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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244821/genotyping-of-mycobacterium-leprae-for-better-understanding-of-leprosy-transmission-in-fortaleza-northeastern-brazil
#1
Amanda N B Fontes, Luana N G C Lima, Rosa M S Mota, Rosa L F Almeida, Maria A Pontes, Heitor de S Gonçalves, Cristiane C Frota, Varalakshmi D Vissa, Patrick J Brennan, Ricardo J P S Guimaraes, Carl Kendall, Ligia R F S Kerr, Philip N Suffys
Leprosy is endemic in large part of Brazil with 28,761 new patients in 2015, the second largest number worldwide and reaches 9/10.000 in highly endemic regions and 2.7/10.000 in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará, Northeast Brazil. For better understanding of risk factors for leprosy transmission, we conducted an epidemiologic study supplemented by 17 locus VNTR and SNP 1-4 typing of Mycobacterium leprae in skin biopsy samples from new multibacillary (MB) patients diagnosed at a reference center in 2009 and 2010...
December 15, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232423/a-case-of-leprosy-in-central-florida
#2
Kathryn L Anderson, John P Minni, Michael A Nowak, Laszlo J Karai, Eugene Sanik
Hansen disease, also known as leprosy, is a chronic granulomatous infectious disease that is caused by Mycobacterium leprae. We report an unusual case of a 65-year-old man who presented with multiple anesthetic, annular, erythematous, scaly plaques with a raised border without any known exposures to leprosy. Histologic examination revealed a perineural lymphohistiocytic infiltrate and rare bacilli demonstrated on Fite staining. After confirmation with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and consultation with the National Hansen's Disease Program (Baton Rouge, Louisiana), the patient was placed on a regimen of rifampicin 600 mg once monthly and dapsone 100 mg once daily for 6 months, which showed considerable improvement...
November 2017: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228004/longitudinal-assessment-of-anti-pgl-i-serology-in-contacts-of-leprosy-patients-in-bangladesh
#3
Renate A Richardus, Konrad van der Zwet, Anouk van Hooij, Louis Wilson, Linda Oskam, Roel Faber, Susan J F van den Eeden, David Pahan, Khorshed Alam, Jan Hendrik Richardus, Annemieke Geluk
BACKGROUND: Despite elimination efforts, the number of Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) infected individuals who develop leprosy, is still substantial. Solid evidence exists that individuals living in close proximity to patients are at increased risk to develop leprosy. Early diagnosis of leprosy in endemic areas requires field-friendly tests that identify individuals at risk of developing the disease before clinical manifestation. Such assays will simultaneously contribute to reduction of current diagnostic delay as well as transmission...
December 11, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211246/elisa-based-assay-of-immunoglobulin-g-antibodies-against-mammalian-cell-entry-1a-mce1a-protein-a-novel-diagnostic-approach-for-leprosy
#4
Filipe R Lima, Iukary Takenami, Maurílio Al Cavalcanti, Lee W Riley, Sérgio Arruda
BACKGROUND: Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by the obligate intracellular bacillus Mycobacterium leprae. Because leprosy diagnosis is complex and requires professional expertise, new tools and methodologies are needed to detect cases in early stages and prevent transmission. The M. leprae genome contains mce1A, which encodes a putative mammalian cell entry protein (Mce1A). We hypothesised that the presence of Mce1A on the cell surface could be detected by the host's immune system...
December 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211240/natural-environmental-water-sources-in-endemic-regions-of-northeastern-brazil-are-potential-reservoirs-of-viable-mycobacterium-leprae
#5
Maria Luisa Bezerra de Macedo Arraes, Maísa Viana de Holanda, Luana Nepomuceno Gondim Costa Lima, José Antônio Beltrão Sabadia, Cynthia Romariz Duarte, Rosa Livia Freitas Almeida, Carl Kendall, Ligia Regina Sansigolo Kerr, Cristiane Cunha Frota
BACKGROUND: The detection of live Mycobacterium leprae in soil and animals other than humans suggests that the environment plays a role in the transmission of leprosy. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of viable M. leprae in natural water sources used by the local population in five municipalities in the state of Ceará, northeastern Brazil. METHODS: Samples were collected from 30 different sources. Viable bacilli were identified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the M...
