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Luciana Nahar Dos Santos, Pedro Henrique Lopes da Silva, Iris Maria Peixoto Alvim, José Augusto da Costa Nery, Flávio Alves Lara, Euzenir Nunes Sarno, Danuza Esquenazi
In spite of hyporesponsivity to Mycobacterium leprae, borderline lepromatous (BL) patients show clinical and immunological instability, and undergo frequent acute inflammatory episodes such as type 1 reaction (T1R), which may cause nerve damages. This work focused on the participation of T cell subsets from blood and skin at T1R onset. We observed a significantly increased ex vivo frequency of both effector and memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in T1R group. Besides, ex vivo frequency of T cell homing receptor, the Cutaneous Leukocyte-associated Antigen (CLA) was significantly increased in T cells from T1R patients...
2016: PloS One
Mark Spigelman, Mauro Rubini
The use of paleomicrobiological techniques in leprosy has the potential to assist paleopathologists in many important aspects of their studies on the bones of victims, solving at times diagnostic problems. With Mycobacterium leprae, because of the unique nature of the organism, these techniques can help solve problems of differential diagnosis. In cases of co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, they can also suggest a cause of death and possibly even trace the migratory patterns of people in antiquity, as well as explain changes in the rates and level of infection within populations in antiquity...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Camilo Beltrán-Alzate, Fernando López Díaz, Marcela Romero-Montoya, Rama Sakamuri, Wei Li, Miyako Kimura, Patrick Brennan, Nora Cardona-Castro
An active search for Mycobacterium leprae drug resistance was carried out, 243 multibacillary patients from endemic regions of Colombia were included from 2004 to 2013 in a surveillance program. This program was a World Health Organization initiative for drug resistance surveillance in leprosy, where Colombia is a sentinel country. M. leprae DNA from slit skin smear and/or skin biopsy samples was amplified and sequenced to identify mutations in the drug resistance determining region (DRDR) in rpoB, folP1, gyrA, and gyrB, the genes responsible for rifampicin, dapsone and ofloxacin drug-resistance, respectively...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Fabian A Crespo, Christopher K Klaes, Andrew E Switala, Sharon N DeWitte
: It is possible that during long lasting chronic infections such as tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy individuals who generate a stronger immune response will produce a chronic shift in the systemic levels of inflammatory proteins. Consequently, the systemic immunological shift could affect inflammatory responses against other persistent pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis associated with periodontal disease (PD). OBJECTIVE: To determine if in vitro exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis or M...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Kazuo Tori, Francine Perler
Inteins are the protein equivalent of introns. They are seamlessly removed during post-translational maturation of their host protein (extein). Inteins from extremophiles played a key role in understanding intein-mediated protein splicing. There are currently three classes of inteins defined by catalytic mechanism and sequence signatures. This study demonstrates splicing of three class 3 mini-inteins: Burkholderia vietnamiensis G4 Bvi IcmO intein, Mycobacterium smegmatis MC2 155 Msm DnaB-1 intein and Mycobacterium leprae strain TN Mle DnaB intein...
October 4, 2016: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Danielle S Kelley, Christopher W Lennon, Marlene Belfort, Olga Novikova
: Inteins are self-splicing protein elements that are mobile at the DNA level and are sporadically distributed across microbial genomes. Inteins appear to be horizontally transferred, and it has been speculated that phages may play a role in intein distribution. Our attention turns to mycobacteriophages, which infect mycobacteria, where both phage and host harbor inteins. Using bioinformatics, mycobacteriophage genomes were mined for inteins. This study reveals that these mobile elements are present across multiple mycobacteriophage clusters and are pervasive in certain genes, like the large terminase subunit TerL and a RecB-like nuclease, with the majority of intein-containing genes being phage specific...
