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Natalie J Atkin
For centuries, patients afflicted with the peripheral nerve damaging disease, leprosy-sometimes referred to as Hansen's Disease-were excluded from society and harshly stigmatized. Such stigmatization often stemmed from the belief that the disease was a punishment by G-d for wrongdoing. Leprosy's origins remain rooted throughout various European countries; however, the disease established its presence in North America around the late 18th century. In particular, major port cities that experienced high volume trade, such as New Orleans, were most susceptible to infection...
May 2018: Clinics in Dermatology
Chao Shi, Zhi-Chun Jing, De-Gang Yang, Jian-Yu Zhu
BACKGROUND: Type 1 leprosy reaction, also known as "reversal reaction", is related to cellular immune responses to Mycobacterium leprae antigens. The risk factors that trigger type 1 leprosy reactions are poorly understood. Leprosy with concurrent tetanus is rare, and there are no publicly available reports of a leprosy patient infected with tetanus that induced type 1 leprosy reactions. CASE PRESENTATION: A 56-year-old Chinese Han female presented to our hospital with symptoms of erythematous plaques and pain over her left upper limb for 2 days and foreign object sensation in her throat for 3 days...
June 17, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Aurelie Chauffour, Emmanuel Lecorche, Florence Reibel, Faiza Mougari, Laurent Raskine, Alexandra Aubry, Vincent Jarlier, Emmanuelle Cambau
OBJECTIVES: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in leprosy is mostly unknown since Mycobacterium leprae does not grow in vitro and bacteriological investigations were abandoned. However, molecular detection of resistance can be applied to multibacillary (MB) cases. METHODS: Patients living in France mainland or in French territories and diagnosed for leprosy from 2001 to 2015 were prospectively studied for AMR by detecting mutations in rpoB for rifampicin resistance, in folP1 for dapsone and in gyrA for ofloxacin...
June 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Helen A Fletcher, Mitali Chatterjee, Andrea Cooper, Tracy Hussell, Paul M Kaye, Joann Prior, Rajko Reljic, Samantha Vermaak, Martin Vordermeier, Ann Williams, Helen McShane
For several complex intracellular pathogens, we have an urgent need for effective vaccines and yet there are common barriers to vaccine development. These diseases, including tuberculosis, leishmaniasis, leprosy and melioidosis, cause a huge burden of disease and disproportionately affect low and middle income countries. They are therefore often neglected due to the marginalisation of affected populations and the poor predicted commercial return on investment. Barriers to vaccine development include an incomplete understanding of protective immunity and translation from the bench into clinical vaccine trials...
2018: F1000Research
André Alan Nahas, Mayara Ingrid de Sousa Lima, Isabela Maria Bernardes Goulart, Luiz Ricardo Goulart
Leprosy causes the most common peripheral neuropathy of infectious etiology, posing an important public health problem worldwide. Understanding the molecular and immunological mechanisms of nerve damage induced by M. leprae is mandatory to develop tools for early diagnosis and preventive measures. The phenolic glycolipid 1 (PGL-1) and lipoarabinomannan (LAM) antigens are major components of the bacterial surface and are implicated on leprosy immunopathogenesis and neural damage. Although the anti-PGL-1 serum IgM is highly used for operational classification of patients, the anti-LAM salivary IgA (sIgA) has not been investigated as diagnostic or prognostic marker in leprosy...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Deepak Vashisht, Bhavni Oberoi, Ruby Venugopal, Sukriti Baveja
Hansen's disease is caused by Mycobacterium leprae. The disease is known to involve the visceral organs including the testis apart from the skin and nerves in the lepromatous pole of leprosy due to widespread hematogenous dissemination of lepra bacilli. Furthermore, there can be testicular pain during the type 2 reaction in Hansen's disease. Filariasis is a disease caused by the parasitic nematode, Wuchereria bancrofti. This infection most commonly results in lymphedema and secondary vaginal hydrocele with an associated epididymo-orchitis...
April 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Andrew Stevenson Joel Chandranesan, Pradeep Kumar Mada, Frances Ramos-Herberth, David Walsworth, Robert Penn, Ronald Washburn
Hansen's disease, commonly known as leprosy, is a chronic mycobacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Although generally uncommon in the United States, it is endemic in the Southern United States. We diagnosed and managed five leprosy patients from Northwest Louisiana, each presenting a distinct set of challenges. A retrospective study was performed to collect demographic, clinical, and laboratory data from our cases. The information was analyzed with a specific focus on associated factors, diagnosis, and management...
