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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715914/leprosy-in-a-lombard-avar-cemetery-in-central-italy-campochiaro-molise-6th-8th-century-ad-ancient-dna-evidence-and-demography
#1
Mauro Rubini, Paola Zaio, Mark Spigelman, Helen D Donoghue
BACKGROUND: The study of past infectious diseases increases knowledge of the presence, impact and spread of pathogens within ancient populations. AIM: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to examine bones for the presence of Mycobacterium leprae ancient DNA (aDNA) as, even when leprosy is present, bony changes are not always pathognomonic of the disease. This study also examined the demographic profile of this population and compared it with two other populations to investigate any changes in mortality trends between different infectious diseases and between the pre-antibiotic and antibiotic eras...
July 17, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707598/protein-tagging-destruction-and-infection
#2
Chetana Bhaskarla, Manoj Bhosale, Pip Banerjee, Nagasuma Chandra, Dipankar Nandi
Cells possess protein quality control mechanisms to maintain proper cellular homeostasis. In eukaryotes, the roles of the ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation of cellular proteins is well established. Recent studies have elucidated protein tagging mechanisms in prokaryotes, involving transfer messenger RNA (tmRNA) and pupylation. In this review, newer insights and bioinformatics analysis of two distinct bacterial protein tagging machineries are discussed. The machinery for tmRNA-mediated tagging is present in several eubacterial representatives, e...
July 13, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700682/circumscription-of-the-genus-lepra-a-recently-resurrected-genus-to-accommodate-the-variolaria-group-of-pertusaria-sensu-lato-pertusariales-ascomycota
#3
Xinli Wei, Imke Schmitt, Brendan Hodkinson, Adam Flakus, Martin Kukwa, Pradeep K Divakar, Paul M Kirika, Jürgen Otte, Anjuli Meiser, H Thorsten Lumbsch
Pertusarialean lichens include more than 300 species belonging to several independent phylogenetic lineages. Only some of these phylogenetic clades have been comprehensively sampled for molecular data, and formally described as genera. Here we present a taxonomic treatment of a group of pertusarialean lichens formerly known as "Pertusaria amara-group", "Monomurata-group", or "Variolaria-group", which includes widespread and well-known taxa such as P. amara, P. albescens, or P. ophthalmiza. We generated a 6-locus data set with 79 OTUs representing 75 species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693856/innovative-tools-and-approaches-to-end-the-transmission-of-mycobacterium-leprae
#4
REVIEW
Peter Steinmann, Steven G Reed, Fareed Mirza, T Déirdre Hollingsworth, Jan Hendrik Richardus
Leprosy control has seen little innovation and only limited progress in the past decade. However, research on the disease has increased and important innovations are underway. Here, we comment on efforts to develop tools and approaches to detect leprosy and to stop the transmission of Mycobacterium leprae, the causative bacillus of the disease. The tracing and screening of contacts of known patients with leprosy promises to strengthen early diagnosis, while preventive chemotherapy will reduce the risk of contacts developing the disease by 50-60% within 2 years of administration...
July 7, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693853/multidrug-therapy-for-leprosy-a-game-changer-on-the-path-to-elimination
#5
REVIEW
Cairns S Smith, Ann Aerts, Paul Saunderson, Joseph Kawuma, Etsuko Kita, Marcos Virmond
Leprosy is present in more than 100 countries, where it remains a major cause of peripheral neuropathy and disability. Attempts to eliminate the disease have faced various obstacles, including characteristics of the causative bacillus Mycobacterium leprae: the long incubation period, limited knowledge about its mode of transmission, and its poor growth on culture media. Fortunately, the leprosy bacillus is sensitive to several antibiotics. The first antibiotic to be widely used for leprosy treatment was dapsone in the 1950s, which had to be taken over several years and was associated with increasing bacterial resistance...