October 4, 2016: MBio
Anouk van Hooij, Elisa M Tjon Kon Fat, Renate Richardus, Susan J F van den Eeden, Louis Wilson, Claudia J de Dood, Roel Faber, Korshed Alam, Jan Hendrik Richardus, Paul L A M Corstjens, Annemieke Geluk
Leprosy is a debilitating, infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Despite the availability of multidrug therapy, transmission is unremitting. Thus, early identification of M. leprae infection is essential to reduce transmission. The immune response to M. leprae is determined by host genetics, resulting in paucibacillary (PB) and multibacillary (MB) leprosy associated with dominant cellular or humoral immunity, respectively. This spectral pathology of leprosy compels detection of immunity to M. leprae to be based on multiple, diverse biomarkers...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
Tomoyuki Yamaguchi, Kazumasa Yokoyama, Chie Nakajima, Yasuhiko Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolones are a class of antibacterial agents used for leprosy treatment. Some new fluoroquinolones have been attracting interest due to their remarkable potency that is reportedly better than that of ofloxacin, the fluoroquinolone currently recommended for treatment of leprosy. For example, DC-159a, a recently developed 8-methoxy fluoroquinolone, has been found to be highly potent against various bacterial species. Nonetheless, the efficacy of DC-159a against Mycobacterium leprae is yet to be examined...
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Amandeep Singh, Umesh Varshney, M Vijayan
All mycobacteria with sequenced genomes, except M. leprae, have a second Single Stranded DNA Binding protein (SSBb) in addition to the canonical one (SSBa). This paralogue from M. smegmatis (MsSSBb) has been cloned, expressed and purified. The protein, which is probably involved in stress response, has been crystallized and X-ray analyzed in the first structure elucidation of a mycobacterial SSBb. In spite of the low sequence identity between SSBas and SSBbs in mycobacteria, the tertiary and quaternary structure of the DNA binding domain of MsSSBb is similar to that observed in mycobacterial SSBas...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Structural Biology
Virtu Solano-Collado, Adam Rofe, Stefania Spanò
Our immune system is engaged in a continuous battle against invading pathogens, many of which have evolved to survive in intracellular niches of mammalian hosts. A variety of cellular processes are involved in preventing bacterial invasion or in killing bacteria that successfully invade host cells. Recently, the Rab GTPase Rab32 emerged as critical regulator of a host defense pathway that can eliminate bacterial pathogens. Salmonella enterica is an intracellular bacterium and a major cause of infections and deaths in humans...
September 20, 2016: Small GTPases
Madhusmita Das, V Sundeep Chaitanya, K Kanmani, Lakshmi Rajan, Mannam Ebenezer
OBJECTIVE: The Objective of this study was to identify the strain diversity of Mycobacterium leprae in terms of SNP types and subtypes stratified as per genomic single nucleotide polymorphisms, in clinical isolates of leprosy patients from a tertiary care leprosy center in South India. Further, the associations of SNP types with clinical outcomes in leprosy were also investigated. METHODS: DNA was extracted from excisional skin biopsies of a total of 172 newly diagnosed untreated leprosy patients from a clinic in Tamil Nadu, in south India, that also serves patients from neighboring states...
September 15, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Ivan V Litvinov, Anna Shtreis, Kenneth Kobayashi, Steven Glassman, Matthew Tsang, Anders Woetmann, Denis Sasseville, Niels Ødum, Madeleine Duvic
Most skin malignancies are caused by external and often preventable environmental agents. Multiple reports demonstrated that cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) can occur in married couples and cluster in families. Furthermore, recent studies document geographic clustering of this malignancy in Texas as well as in other areas of the United States. Multiple infectious, occupational, and medication causes have been proposed as triggers or promoters of this malignancy including hydrochlorothiazide diuretics, Staphylococcus aureus, dermatophytes, Mycobacterium leprae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, human T-Cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV1), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and herpes simplex virus (HSV)...
July 2016: Oncoimmunology
G A Rodrigues, N P Qualio, L D de Macedo, Lmar Innocentini, A Ribeiro-Silva, N T Foss, Mac Frade, Acf Motta
Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, a bacillus that has a tropism for skin and peripheral nerves. Leprosy treatment is based on a multidrug therapy established by the World Health Organization in 1982 and, despite its widespread use, Brazil ranks second worldwide in numbers of cases. Oral involvement in leprosy has been poorly described in the literature, and few studies have shown that although the bacillus is found in mucosa, specific leprosy lesions are rare and affect patients with advanced stages of the disease...
September 8, 2016: Oral Diseases
Thushani Marie Elizabeth Dabrera, L Gayani Tillekeratne, M S Nilanthi Fernando, S T Kaushlya Kasturiaratchi, Truls Østbye
Leprosy is caused by the Mycobacterium leprae bacillus. Pockets of high endemicity remain in a number of countries including Sri Lanka, in spite of the fact that elimination has been achieved at the national level. In 2012, in a village in the Puttlam district, dermatologists reported an increase in individuals with leprosy. This village had been established in the 1990s for people displaced from Northern Sri Lanka during a civil war. A comprehensive household survey was conducted by district health officials from June to July 2012, and all household members present during the survey period were examined for leprosy lesions...
