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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336312/old-antibiotics-for-emerging-multidrug-resistant-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-mdr-xdr-tb
#1
Philippe Brouqui, Fanny Quenard, Michel Drancourt
Recently, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has become a therapeutic challenge. In addition to drug resistance, drug adverse events, intravenous delivery, cost and availability of some antibiotics in low-income countries have led to a look back to old drugs, especially those efficient against closely related organisms such as Mycobacterium leprae. Here we review the available drugs that respect the conditions above and could be upgraded to first-line therapy for treating MDR-TB and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB)...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328616/borderline-tuberculoid-leprosy-masquerading-as-granuloma-annulare-a-clinical-and-histological-pitfall
#2
Tian Hao Zhu, Faranak Kamangar, Marc Silverstein, Maxwell A Fung
INTRODUCTION: Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, an intracellular acid-fast bacillus that tends to infect the skin and peripheral nerves. Because of the wide array of cutaneous manifestation, diagnosis is not always straightforward, especially in nonendemic regions of the world such as the United States. CASE REPORT: The authors report an unusual case of borderline tuberculoid leprosy in an 80-year-old white woman from California...
April 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327791/a-tale-of-two-neglected-tropical-infections-using-gis-to-assess-the-spatial-and-temporal-overlap-of-schistosomiasis-and-leprosy-in-a-region-of-minas-gerais-brazil
#3
David Alexander Phillips, José Antonio Ferreira, Deidra Ansah, Herica Sa Teixeira, Uriel Kitron, Thelma de Filippis, Marcelo H de Alcântara, Jessica K Fairley
BACKGROUND: Despite public health efforts to reduce the global burden of leprosy, gaps remain in the knowledge surrounding transmission of infection. Helminth co-infections have been associated with a shift towards the lepromatous end of the disease spectrum, potentially increasing transmission in co-endemic areas. OBJECTIVES: Using this biologically plausible association, we conducted a geographic information systems (GIS) study to investigate the spatial associations of schistosomiasis and leprosy in an endemic area of Minas Gerais (MG), Brazil...
April 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327786/polymorphisms-in-genes-tlr1-2-and-4-are-associated-with-differential-cytokine-and-chemokine-serum-production-in-patients-with-leprosy
#4
Nadja de Lima Santana, Jamile Leão Rêgo, Joyce Moura Oliveira, Lucas Frederico de Almeida, Marcos Braz, Lídia Maria Medeiros Machado, Paulo Roberto Lima Machado, Léa Cristina Castellucci
BACKGROUND: Leprosy or hansen's disease is a spectral disease whose clinical forms mostly depends on host's immune and genetic factors. Different Toll-like receptors (TLR) variants have been described associated with leprosy, but with some lack of replication across different populations. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of polymorphisms in genes TLR1, TLR2 and TLR4 and susceptibility to leprosy in a genetic case control study; to verify the association between genotypes of these markers and the immunological profile in the serum of patients with leprosy...
April 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321841/histoid-leprosy-a-retrospective-clinicopathological-study-from-central-nepal
#5
Mahesh Mathur, Ayush Jha, Ruprerna Joshi, Roshani Wagle
BACKGROUND: Histoid leprosy is a rare variant of lepromatous leprosy characterized by varied morphological and histopathological appearance while having a high bacillary load. These factors contribute to an ominous threat to the elimination status of leprosy, whereby these patients may act as a reservoir of infection. OBJECTIVE: To identify the clinicopathological characteristics of histoid leprosy in Chitwan, Nepal. METHODS: A retrospective hospital-based study spanning a period of 6 years was carried out at our department...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317806/mycobacterium-lepraemurium-uses-tlr-6-and-mr-but-not-lipid-rafts-or-dc-sign-to-gain-access-into-mouse-macrophages
#6
Mayra Silva-Miranda, Patricia Arce-Paredes, Oscar Rojas-Espinosa
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium lepraemurium (MLM), the etiologic agent of murine leprosy, is an intracellular parasite of macrophages; the mechanism used by this bacterium to enter macrophages is not known. The fate of the MLM phagosome inside macrophages is also unknown. This study was conducted to investigate how MLM enters macrophages and to define the maturation process of MLM phagosome inside macrophages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Peritoneal macrophages were incubated in the presence of mannan-bovine serum albumin (BSA), and antibodies to known macrophage receptors, including, anti-FcγRIII/RII (anti-CD16/32), anti-CD35 (anti-CR1), anti-TLR2, anti-TLR4, anti-TLR6, anti-CD14, and anti-dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN)...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317797/analysis-of-a-novel-multiplex-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-as-a-sensitive-tool-for-the-diagnosis-of-indeterminate-and-tuberculoid-forms-of-leprosy
#7
V Sundeep Chaitanya, Luz Cuello, Madhusmita Das, A Sudharsan, Pavithrra Ganesan, K Kanmani, Lakshmi Rajan, Mannam Ebenezer
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Clinical diagnosis of indeterminate and tuberculoid leprosy is often difficult due to limited and confounding signs and symptoms. In the current study, we evaluated the utility of new multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using Mycobacterium leprae-specific DNA sequences in the pseudogene regions of ML1545, ML2180, and ML2179 for PCR-based diagnosis of indeterminate leprosy (IND) and leprosy cases across the immunological spectrum. The sensitivity was compared with that of RLEP PCR...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315742/association-of-nitric-oxide-synthase2-gene-polymorphisms-with-leprosy-reactions-in-northern-indian-population
#8
Amit Dubey, Sanjay Kumar Biswas, Ekata Sinha, Joy Kumar Chakma, Raj Kamal, Mamta Arora, Harish Sagar, Mohan Natarajan, Sameer S Bhagyawant, Keshar Kunja Mohanty
The pathogen Mycobacterium leprae causes leprosy that affects mainly skin and nerves. Polymorphisms of certain genes are substantiated to be associated with the susceptibility/resistance to leprosy. The present investigation addressed the association of Nitric Oxide Synthase2 gene polymorphisms and leprosy in a population from northern part of India. A total of 323 leprosy cases and 288 healthy controls were genotyped for four NOS2 promoter variants (rs1800482, rs2779249, rs8078340 and rs2301369) using FRET technology in Real Time PCR...