December 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208413/characterization-of-ml0314c-of-mycobacterium-leprae-and-deciphering-its-role-in-the-immune-response-in-leprosy-patients
#6
Gurkamajit Kaur, Aashish Sharma, Tarun Narang, Sunil Dogra, Jagdeep Kaur
Mycobacterium leprae has a reduced genome size due to the reductive evolution over a long period of time. Lipid metabolism plays an important role in the life cycle and pathogenesis of this bacterium. In comparison to 26 lip genes (Lip A-Z) of M. tuberculosis, M. leprae retained only three orthologs indicating their importance in its life cycle. ML0314c (LipU) is one of them. It is conserved throughout the mycobacterium species. Bioinformatics analysis showed the presence of an α/β hydrolase fold and 'GXSXG' characteristic of the esterases/lipases...
December 2, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180661/identification-of-novel-genetic-loci-gal3st4-and-chgb-involved-in-susceptibility-to-leprosy
#7
Youhua Yuan, Yuangang You, Yan Wen, Jian Liu, Huanying Li, Yumeng Zhang, Nan Wu, Shuang Liu, Shanshan Zhang, Jiazhen Chen, Jingwen Ai, Wenhong Zhang, Ying Zhang
Leprosy has long been thought to have a strong genetic component, and so far, only positional cloning and genomewide association studies have been used to study the genetic susceptibility to leprosy,while whole exome sequencing (WES) approach has not yet been applied. In this study, we used WES approach on four leprosy patients and four healthy control relatives from two leprosy families. We found three new susceptible loci of leprosy, one in GAL3ST4 and two in CHGB. We went on to validate the findings of WES using 151 leprosy cases and 226 healthy controls by Sanger sequencing...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180314/leg-ulcers-an-atypical-presentation-of-mycobacterium-leprae-infection
#8
Laurence De Montjoye, Ifigenia Spanoudi-Kitrimi, Liliane Marot, Ingrid Ferreira De Castro Moutinho, Julien De Greef, Jean-Cyr Yombi, Emmanuel Andre
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 27, 2017: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171451/sequence-homology-and-expression-profile-of-genes-associated-with-dna-repair-pathways-in-mycobacterium-leprae
#9
Mukul Sharma, Sundeep Chaitanya Vedithi, Madhusmita Das, Anindya Roy, Mannam Ebenezer
BACKGROUND: Survival of Mycobacterium leprae, the causative bacteria for leprosy, in the human host is dependent to an extent on the ways in which its genome integrity is retained. DNA repair mechanisms protect bacterial DNA from damage induced by various stress factors. The current study is aimed at understanding the sequence and functional annotation of DNA repair genes in M. leprae. METHODS: T he genome of M. leprae was annotated using sequence alignment tools to identify DNA repair genes that have homologs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Escherichia coli...
October 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170041/nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-transcription-factor-p65-immunohistochemistry-in-leprosy-dermal-microvasculature
#10
Luciana Mota Silva, Kelly Emi Hirai, Jorge Rodrigues de Sousa, Juarez de Souza, Leônidas Braga Dias, Francisca Regina Oliveira Carneiro, Tinara Leila de Souza Aarão, Hellen Thais Fuzii, Juarez Antonio Simões Quaresma
Leprosy caused by Mycobacterium leprae is characterized by a spectrum of clinical manifestations that are determined by the predominant immunological profile of the host. The recruitment of leukocytes to the sites of injury can influence the development of these profiles. Cell adhesion molecules such as ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and CD62E participate in this process and their expression is regulated by transcriptions factors such as NFκB. To correlate the expression of cell adhesion molecules and NFκB (p65) in leprosy lesions, 30 skin biopsies of patients with leprosy [16 with the tuberculoid (TT) or borderline tuberculoid (BT) forms and 14 with the lepromatous (LL) or borderline lepromatous (BL) forms] were analyzed by immunohistochemistry...
