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Vundru Anil Kumar, Kandru Ammani, Rajkumari Jobina, Pattnaik Subhaswaraj, Busi Siddhardha
Due to the increased development of resistance of vectors against synthetic insecticides and chemical drugs, plant based insecticides serve as promising biocontrol agents for effective vector control. Green approach for the synthesis of nanoparticles has been attained using environmentally safe, non-toxic plant extracts. The present study was aimed to investigate the potent larvicidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) produced by Derris trifoliata leaf extract in relation to the various concentrations of methanol and chloroform extracts for 24h against 3rd and 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti...
June 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Anjali Rawani, Anushree Singha Ray, Anupam Ghosh, Mary Sakar, Goutam Chandra
BACKGROUND: Vector control is facing a menace due to the appearance of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of plant origin may provide appropriate substitute biocontrol techniques in the future. The present study was carried out to investigate the bio control potentiality of active ingredient isolated from chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v) extract of mature leaves of Solanum nigrum L. (Solanaceae) against early 3rd instar larvae of Culex vishnui group (comprising of Cx. vishnui Theobald, Cx...
March 23, 2017: BMC Research Notes
Naim Kittana, Hanood Abu-Rass, Ruba Sabra, Lama Manasra, Hadeel Hanany, Nidal Jaradat, Fatima Hussein, Abdel Naser Zaid
PURPOSE: Ephedra alata (E. alata) is perennial tough shrub plant that grows in Palestine and other regions. It is used often in folk's medicine for the treatment of various diseases. In this project, E. alata extract was tested for its ability to improve wound and burn healing. METHODS: An aqueous extract of E. alata was prepared and underwent several phytochemical analyses for the presence of the major classes of phytochemical compounds. After that, a polyethylene glycol-based ointment containing the extract of E...
April 2017: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
Matthew Dean, Brian T Murphy, Joanna E Burdette
Foods and botanical supplements can interfere with the endocrine system through the presence of phytosteroids - chemicals that interact with steroids receptors. Phytoestrogens are well studied, but compounds such as kaempferol, apigenin, genistein, ginsenoside Rf, and glycyrrhetinic acid have been shown to interact with non-estrogen nuclear receptors. These compounds can have agonist, antagonist, or mixed agonist/antagonist activity depending on compound, receptor, cell line or tissue, and concentration. Some phytosteroids have also been shown to inhibit steroid metabolizing enzymes, resulting in biological effects through altered endogenous steroid concentrations...
February 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Victor Mukherjee, D Vijayalaksmi, Jagadeesh Gulipalli, R Premalatha, Shamim A Sufi, Athithan Velan, Kotteazeth Srikumar
Understanding the influence of ubiquitously present plant steroids on mammalian cell biology is currently of interest. Feedback inhibition of HMGCoA reductase (HMGCR) catalytic activity in the transformation of HMG-CoA to mevalonate is a significant regulatory step in sterol biosynthetic pathway. To assess the role of dietary steroids in this biochemical transformation, the phytosteroid isoform 28-homobrassinolide (28-HB), 90 % pure, obtained from Godrej Agrovet (India) was used to determine its effect on mammalian HMG-CoA reductase...
October 2016: Molecular Biology Reports
Athira Omanakuttan, Chinchu Bose, Nanjan Pandurangan, Geetha B Kumar, Asoke Banerji, Bipin G Nair
The complex process of wound healing is a major problem associated with diabetes, venous or arterial disease, old age and infection. A wide range of pharmacological effects including anabolic, anti-diabetic and hepato-protective activities have been attributed to Ecdysterone. In earlier studies, Ecdysterone has been shown to modulate eNOS and iNOS expression in diabetic animals and activate osteogenic differentiation through the Extracellular-signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK) pathway in periodontal ligament stem cells...
August 15, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
Alex Thomas, E K Rajesh, D Suresh Kumar
Tinospora crispa is a medicinal plant belonging to the botanical family Menispermiaceae. The plant is widely distributed in Southeast Asia and the northeastern region of India. A related species Tinospora cordifolia is used in Ayurveda for treating a large spectrum of diseases. Traditional healers of Thailand, Malaysia, Guyana, Bangladesh and the southern Indian province of Kerala use this plant in the treatment of diabetes. Many diterpenes, triterpenes, phytosteroids, alkaloids and their glycosides have been isolated from T...