July 7, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684130/indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-and-iron-are-required-for-mycobacterium-leprae-survival
#6
Mayara Garcia de Mattos Barbosa, Rhana Berto da Silva Prata, Priscila Ribeiro Andrade, Helen Ferreira, Bruno Jorge de Andrade Silva, Jéssica Araújo da Paixão de Oliveira, Tayná Quintella Assis, Thiago Gomes de Toledo-Pinto, Ohanna Cavalcanti de Lima Bezerra, José Augusto da Costa Nery, Patricia Sammarco Rosa, Marcelo Torres Bozza, Flávio Alves Lara, Milton Ozório Moraes, Veronica Schmitz, Euzenir Nunes Sarno, Roberta Olmo Pinheiro
Our previous study has demonstrated that IL-10 may modulate both indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and CD163 expression in lepromatous leprosy (LL) cells, favoring Mycobacterium leprae persistence through induction of regulatory pathways and iron storage. Here, we observed that in LL lesion cells there is an increase in the expression of proteins involved in iron metabolism such as hemoglobin (Hb), haptoglobin, heme oxygenase 1 and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) when compared to tuberculoid leprosy (BT) cells...
July 3, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680225/type-2-lepra-reaction-presenting-as-fever-of-unknown-origin-identified-on-18-f-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography
#7
Piyush Chandra, Satish Nath, Srinivas Chakravarthy, Jemima Kingsley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636650/the-formation-of-lipid-droplets-favors-intracellular-mycobacterium-leprae-survival-in-sw-10-non-myelinating-schwann-cells
#8
Song-Hyo Jin, Sung-Kwan An, Seong-Beom Lee
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease that is caused by the obligate intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium leprae (M.leprae), which is the leading cause of all non-traumatic peripheral neuropathies worldwide. Although both myelinating and non-myelinating Schwann cells are infected by M.leprae in patients with lepromatous leprosy, M.leprae preferentially invades the non-myelinating Schwann cells. However, the effect of M.leprae infection on non-myelinating Schwann cells has not been elucidated. Lipid droplets (LDs) are found in M...
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633333/anti-natural-octyl-disaccharide-leprosy-idri-diagnostic-ndo-lid-antibodies-as-indicators-of-leprosy-reactions-and-neuritis
#9
Héctor Serrano-Coll, Mónica Muñoz, Juan Camilo Beltrán, Malcolm S Duthie, Nora Cardona-Castro
Background: Leprosy is a complex infectious and neurological disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Nerve damage is related to immunological hypersensitivity responses known as leprosy reactions (LRs). Diagnostic tools to predict LRs are not available. We hypothesized that natural octyl disaccharide-leprosy IDRI diagnostic (NDO-LID) would be helpful as an indicator of LRs and neuritis. Methods: To assess the utility of NDO-LID in indicating reactions, ELISA were used to detect specific antibodies in serum samples from 80 Colombian leprosy patients (40 with and 40 without history of LRs)...
March 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617800/whole-genome-sequencing-distinguishes-between-relapse-and-reinfection-in-recurrent-leprosy-cases
#10
Mariane M A Stefani, Charlotte Avanzi, Samira Bührer-Sékula, Andrej Benjak, Chloé Loiseau, Pushpendra Singh, Maria A A Pontes, Heitor S Gonçalves, Emerith M Hungria, Philippe Busso, Jérémie Piton, Maria I S Silveira, Rossilene Cruz, Antônio Schetinni, Maurício B Costa, Marcos C L Virmond, Suzana M Diorio, Ida M F Dias-Baptista, Patricia S Rosa, Masanori Matsuoka, Maria L F Penna, Stewart T Cole, Gerson O Penna
BACKGROUND: Since leprosy is both treated and controlled by multidrug therapy (MDT) it is important to monitor recurrent cases for drug resistance and to distinguish between relapse and reinfection as a means of assessing therapeutic efficacy. All three objectives can be reached with single nucleotide resolution using next generation sequencing and bioinformatics analysis of Mycobacterium leprae DNA present in human skin. METHODOLOGY: DNA was isolated by means of optimized extraction and enrichment methods from samples from three recurrent cases in leprosy patients participating in an open-label, randomized, controlled clinical trial of uniform MDT in Brazil (U-MDT/CT-BR)...