April 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Paulo E S Silva, Mariana P Reis, Marcelo P Ávila, Marcela F Dias, Patrícia S Costa, Maria L S Suhadolnik, Bárbara G Kunzmann, Anderson O Carmo, Evanguedes Kalapotakis, Edmar Chartone-Souza, Andréa M A Nascimento
Leprosy is a chronic infectious peripheral neuropathy that is caused by Mycobacterium leprae, and the skin is one of its preferred target sites. However, the effects of this infection on the skin microbiome remain largely unexplored. Here, we characterize and compare the lesional and non-lesional skin microbiomes of leprosy patients and healthy individuals through the deep sequencing of 16 S rRNA genes. Additionally, a subset of patients was monitored throughout the multi-drug therapy to investigate its effect on the leprous skin microbiome...
June 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tinara Leila de Souza Aarão, Jorge Rodrigues de Sousa, Aline Semblano Carreira Falcão, Luiz Fábio Magno Falcão, Juarez Antônio Simões Quaresma
Neurotrophins are a family of proteins that regulate different aspects of biological development and neural function and are of great importance in neuroplasticity. This group of proteins has multiple functions in neuronal cells, as well as in other cellular populations. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotrophin that is endogenously produced during development and maturation by multiple cell types, including neurons, Schwann cells, oligodendrocytes, lymphocytes, mast cells, macrophages, keratinocytes, and fibroblasts...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Emerith M Hungria, Samira Bührer-Sékula, Regiane M Oliveira, Lúcio C Aderaldo, Maria Araci A Pontes, Rossilene Cruz, Heitor S de Gonçalves, Maria L F Penna, Gerson O Penna, Mariane M A Stefani
Leprosy serology reflects the bacillary load of patients and multidrug therapy (MDT) reduces Mycobacterium leprae -specific antibody titers of multibacillary (MB) patients. The Clinical Trial for Uniform Multidrug Therapy Regimen for Leprosy Patients in Brazil ( U-MDT/CT-BR ) compared outcomes of regular 12 doses MDT/R-MDT and the uniform 6 doses MDT/U-MDT for MB leprosy, both of regimens including rifampicin, clofazimine, and dapsone. This study investigated the impact of R-MDT and U-MDT and the kinetic of antibody responses to M...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Fivzia Farooq Herekar, Hiba Ashraf, Naseem Salahuddin
Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous disease involving the skin and nerves, leading to a debilitating condition. Leprosy has been controlled in most parts of the world; therefore physicians are not very well versed in the recognition, management and assessment of this disease. The protean manifestations of leprosy often lead to delays in diagnosis and increase the morbidity. We present a case of a 33-year-old male with fever, lymphadenopathy, nodular skin lesions, uveitis and arthritis. Lymphnode, bonemarrow and skin biopsy revealed 3+ AFB smear with negative AFB cultures, leading to the diagnosis of leprosy...
April 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
David J Blok, Sake J de Vlas, Annemieke Geluk, Jan Hendrik Richardus
BACKGROUND: The availability of a diagnostic test to detect subclinical leprosy cases is crucial to interrupt the transmission of M. leprae. In this study we assessed the minimum sensitivity level of such a (hypothetical) diagnostic test and the optimal testing strategy in order to effectively reduce the new case detection rate (NCDR) of leprosy. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used the individual-based model SIMCOLEP, and based it on previous quantification using COLEP data, a cohort study of leprosy cases in Bangladesh...
May 25, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Malcolm S Duthie, Maria T Pena, Gigi J Ebenezer, Thomas P Gillis, Rahul Sharma, Kelly Cunningham, Michael Polydefkis, Yumi Maeda, Masahiko Makino, Richard W Truman, Steven G Reed
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/s41541-018-0050-z.].