March 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Joo Tae Hwang, Hyun-Mee Oh, Mi-Hwa Kim, Hyung Jae Jeong, Chul Lee, Hyun-Jae Jang, Seung Woong Lee, Chan Sun Park, Mun-Chual Rho
A reproducible analytical method using reverse-phase high liquid performance chromatography combined with UV detecting was developed for the quantitative determination of four compounds isolated from the ethanol extract of Phaseolus angularis seeds (PASE): oleanolic acid (1), oleanolic acid acetate (2), stigmasterol (3) and β-sitosterol (4). This method was fully validated in terms of linearity (r2 > 0.999), accuracy (98.5%-100.8%), precision (<0.92%), LOD (<0.0035 mg/mL), and LOQ (<0.0115 mg/mL)...
2014: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Arie Budovsky, Albert Shteinberg, Hani Maor, Olga Duman, Hagai Yanai, Marina Wolfson, Vadim E Fraifeld
Plants growing in the Judea region are widely used in traditional medicine. This phytogeographic zone stands out in its climatic conditions and biodiversity. Consequently, both endemic and widely distributed Mediterranean plants growing in the area have unique chemotypes characterized by accumulation of relatively high levels of phytosteroids. Our comprehensive analysis revealed that many of the plants growing in the Judea region may hold a geroprotective potential. With this in mind, we undertook a wide screen of dozens of candidate herbal extracts for their cell protective, wound-healing, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities...
April 2014: Rejuvenation Research
Xiangfeng Jing, Robert J Grebenok, Spencer T Behmer
Insects cannot synthesize sterols de novo, so they typically require a dietary source. Cholesterol is the dominant sterol in most insects, but because plants contain only small amounts of cholesterol, plant-feeding insects generate most of their cholesterol by metabolizing plant sterols. Plants almost always contain mixtures of different sterols, but some are not readily metabolized to cholesterol. Here we explore, in two separate experiments, how dietary phytosterols and phytosteroids, in different mixtures, ratios, and amounts, affect insect herbivore sterol/steroid metabolism and absorption; we use two caterpillars species - one a generalist (Heliothis virescens), the other a specialist (Manduca sexta)...
July 2013: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Roger Fuoco, Patrizia Bogani, Gabriele Capodaglio, Massimo Del Bubba, Ornella Abollino, Stefania Giannarelli, Maria Michela Spiriti, Beatrice Muscatello, Saer Doumett, Clara Turetta, Roberta Zangrando, Vincenzo Zelano, Marcello Buiatti
Recently our findings have shown that the integration of the gene coding for the rat gluco-corticoid receptor (GR receptor) in Nicotiana langsdorffii plants induced morphophysiological effects in transgenic plants through the modification of their hormonal pattern. Phytohormones play a key role in plant responses to many different biotic and abiotic stresses since a modified hormonal profile up-regulates the activation of secondary metabolites involved in the response to stress. In this work transgenic GR plants and isogenic wild type genotypes were exposed to metal stress by treating them with 30ppm cadmium(II) or 50ppm chromium(VI)...
May 1, 2013: Journal of Plant Physiology
György Csaba
The notion of the perinatal "hormonal imprinting" has been published at first in 1980 and since that time it spred expansively. The imprintig develops at the first encounter between the developing receptor and the target hormone - possibly by the alteration of the methylation pattern of DNA - and it is transmitted to the progeny generations of the cell. This is needed for the complete development of the receptor's binding capacity. However, molecules similar to the target hormone (hormone-analogues, drugs, chemicals, environmental pollutants) can also bind to the developing receptor, causing faulty imprinting with life-long consequences...
January 27, 2013: Orvosi Hetilap
Parul Gupta, Aditya Vikram Agarwal, Nehal Akhtar, Rajender Singh Sangwan, Surya Pratap Singh, Prabodh Kumar Trivedi
Withania somnifera (L.) is one of the most valuable medicinal plants used in Ayurvedic and other indigenous medicines. Pharmaceutical activities of this herb are associated with presence of secondary metabolites known as withanolides, a class of phytosteroids synthesized via mevalonate (MVA) and 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate pathways. Though the plant has been well characterized in terms of phytochemical profiles as well as pharmaceutical activities, not much is known about the genes responsible for biosynthesis of these compounds...
February 2013: Protoplasma
Fabio V Santos, Ana Lucia M Nasser, Fabiana I Biso, Leonardo M Moreira, Vanessa J S V Santos, Wagner Vilegas, Eliana A Varanda
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The species Qualea grandiflora and Qualea multiflora, which belong to the Vochysiaceae family, are common in the Brazilian savannah (Cerrado biome), and the local inhabitants use these species to treat external ulcers and gastric diseases and as an anti-inflammatory agent. Studies have demonstrated that these plants contain compounds that exhibit pharmacological activities; however, the risks associated with their consumption are not known. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the present study, the mutagenicity of polar and apolar extracts from Qualea grandiflora and Qualea multiflora were assessed by employing the Ames assay with and without metabolic activation...