March 16, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300899/leprosy-on-the-scalp
#9
Raila de Brito Macedo, Tárcio Santos, Paulyane Bezerra Sampaio Ramos, Daniela Mayumi Takano, Virgínia Sampaio Madeiro Leal
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. This bacillus has a high predilection for skin and peripheral nerves. The scalp's anatomical properties do not favor the development of such mycobacterium. We report a case of leprosy with scalp involvement, a rare occurrence in our literature.
September 2016: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296245/immunodominant-protein-mip_05962-from-mycobacterium-indicus-pranii-displays-chaperone-activity
#10
Ashish Sharma, M A Equbal, S Pandey, Javaid A Sheikh, Nasreen Z Ehtesham, Seyed E Hasnain, Tapan K Chaudhuri
Tuberculosis, a contagious disease of infectious origin is currently a major cause of deaths worldwide. Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP), a saprophytic non-pathogen and a potent immunomodulator is currently being investigated as an intervention against tuberculosis along with many other diseases with positive outcome. The apparent paradox of multiple chaperones in mycobacterial species and enigma about the cellular functions of the client proteins of these chaperones need to be explored. Chaperones are the known immunomodulators thus there is need to exploit the proteome of MIP for identification and characterization of putative chaperones...
March 10, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287297/multifaceted-role-of-lipids-in-mycobacterium-leprae
#11
Gurkamaljit Kaur, Jagdeep Kaur
Mycobacterium leprae must adopt a metabolic strategy and undergo various metabolic alterations upon infection to survive inside the human body for years in a dormant state. A change in lipid homeostasis upon infection is highly pronounced in Mycobacterium leprae. Lipids play an essential role in the survival and pathogenesis of mycobacteria. Lipids are present in several forms and serve multiple roles from being a source of nutrition, providing rigidity, evading the host immune response to serving as virulence factors, etc...
March 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270310/leprosy-trophic-skin-ulcers
#12
Najeeba Riyaz, Virendra N Sehgal
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Approximately 30% of patients with leprosy develop nerve damage. Trophic, or neuropathic, ulcer is a common complication of an anesthetic foot. The term plantar, trophic, or perforating ulcer was introduced in 1959. It was defined as a chronic ulceration of the anesthetic foot, situated in well-defined areas overlying bony prominences, resistant to local and/or systemic therapy, and characterized by a marked tendency to recur. It is responsible for much of the morbidity associated with leprosy...
2017: Skinmed
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258667/leprosy-one-of-the-many-forgotten-tropical-diseases
#13
Zofia Zwolska, Ewa Augustynowicz-Kopeć
Leprosy or Hansen disease is caused by an infection of Mycobacterium leprae. The large number of undetected cases (2000-2012 years 4 mln people) remains a threat to the elimination of leprosy. Leprosy is an unheard in Poland and generally is considered a condition so "exotic" that it is not worth to spend more attention to it. Forgotten disease in developed countries still thrives in an environment of poor and uneducated. Regardless of the conclusion that in the 21st century none infectious disease should not be treated as a disease on the designated regions of the world, other than our own, it should be recalled that the M...
February 14, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241035/association-of-a-new-fcn3-haplotype-with-high-ficolin-3-levels-in-leprosy
#14
Fabiana Antunes Andrade, Marcia Holsbach Beltrame, Valéria Bumiller Bini, Letícia Boslooper Gonçalves, Angelica Beate Winter Boldt, Iara Jose de Messias-Reason
Leprosy is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae that mainly affects the skin and peripheral nervous system, leading to a high disability rate and social stigma. Previous studies have shown a contribution of genes encoding products of the lectin pathway of complement in the modulation of the susceptibility to leprosy; however, the ficolin-3/FCN3 gene impact on leprosy is currently unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate if FCN3 polymorphisms (rs532781899: g.1637delC, rs28362807: g...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235552/t-helper-cells-in-leprosy-an-update
#15
REVIEW
Chaman Saini, Mohd Tarique, Reeta Rai, Anisuddin Siddiqui, Neena Khanna, Alpana Sharma
Leprosy is an ancient disease caused by gram positive, rod shaped bacilli called Mycobacterium leprae. Patients present with varied clinico-pathological disease depending on the host immune response to Mycobacterium leprae. Thus tuberculoid (TT) and lepromatous (LL) patients represent two ends of a spectrum where the former shows limited disease, high T cell mediate immune (CMI) response and low antibody (HI) levels in serum. In contrast the latter has low T cell and high humoral immune response i.e antibody levels...