September 6, 2016: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
J M Pardal-Fernandez, S Ezsol-Lendvai, M Rodriguez-Vazquez, J L Agudo-Mena, B Godes-Medrano
INTRODUCTION: Leprosy is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium leprae. It is particularly prone to affect the skin and the nerve trunks and, in fact, both are compromised in most infected patients. It is transmitted by exposure to those with the disease and sometimes by reactivation. One uncommon possibility is pure neural leprosy, which is characterised by neuropathy, but without skin lesions. We report the case of a patient with pure neural leprosy and review the diagnostic aspects...
September 16, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
Onivola Raharolahy, Lala S Ramarozatovo, Irina M Ranaivo, Fandresena A Sendrasoa, Malalaniaina Andrianarison, Mala Rakoto Andrianarivelo, Emmanuelle Cambau, Fahafahantsoa Rapelanoro Rabenja
We report a case of misdiagnosed leprosy in a 21-year-old Malagasy male, who, improperly treated, developed secondary mycobacterial resistance to fluoroquinolone. The patient contracted the infection 9 years prior to the current consultation, displaying on the right thigh a single papulonodular lesion, which progressively spread to the lower leg, back, and face. Initial administration of ciprofloxacin and prednisolone led to temporary and fluctuating improvement. Subsequent long-term self-medication with ciprofloxacin and corticosteroid did not heal the foul and nonhealing ulcers on the legs and under the right sole...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Charlotte Avanzi, Philippe Busso, Andrej Benjak, Chloé Loiseau, Abdoulaye Fomba, Glodia Doumbia, Idrissa Camara, André Lamou, Gouressy Sock, Tiguidanké Drame, Mamadou Kodio, Fatoumata Sakho, Samba O Sow, Stewart T Cole, Roch Christian Johnson
Molecular drug susceptibility testing was performed on skin biopsies from 24 leprosy patients from Guinea-Conakry for the first time. We identified primary drug resistance in 4 cases and a dapsone-resistant cluster caused by the same strain. Primary transmission of drug-resistant Mycobacterium leprae, including a rifampicin-resistant strain, is reported.
August 23, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Marco Andrey Cipriani Frade, Norma Tirabosch Foss
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 23, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Sergio Araujo, Larissa Oliveira Freitas, Luiz Ricardo Goulart, Isabela Maria Bernardes Goulart
BACKGROUND:  Leprosy persists as public health problem. The chain of transmission and mechanism of infection are not completely understood. Here we investigated the route of infection and of disease onset, from airways exposure, colonization, and bloodstream dissemination. METHODS:  M. leprae DNA was detected through qPCR in nasal vestibule, nasal turbinate mucosa, and peripheral blood samples, plus anti-PGL-I serology and skin tests, from the same individual, of 113 leprosy patients and 104 household contacts of patients (HHCs)...
August 23, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Rychelle Clayde Affonso Medeiros, Karina Girardi do Carmo de Vasconcelos, Fernanda Karlla Luz Cardoso, Bruno de Siqueira Mieto, Thiago Gomes de Toledo Pinto, Lilian Sales Gomez, Luciana Silva Rodrigues, Mariana Gandini, Julio Jablonski Amaral, Sérgio Luiz Gomes Antunes, Suzana Corte-Real, Patricia Sammarco Rosa, Maria Cristina Vidal Pessolani, José Augusto da Costa Nery, Euzenir Nunes Sarno, Leonardo Ribeiro Batista Silva, Mauro Sola-Penna, Marcus Fernandes de Oliveira, Milton Ozório Moraes, Flavio Alves Lara
Mycobacterium leprae, the intracellular etiological agent of leprosy, infects Schwann promoting irreversible physical disabilities and deformities. These cells are responsible for myelination and maintenance of axonal energy metabolism through export of metabolites, such as lactate and pyruvate. In the present work, we observed that infected Schwann cells increase glucose uptake with a concomitant increase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity, the key enzyme of the oxidative pentose pathway...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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