November 20, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163649/immunopathological-evaluation-of-recombinant-mycobacterial-antigen-hsp65-expressed-in-lactococcus-lactis-as-a-novel-vaccine-candidate
#11
J C Herrera Ramírez, A Ch De la Mora, A De la Mora Valle, G Lopez-Valencia, R M B Hurtado, T B Rentería Evangelista, J L Rodríguez Castillo, A Rodríguez Gardea, S D Gómez Gómez, G E Medina-Basulto
Bovine tuberculosis (TBB) is a zoonotic disease distributed worldwide and is of great importance for public health and the livestock industry. Several experimental vaccines against this disease have been evaluated in recent years, yielding varying results. An example is the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, which has been used extensively in humans and tested in cattle showing mixed results related to protection (0-80%) against Mycobacterium bovis. In this study, we used the food-grade bacterium Lactococcus lactis as an expression system for production of mycobacterial protein Hsp65...
2017: Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150278/a-hypothetical-role-for-notch-signaling-pathway-in-immunopathogenesis-of-leprosy
#12
Héctor Serrano-Coll, Liliana Acevedo-Saenz, Nora Cardona-Castro
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae mainly affecting skin and peripheral nerves. Leprosy has a broad range of clinical manifestations that range from mild (tuberculoid leprosy) to severe (lepromatous leprosy) forms, and are highly dependent on the host's immune response. Among the immune response elements involved in the pathogenesis of leprosy are the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), vitamin D receptor (VDR), natural killer cells (NK), and T cells. These innate and adaptive immune response elements may be related to the Notch signaling pathway, which is involved in immune cell growth, differentiation, and proliferation...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150026/regulatory-t-cells-friends-or-foe-in-human-mycobacterium-leprae-infection
#13
Ana T Chaves, Atvaldo F Ribeiro-Junior, Sandra Lyon, Nayara I Medeiros, Fábio Cassirer-Costa, Karina S Paula, Edilamar S Alecrim, Cristiane A S Menezes, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira, Manoel O C Rocha, Juliana A S Gomes
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are known to control immune responses by suppressing the antigen-presenting and effector T cells. Some mechanisms adopted by Tregs in combating Mycobacterium infections have been proposed. Nevertheless, in M. leprae infection, also known as leprosy or Hansen's disease, the role of Tregs has not been completely elucidated. Using multicolor flow cytometry, we evaluated the expression of different cell surface and intracellular molecules present in Tregs from peripheral blood samples of leprosy patients...
November 13, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146126/the-role-of-t-helper-25-th25-cells-in-the-immune-response-to-m-leprae
#14
Jorge Rodrigues de Sousa, Juarez Antonio Simões Quaresma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141716/hansen-s-disease-and-rheumatoid-arthritis-crossover-of-clinical-symptoms-a-case-series-of-18-patients-in-the-united-states
#15
Sarah M Labuda, John S Schieffelin, Jeffrey G Shaffer, Barbara M Stryjewska
Hansen's Disease (HD) is a rare, chronic granulomatous infection of the skin and peripheral nerves caused by the noncultivable organism Mycobacterium leprae. Arthritis is the third most common symptom of HD. Subjects with both confirmed HD on skin biopsy and chronic arthritis were identified at the National Hansen's Disease Program (NHDP). We conducted a series of medical chart reviews and extracted and logged personally deidentified data into a database and carried out descriptive analyses. Eighteen of 261 subjects presented to the NDHP with both HD and chronic arthritis between 2001 and 2015...
