimpanzee from Sierra Leone, a sooty mangabey from West Africa, and a cynomolgus macaque from The Philippines) were sequenced...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Andrej Benjak, Charlotte Avanzi, Pushpendra Singh, Chloé Loiseau, Selfu Girma, Philippe Busso, Amanda N Brum Fontes, Yuji Miyamoto, Masako Namisato, Kidist Bobosha, Claudio G Salgado, Moisés B da Silva, Raquel C Bouth, Marco A C Frade, Fred Bernardes Filho, Josafá G Barreto, José A C Nery, Samira Bührer-Sékula, Andréanne Lupien, Abdul R Al-Samie, Yasin Al-Qubati, Abdul S Alkubati, Gisela Bretzel, Lucio Vera-Cabrera, Fatoumata Sakho, Christian R Johnson, Mamoudou Kodio, Abdoulaye Fomba, Samba O Sow, Moussa Gado, Ousmane Konaté, Mariane M A Stefani, Gerson O Penna, Philip N Suffys, Euzenir Nunes Sarno, Milton O Moraes, Patricia S Rosa, Ida M F Dias Baptista, John S Spencer, Abraham Aseffa, Masanori Matsuoka, Masanori Kai, Stewart T Cole
Leprosy is a chronic human disease caused by the yet-uncultured pathogen Mycobacterium leprae. Although readily curable with multidrug therapy (MDT), over 200,000 new cases are still reported annually. Here, we obtain M. leprae genome sequences from DNA extracted directly from patients' skin biopsies using a customized protocol. Comparative and phylogenetic analysis of 154 genomes from 25 countries provides insight into evolution and antimicrobial resistance, uncovering lineages and phylogeographic trends, with the most ancestral strains linked to the Far East...
January 24, 2018: Nature Communications
Jineetkumar Gawad, Chandrakant Bonde
Tuberculosis (TB) is the major threat for humans from past several decades. Even after advent of several antitubercular drugs, researchers are still struggling for the mycobacterial infections in humans are TB and leprosy. Chronic infections caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae. A particular problem with both of these organisms is that they can survive inside macrophages after phagocytosis, unless these cells are activated by cytokines produced by T-lymphocytes, because of this researchers are not yet succeeded in finding effective treatment on TB...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
Ngula Monde, Musso Munyeme, Adrian Muwonge, John Bwalya Muma, Sydney Malama
BACKGROUND: The non-tuberculous mycobacteria include those mycobacterium species that are not members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, the causative agent of pulmonary tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae. In Zambia, Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria are gaining recognition as pathogens of public health significance. However, there is scanty information on the isolation and speciation of these organisms for better patient management, consequently reducing the burden of these infections...
January 8, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
S Braet, K Vandelannoote, C J Meehan, A N Brum Fontes, E Hasker, P S Rosa, N Lucena-Silva, L Rigouts, P N Suffys, B C De Jong
Leprosy, caused by Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae), is a mutilating and highly stigmatized disease that still affects hundreds of thousands of new patients annually.….
January 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Huimin Zhang, Zhenzhen Wang, Xi'an Fu, Yonghu Sun, Zihao Mi, Gongqi Yu, Lele Sun, Na Wang, Chuan Wang, Qing Zhao, Qing Pan, Zhenhua Yue, Hong Liu, Furen Zhang
The nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) plays a pivotal role in controlling both innate and adaptive immunity and regulates the expressions of many immunological mediators. Abundant evidences have showed that the importance of NF-κB pathway in the host immune responses against Mycobacterium leprae in the development of leprosy. However, no particular association study between leprosy and NF-κB pathway related gene polymorphisms was reported. Here, we performed a large scale and two-stage candidate association study to investigate the association between 94 NF-κB pathway related genes and leprosy...