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602616/salivary-anti-pgl-1-igm-may-indicate-active-transmission-of-mycobacterium-leprae-among-young-people-under-16-years-of-age
#11
Alexandre Casimiro de Macedo, José Evandro Cunha, Juliana Navarro Ueda Yaochite, Clodis Maria Tavares, Aparecida Tiemi Nagao-Dias
Considering that the main route of Mycobacterium leprae transmission is the upper respiratory tract, detection of salivary antibodies can be a useful tool for diagnosing early infection. The study aimed to analyze salivary anti-PGL-1 IgA and IgM antibodies in 169 children aged 4-16 years old, who lived nearby or inside the house of multibacillary or paucibacillary leprosy patients in two endemic cities in Alagoas State - Brazil. Salivary anti-PGL-1 antibodies were quantified by modified ELISA method. The frequency of contact and clinical form of the index case were significantly associated with salivary antibodies levels...
June 8, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584985/dnahsp65-vaccine-as-therapy-against-paracoccidioidomycosis
#12
Alice M Ribeiro, André C Amaral, Maria Sueli S Felipe, Anamelia L Bocca
The conventional treatment for fungal diseases usually shows long periods of therapy and the high frequency of relapses and sequels. New strategies of the treatment are necessary. We have shown that the Mycobacterium leprae HSP65 gene can be successfully used as therapy against murine Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). Here, we described the methodology of DNAhsp65 immunotherapy in mice infected with the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, one of PCM agent, evaluating cytokines levels, fungal burden, and lung injury...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571290/leprosy-in-an-eight-year-old-child-an-exceptional-case-with-unusual-oral-manifestation
#13
Mayuri Jain
Leprosy is a contagious and granulomatous disease which is caused by Mycobacterium leprae. The incubation period for leprosy is five to seven years and it can take as long as about 30 years before signs and symptoms of leprosy develop in some patients. It is a chronic systemic disease which mostly affects the skin and peripheral nerves. It has been seen that indeterminate leprosy is the most common type seen in childhood followed by tuberculoid variant. Borderline lepromatous and lepromatous leprosy are only occasionally encountered in children and rarely affects the oral cavity...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570932/cytokines-as-biomarkers-to-monitoring-the-impact-of-multidrug-therapy-in-immune-response-of-leprosy-patients
#14
Fábio Cassirer-Costa, Nayara I Medeiros, Ana T Chaves, Sandra Lyon, Jordana G A Coelho-Dos-Reis, Atvaldo F Ribeiro-Junior, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira, Manoel O C Rocha, Juliana A S Gomes
Leprosy or Hansen's disease is a chronic infectious disease of the skin and nerves, caused by the intracellular bacilli Mycobacterium leprae. It is characterized by a spectrum of clinical forms depending on the host's immune response to M. leprae. Patients with tuberculoid (TT) leprosy have strong cell-mediated immunity (CMI) with elimination of the bacilli, whereas patients with lepromatous (LL) leprosy exhibit defective CMI to M. leprae. Despite advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of leprosy and the development of new therapeutic strategies, there is a need for the identification of biomarkers which be used for early diagnosis and to discrimination between different forms of the disease, as prognostic markers...
May 29, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570560/qpcr-high-resolution-melt-analysis-for-drug-susceptibility-testing-of-mycobacterium-leprae-directly-from-clinical-specimens-of-leprosy-patients
#15
Sergio Araujo, Luiz Ricardo Goulart, Richard W Truman, Isabela Maria B Goulart, Varalakshmi Vissa, Wei Li, Masanori Matsuoka, Philip Suffys, Amanda B Fontes, Patricia S Rosa, David M Scollard, Diana L Williams
BACKGROUND: Real-Time PCR-High Resolution Melting (qPCR-HRM) analysis has been recently described for rapid drug susceptibility testing (DST) of Mycobacterium leprae. The purpose of the current study was to further evaluate the validity, reliability, and accuracy of this assay for M. leprae DST in clinical specimens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The specificity and sensitivity for determining the presence and susceptibility of M. leprae to dapsone based on the folP1 drug resistance determining region (DRDR), rifampin (rpoB DRDR) and ofloxacin (gyrA DRDR) was evaluated using 211 clinical specimens from leprosy patients, including 156 multibacillary (MB) and 55 paucibacillary (PB) cases...