October 23, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111085/il-37-and-leprosy-a-novel-cytokine-involved-in-the-host-response-to-mycobacterium-leprae-infection
#16
Jorge Rodrigues de Sousa, Renata Lima Prudente, Leonidas Braga Dias Junior, Francisca Regina Oliveira Carneiro, Mirian Nacagami Sotto, Juarez Antonio Simões Quaresma
Leprosy is a chronic infectious granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, in which the clinical outcome depends on the pattern of the host immune response. Because it is a spectral disease, leprosy is a good model for studying the immunology of the pathogen-host relationship. Although previous studies have characterized the participation of cytokine profiles such as Th1, Th2, Th7, Treg, Th9, and Th22 responses in leprosy, the role of new cytokines such as IL-37 have not yet been described for the spectral model of the disease...
October 27, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106651/target-pathogen-a-structural-bioinformatic-approach-to-prioritize-drug-targets-in-pathogens
#17
Ezequiel J Sosa, Germán Burguener, Esteban Lanzarotti, Lucas Defelipe, Leandro Radusky, Agustín M Pardo, Marcelo Marti, Adrián G Turjanski, Darío Fernández Do Porto
Available genomic data for pathogens has created new opportunities for drug discovery and development to fight them, including new resistant and multiresistant strains. In particular structural data must be integrated with both, gene information and experimental results. In this sense, there is a lack of an online resource that allows genome wide-based data consolidation from diverse sources together with thorough bioinformatic analysis that allows easy filtering and scoring for fast target selection for drug discovery...
November 2, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104093/analysis-of-ctla-4-49a-g-gene-polymorphism-in-cases-with-leprosy-of-azerbaijan-northwest-iran
#18
Shohreh Almasi, Mohammad Reza Aliparasti, Behrouz Naghili, Khalil Yeganeh, Badrossadat Rahnama, Fatemeh Tavanafar, Bita Hazhir Karzar, Syamak Amini Khiabani, Arman Naghili, Zohreh Babaloo
Leprosy, which is developed by the obligate intracellular Mycobacterium leprae (ML); has different manifestations, associated with the host immune responses. The protective immune response against ML includes T-cell-mediated immunity. The CTLA-4 has a great impact as a negative regulator of the immune response and maintenance of peripheral tolerance. This study analyzed the relationship between CTLA-4+49A/G gene polymorphism and clinical manifestation of leprosy disease and susceptibility among the Azeri population living Northwest Iran...
November 17, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097343/molecular-detection-of-multi-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-leprae-from-indian-leprosy-patients
#19
Mallika Lavania, Itu Singh, Ravindra P Turankar, Madhvi Ahuja, Vinay Pathak, Utpal Sengupta, Loretta Das, Archana Kumar, Joydeepa Darlong, Rajeev Nathan, Asha Maseey
OBJECTIVE: Emergence of multi drug resistant (MDR) organism for any infectious disease is a public health concern. Global efforts to control leprosy by intensive chemotherapy have led to a significant decrease in the number of registered patients. Currently recommended control measures for treating leprosy with MDT was designed to prevent the spread of dapsone resistant strains of Mycobacterium leprae. We report here the identification of MDR strains of M. leprae from relapsed leprosy patients from endemic regions in India...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090057/leprosy-presenting-with-iridocyclitis-a-diagnostic-dilemma
#20
Jaya Kaushik, Vaibhav Kumar Jain, Jitendra Kumar Singh Parihar, Sanjay Dhar, Savita Agarwal
PURPOSE: To report a case of lepromatous iridocyclitis that posed a diagnostic challenge. CASE REPORT: A 50-yeasr-old male developed profound loss of vision in the right eye, while he was in the hospital with septicemia presenting with fever, dysuria, and abdominal swelling. He also developed erythema nodosum on the legs. Skin incisional biopsy section, upon dermatology consultation, showed a granulomatous nodule in the dermis. The anterior chamber aspirate demonstrated lepra bacilli, which confirmed the diagnosis of lepromatous leprosy with type II reaction...
October 2017: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
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