2018: NPJ Vaccines
Sundeep Chaitanya Vedithi, Sony Malhotra, Madhusmita Das, Sheela Daniel, Nanda Kishore, Anuja George, Shantha Arumugam, Lakshmi Rajan, Mannam Ebenezer, David B Ascher, Eddy Arnold, Tom L Blundell
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
May 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Thiago Gomes Toledo Pinto, Leonardo Ribeiro Batista-Silva, Rychelle Clayde Affonso Medeiros, Flávio Alves Lara, Milton Ozório Moraes
For those with leprosy, the extent of host infection by Mycobacterium leprae and the progression of the disease depend on the ability of mycobacteria to shape a safe environment for its replication during early interaction with host cells. Thus, variations in key genes such as those in pattern recognition receptors ( NOD2 and TLR1 ), autophagic flux ( PARK2, LRRK2 , and RIPK2 ), effector immune cytokines ( TNF and IL12 ), and environmental factors, such as nutrition, have been described as critical determinants for infection and disease progression...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Verena J Schuenemann, Charlotte Avanzi, Ben Krause-Kyora, Alexander Seitz, Alexander Herbig, Sarah Inskip, Marion Bonazzi, Ella Reiter, Christian Urban, Dorthe Dangvard Pedersen, G Michael Taylor, Pushpendra Singh, Graham R Stewart, Petr Velemínský, Jakub Likovsky, Antónia Marcsik, Erika Molnár, György Pálfi, Valentina Mariotti, Alessandro Riga, M Giovanna Belcastro, Jesper L Boldsen, Almut Nebel, Simon Mays, Helen D Donoghue, Sonia Zakrzewski, Andrej Benjak, Kay Nieselt, Stewart T Cole, Johannes Krause
Studying ancient DNA allows us to retrace the evolutionary history of human pathogens, such as Mycobacterium leprae, the main causative agent of leprosy. Leprosy is one of the oldest recorded and most stigmatizing diseases in human history. The disease was prevalent in Europe until the 16th century and is still endemic in many countries with over 200,000 new cases reported annually. Previous worldwide studies on modern and European medieval M. leprae genomes revealed that they cluster into several distinct branches of which two were present in medieval Northwestern Europe...
May 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Ben Krause-Kyora, Marcel Nutsua, Lisa Boehme, Federica Pierini, Dorthe Dangvard Pedersen, Sabin-Christin Kornell, Dmitriy Drichel, Marion Bonazzi, Lena Möbus, Peter Tarp, Julian Susat, Esther Bosse, Beatrix Willburger, Alexander H Schmidt, Jürgen Sauter, Andre Franke, Michael Wittig, Amke Caliebe, Michael Nothnagel, Stefan Schreiber, Jesper L Boldsen, Tobias L Lenz, Almut Nebel
Leprosy, a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae), was very common in Europe till the 16th century. Here, we perform an ancient DNA study on medieval skeletons from Denmark that show lesions specific for lepromatous leprosy (LL). First, we test the remains for M. leprae DNA to confirm the infection status of the individuals and to assess the bacterial diversity. We assemble 10 complete M. leprae genomes that all differ from each other. Second, we evaluate whether the human leukocyte antigen allele DRB1*15:01, a strong LL susceptibility factor in modern populations, also predisposed medieval Europeans to the disease...
May 1, 2018: Nature Communications
Pier Luigi Nimis, Josef Hafellner, Claude Roux, Philippe Clerc, Helmut Mayrhofer, Stefano Martellos, Peter O Bilovitz
This is the first attempt to provide an overview of the lichen diversity of the Alps, one of the biogegraphically most important and emblematic mountain systems worldwide. The checklist includes all lichenised species, plus a set of non- or doubtfully lichenised taxa frequently treated by lichenologists, excluding non-lichenised lichenicolous fungi. Largely based on recent national or regional checklists, it provides a list of all infrageneric taxa (with synonyms) hitherto reported from the Alps, with data on their distribution in eight countries (Austria, France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Italy, Slovenia, Switzerland) and in 42 Operational Geographic Units, mostly corresponding to administrative subdivisions within the countries...
2018: MycoKeys
Dong Wang, Yu Fan, Mahadev Malhi, Rui Bi, Yong Wu, Min Xu, Xiu-Feng Yu, Heng Long, Yu-Ye Li, Deng-Feng Zhang, Yong-Gang Yao
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and genome-wide linkage studies (GWLSs) have identified numerous risk genes affecting the susceptibility to leprosy. However, most of the reported GWAS hits are noncoding variants and account for only part of the estimated heritability for this disease. In order to identify additional risk genes and map the potentially functional variants within the GWAS loci, we performed a three-stage study combining whole-exome sequencing (WES; discovery stage), targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS; screening stage), and refined validation of risk missense variants in 1,433 individuals with leprosy and 1,625 healthy control individuals from Yunnan Province, Southwest China...
May 3, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
Soumi Sadhu, Dipendra Kumar Mitra
Leprosy is a chronic intracellular infection caused by the acid-fast bacillus, Mycobacterium leprae . The disease chiefly affects the skin, peripheral nerves, mucosa of the upper respiratory tract, and the eyes. The damage to peripheral nerves results in sensory and motor impairment with characteristic deformities and disability. Presently, the disease remains concentrated in resource-poor countries in tropical and warm temperate regions with the largest number of cases reported from India. Even though innate immunity influences the clinical manifestation of the disease, it is the components of adaptive immune system which seem to tightly correlate with the characteristic spectrum of leprosy...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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