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562758/presence-of-mycobacterium-leprae-genotype-4-in-environmental-waters-in-northeast-brazil
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Maísa Viana de Holanda, Livia Erika Carlos Marques, Maria Luisa Bezerra de Macedo, Maria Araci de Andrade Pontes, José Antonio Beltrão Sabadia, Ligia Regina Franco Sansigolo Kerr, Rosa Lívia Freitas Almeida, Cristiane Cunha Frota
INTRODUCTION: This study quantified Mycobacterium leprae bacilli in environmental water samples from five municipalities in the State of Ceará by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and compared the identified genotypes with those obtained from leprosy patient biopsies. METHODS: We collected five replicas from each of the 30 selected reservoirs and skin lesion biopsies from 25 new leprosy cases treated at a reference center in Fortaleza, Ceará from 2010 to 2013...
March 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530057/-hansen-s-disease-in-israel
#17
REVIEW
Leon Gilead, Ruth Wexler
Hansen's disease (HD) is an anthropophylic, infectious, chronic disease, caused by Mycobacterium leprae. The systemic disease, affecting both males and females at any age, involves mainly the skin and the peripheral nerves located in the limbs close to the skin. Traditionally the treatment of HD patients was entrusted to dermatologists. Current drug therapy given at an early stage can prevent many of the complications, and enables patients to go on with life. In 95% of the population there is an innate immunity, which following exposure, enables the development of an effective immune response preventing the development of overt clinical disease...
October 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514659/the-intergenic-recombinant-hla-b%C3%A2-46-01-has-a-distinctive-peptidome-that-includes-kir2dl3-ligands
#18
Hugo G Hilton, Curtis P McMurtrey, Alex S Han, Zakia Djaoud, Lisbeth A Guethlein, Jeroen H Blokhuis, Jason L Pugh, Ana Goyos, Amir Horowitz, Rico Buchli, Ken W Jackson, Wilfred Bardet, David A Bushnell, Philip J Robinson, Juan L Mendoza, Michael E Birnbaum, Morten Nielsen, K Christopher Garcia, William H Hildebrand, Peter Parham
HLA-B(∗)46:01 was formed by an intergenic mini-conversion, between HLA-B(∗)15:01 and HLA-C(∗)01:02, in Southeast Asia during the last 50,000 years, and it has since become the most common HLA-B allele in the region. A functional effect of the mini-conversion was introduction of the C1 epitope into HLA-B(∗)46:01, making it an exceptional HLA-B allotype that is recognized by the C1-specific natural killer (NK) cell receptor KIR2DL3. High-resolution mass spectrometry showed that HLA-B(∗)46:01 has a low-diversity peptidome that is distinct from those of its parents...
May 16, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505186/in-situ-complement-activation-and-t-cell-immunity-in-leprosy-spectrum-an-immunohistological-study-on-leprosy-lesional-skin
#19
Nawal Bahia El Idrissi, Anand M Iyer, Valeria Ramaglia, Patricia S Rosa, Cleverson T Soares, Frank Baas, Pranab K Das
Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) infection causes nerve damage and the condition worsens often during and long after treatment. Clearance of bacterial antigens including lipoarabinomannan (LAM) during and after treatment in leprosy patients is slow. We previously demonstrated that M. leprae LAM damages peripheral nerves by in situ generation of the membrane attack complex (MAC). Investigating the role of complement activation in skin lesions of leprosy patients might provide insight into the dynamics of in situ immune reactivity and the destructive pathology of M...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467415/interruption-of-persistent-exposure-to-leprosy-combined-or-not-with-recent-bcg-vaccination-enhances-the-response-to-mycobacterium-leprae-specific-antigens
#20
Fernanda Marques de Carvalho, Luciana Silva Rodrigues, Nádia Cristina Duppre, Iris Maria Peixoto Alvim, Marcelo Ribeiro-Alves, Roberta Olmo Pinheiro, Euzenir Nunes Sarno, Maria Cristina Vidal Pessolani, Geraldo Moura Batista Pereira
Household contacts of multibacillary leprosy patients (HCMB) constitute the group of individuals at the highest risk of developing leprosy. Early diagnosis and treatment of their index cases combined with Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunization remain important strategies adopted in Brazil to prevent HCMB from evolving into active disease. In the present study, we assessed the impact of these measures on the immune response to Mycobacterium leprae in HCMB. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from HCMB (n = 16) were obtained at the beginning of leprosy index case treatment (T0)...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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