October 31, 2011: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Sho Okamoto, Fengnian Yu, Hisashi Harada, Toshihide Okajima, Jun-ichiro Hattan, Norihiko Misawa, Ryutaro Utsumi
The rhizome oil of Zingiber zerumbet Smith contains an exceptionally high content of sesquiterpenoids with zerumbone, a predominating potential multi-anticancer agent. Biosynthetic pathways of zerumbone have been proposed, and two genes ZSS1 and CYP71BA1 that encode the enzymes catalyzing the first two steps have been cloned. In this paper, we isolated a cDNA clone (ZSD1) that encodes an alcohol dehydrogenase capable of catalyzing the final step of zerumbone biosynthesis. ZSD1 has an open reading frame of 804 bp that encodes a 267-residue enzyme with a calculated molecular mass of 28...
August 2011: FEBS Journal
Anupam Mittal, Nitin Mahajan, Rajesh Vijayvergiya, Veena Dhawan
Chronic underlying inflammation is involved in the pathophysiology of coronary artery disease (CAD). Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula bark extract (PLE) is known to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity and has high content of phytosteroids. Since phytosteroids mimic estrogen structurally, we postulated that PLE may provide protection in postmenopausal women against CAD. Thus the effect of PLE has been explored on expression of estrogen receptors (ERalpha and ERbeta) and inflammatory inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) genes in vitro in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from postmenopausal women...
October 2010: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
V F Sahach, Iu P Korkach, A V Kotsiuruba, O D Prysiazhna
Streptozotocine (STZ) administration (5 mg/100 g) up regulates oxidative (lipid peroxidation as a marker) and nitrosative (protein nitrosilation as a marker) stresses as well as ROS (O(2-), H2O2, OH) generation in heart and aorta in rats after 60 days of STZ action. The level of oxydative stress was higher in aorta. Xanthine oxidase (XO) activation (uric acid as marker), but not lipoxygenase (LTC4 as marker) or cyclooxygenase (TxB2 as marker) are the main oxydases that generate O(2-) as calculated by correlation analysis...
2008: Fiziolohichnyĭ Zhurnal
V F Sahach, Iu P Korkach, A V Kotsiuruba, O V Rudyk, H L Vavilova
Nitric oxide reacts rapidly with superoxide to produce the potent oxidant peroxynitrite. In vivo mitochondria produce superoxide as well as NO. In heart mitochondria of aging rats the amount of NO and O2(-) are increased thus the levels of peroxynitrite produced may be increased too, in this reason mitochondria may be a major site of peroxynitrite formation. Oxidative stress induces cyclosporine A-sensitive mitochondrial efflux of calcium and proapoptotic factors through MPTP (mitochondrial permeability transition pore) opening in heart mitochondria which may contribute to tissue damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in aging rats...
2008: Fiziolohichnyĭ Zhurnal
Anupam Ghosh, Nandita Chowdhury, Goutam Chandra
Crude mature leaves extract of Day Jasmine, Cestrum diurnum (Solanaceae: Solanales), was investigated for larvicidal activities against Culex quinquefasciatus, the vector of human filariasis. All the graded concentrations (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, and 3% v/v) showed significant (P < 0.05) larval mortality, and results of regression equations revealed that the mortality rates were positively correlated with the concentrations of the extract (R (2) close to 1). LC(50), LC(95), and LC(99) values were calculated at different time intervals, and the lowest value was recorded at the 72-h bioassay for third-instar larvae...
July 2008: Parasitology Research
Rajender Singh Sangwan, Narayan Das Chaurasiya, Payare Lal, Laxminarain Misra, Rakesh Tuli, Neelam Singh Sangwan
Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Dunal., Solanaceae) is one of the most reputed medicinal plants of Ayurveda, the traditional medical system. Several of its traditionally proclaimed medicinal properties have been corroborated by recent molecular pharmacological investigations and have been shown to be associated with its specific secondary metabolites known as withanolides, the novel group of ergostane skeletal phytosteroids named after the plant. Withanolides are structurally distinct from tropane/nortropane alkaloids (usually found in Solanaceae plants) and are produced only by a few genera within Solanaceae...
June 2008: Physiologia Plantarum
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