December 28, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
Lívia Érika Carlos Marques, Cristiane Cunha Frota, Josiane da Silva Quetz, Alexandre Havt Bindá, Rosa Maria Salane Mota, Maria Araci de Andrade Pontes, Heitor de Sá Gonçalves, Carl Kendall, Ligia Regina Franco Sansigolo Kerr
Mycobacterium leprae bacilli are mainly transmitted by the dissemination of nasal aerosols from multibacillary (MB) patients to susceptible individuals through inhalation. The upper respiratory tract represents the main entry and exit routes of M. leprae. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in detecting M. leprae in nasal secretion (NS) and skin biopsy (SB) samples from MB and paucibacillary (PB) cases. Fifty-four NS samples were obtained from leprosy patients at the Dona Libânia National Reference Centre for Sanitary Dermatology in Ceará, Brazil...
December 26, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
Paul E Bonnar, Natalie P Cunningham, Andrea K Boggild, Noreen M Walsh, Rahul Sharma, Ian R C Davis
In Canada, Hansen disease (leprosy) is rare and not considered in diagnoses for nonimmigrant patients. We report Mycobacterium leprae infection in a Canadian man whose sole travel was to Florida, USA. The M. leprae isolate was identified as armadillo-associated genotype 3I-2-v1. Travelers to the southern United States should avoid contact with armadillos.
January 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Samuel Mark
For over a century, it has been widely accepted that leprosy did not exist in the Americas before the arrival of Europeans. This proposition was based on a combination of historical, paleopathological, and representational studies. Further support came from molecular studies in 2005 and 2009 that four Mycobacterium leprae single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and then 16 SNP subtypes correlated with general geographic regions, suggesting the M. leprae subtypes in the Americas were consistent with European strains...
2017: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
Amanda N B Fontes, Luana N G C Lima, Rosa M S Mota, Rosa L F Almeida, Maria A Pontes, Heitor de S Gonçalves, Cristiane C Frota, Varalakshmi D Vissa, Patrick J Brennan, Ricardo J P S Guimaraes, Carl Kendall, Ligia R F S Kerr, Philip N Suffys
Leprosy is endemic in large part of Brazil with 28,761 new patients in 2015, the second largest number worldwide and reaches 9/10.000 in highly endemic regions and 2.7/10.000 in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará, Northeast Brazil. For better understanding of risk factors for leprosy transmission, we conducted an epidemiologic study supplemented by 17 locus VNTR and SNP 1-4 typing of Mycobacterium leprae in skin biopsy samples from new multibacillary (MB) patients diagnosed at a reference center in 2009 and 2010...
December 15, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Kathryn L Anderson, John P Minni, Michael A Nowak, Laszlo J Karai, Eugene Sanik
Hansen disease, also known as leprosy, is a chronic granulomatous infectious disease that is caused by Mycobacterium leprae. We report an unusual case of a 65-year-old man who presented with multiple anesthetic, annular, erythematous, scaly plaques with a raised border without any known exposures to leprosy. Histologic examination revealed a perineural lymphohistiocytic infiltrate and rare bacilli demonstrated on Fite staining. After confirmation with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and consultation with the National Hansen's Disease Program (Baton Rouge, Louisiana), the patient was placed on a regimen of rifampicin 600 mg once monthly and dapsone 100 mg once daily for 6 months, which showed considerable improvement...
November 2017: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
Renate A Richardus, Konrad van der Zwet, Anouk van Hooij, Louis Wilson, Linda Oskam, Roel Faber, Susan J F van den Eeden, David Pahan, Khorshed Alam, Jan Hendrik Richardus, Annemieke Geluk
BACKGROUND: Despite elimination efforts, the number of Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) infected individuals who develop leprosy, is still substantial. Solid evidence exists that individuals living in close proximity to patients are at increased risk to develop leprosy. Early diagnosis of leprosy in endemic areas requires field-friendly tests that identify individuals at risk of developing the disease before clinical manifestation. Such assays will simultaneously contribute to reduction of current diagnostic delay as well as transmission...
December 11, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Filipe R Lima, Iukary Takenami, Maurílio Al Cavalcanti, Lee W Riley, Sérgio Arruda
BACKGROUND: Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by the obligate intracellular bacillus Mycobacterium leprae. Because leprosy diagnosis is complex and requires professional expertise, new tools and methodologies are needed to detect cases in early stages and prevent transmission. The M. leprae genome contains mce1A, which encodes a putative mammalian cell entry protein (Mce1A). We hypothesised that the presence of Mce1A on the cell surface could be detected by the host's immune system...
December 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
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