February 21, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231244/unexpectedly-high-leprosy-seroprevalence-detected-using-a-random-surveillance-strategy-in-midwestern-brazil-a-comparison-of-elisa-and-a-rapid-diagnostic-test
#16
Marco Andrey C Frade, Natália A de Paula, Ciro M Gomes, Sebastian Vernal, Fred Bernardes Filho, Helena B Lugão, Marilda M M de Abreu, Patrícia Botini, Malcolm S Duthie, John S Spencer, Rosa Castália F R Soares, Norma T Foss
BACKGROUND: Leprosy diagnosis is mainly based on clinical evaluation, although this approach is difficult, especially for untrained physicians. We conducted a temporary campaign to detect previously unknown leprosy cases in midwestern Brazil and to compare the performance of different serological tests. METHODS: A mobile clinic was stationed at the main bus terminal in Brasília, Brazil. Volunteers were quizzed and given a clinical exam to allow categorization as either patients, known contacts of patients or non-contacts, and blood was collected to determine anti-PGL-I and anti-LID-1 antibody titers by ELISA and by the NDO-LID rapid test...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225542/historical-overview-of-leprosy-control-in-cuba
#17
Enrique Beldarraín-Chaple
INTRODUCTION Leprosy, an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, affects the nervous system, skin, internal organs, extremities and mucous membranes. Biological, social and environmental factors influence its occurrence and transmission. The first effective treatments appeared in 1930 with the development of dapsone, a sulfone. The main components of a control and elimination strategy are early case detection and timely administration of multidrug therapy. OBJECTIVES Review the history of leprosy control in Cuba, emphasizing particularly results of the National Leprosy Control Program, its modifications and influence on leprosy control...
January 2017: MEDICC Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222139/leprosy-reactions-the-predictive-value-of-mycobacterium-leprae-specific-serology-evaluated-in-a-brazilian-cohort-of-leprosy-patients-u-mdt-ct-br
#18
Emerith Mayra Hungria, Samira Bührer-Sékula, Regiane Morillas de Oliveira, Lúcio Cartaxo Aderaldo, Araci de Andrade Pontes, Rossilene Cruz, Heitor de Sá Gonçalves, Maria Lúcia Fernandes Penna, Gerson Oliveira Penna, Mariane Martins de Araújo Stefani
BACKGROUND: Leprosy reactions, reversal reactions/RR and erythema nodosum leprosum/ENL, can cause irreversible nerve damage, handicaps and deformities. The study of Mycobacterium leprae-specific serologic responses at diagnosis in the cohort of patients enrolled at the Clinical Trial for Uniform Multidrug Therapy Regimen for Leprosy Patients in Brazil/U-MDT/CT-BR is suitable to evaluate its prognostic value for the development of reactions. METHODOLOGY: IgM and IgG antibody responses to PGL-I, LID-1, ND-O-LID were evaluated by ELISA in 452 reaction-free leprosy patients at diagnosis, enrolled and monitored for the development of leprosy reactions during a total person-time of 780,930 person-days, i...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192426/multibacillary-leprosy-by-population-groups-in-brazil-lessons-from-an-observational-study
#19
Mauricio Lisboa Nobre, Ximena Illarramendi, Kathryn Margaret Dupnik, Mariana de Andrea Hacker, José Augusto da Costa Nery, Selma Maria Bezerra Jerônimo, Euzenir Nunes Sarno
BACKGROUND: Leprosy remains an important public health problem in Brazil where 28,761 new cases were diagnosed in 2015, the second highest number of new cases detected globally. The disease is caused by Mycobacterium leprae, a pathogen spread by patients with multibacillary (MB) leprosy. This study was designed to identify population groups most at risk for MB disease in Brazil, contributing to new ideas for early diagnosis and leprosy control. METHODS: A national databank of cases reported in Brazil (2001-2013) was used to evaluate epidemiological characteristics of MB leprosy...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167593/a-review-on-dapsone-hypersensitivity-syndrome-among-chinese-patients-with-an-emphasis-on-preventing-adverse-drug-reactions-with-genetic-testing
#20
REVIEW
Na Wang, Leela Parimi, Hong Liu, Furen Zhang
Dapsone is a bactericidal and bacteriostatic against Mycobacterium leprae, a causative agent of leprosy. Dapsone is also applied in a range of medical fields because of its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Dapsone hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS) is a rare yet serious adverse drug reaction (ADR) caused by dapsone involving multiple organs. We performed a systematic review of published articles describing dapsone-induced hypersensitivity syndrome, including all Chinese articles and the latest literature available in online databases published between October 2009 and October 2015...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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