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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041003/depression-in-the-context-of-medical-disorders-new-pharmacological-pathways-revisited
#1
Undine E Lang, Marc Walter
The depressive state has been characterised as one of elevated inflammation, changed cardiovascular parameters and a deranged metabolic situation all of which holds promise for a better understanding and handling of treatment-resistance in affective disorders as well as for future developments in treatment algorithms. In this context several biomarkers are differentially regulated by antidepressant treatment and connected to metabolic, inflammatory, cardiovascular and apoptotic components of the pathophysiology, i...
October 17, 2017: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040800/ocriplasmin-for-symptomatic-vitreomacular-adhesion
#2
REVIEW
James E Neffendorf, Varo Kirthi, Edward Pringle, Timothy L Jackson
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic vitreomacular adhesion (sVMA) is a recognised cause of visual loss and by tradition has been managed by pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). A less invasive alternative to surgery in some people is enzymatic vitreolysis, using an intravitreal injection of ocriplasmin. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of ocriplasmin compared to no treatment, sham or placebo for the treatment of sVMA. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2017, Issue 1), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 24 February 2017), Embase Ovid (1947 to 24 February 2017), PubMed (1946 to 24 February 2017), the ISRCTN registry (www...
October 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040161/prognostic-factor-analysis-in-325-patients-with-graves-disease-treated-with-radioiodine-therapy
#3
Danrong Yang, Jianjun Xue, Wenxia Ma, Furong Liu, Yameng Fan, Jie Rong, Aimin Yang, Yan Yu
INTRODUCTION: I therapy is a choice for Graves' hyperthyroidism. Several factors that affect the success of I treatment in Graves' disease (GD) patients have been put forward. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the factors influencing the success of I therapy and the occurrence of hypothyroidism after I therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed 325 GD patients, who were well documented out of 779 cases, treated with I in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University between 2010 and 2016...
October 16, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040157/development-and-use-of-biochemical-markers-in-osteoarthritis-current-update
#4
Anne C Bay-Jensen, Christian S Thudium, Ali Mobasheri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is an increasing demand for noninvasive and descriptive biochemical markers (biomarkers) in osteoarthritis; for enabling early drug development (including translational research), evaluating clinical trial at an early stage and for subtyping. Purpose of the review is to review and comment on current availability of such biomarkers. RECENT FINDINGS: Many different biomarkers have been tested in the last 18 months. The main focus has been on testing whether the biomarkers, whether is reflect joint tissue turnover or inflammatory status, can differentiate osteoarthritis patients from healthy controls or whether the biomarkers are associated with progression...
October 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039968/characteristics-biological-properties-and-analytical-methods-of-ursolic-acid-a-review
#5
Andressa Maria Pironi, Patricia Rocha de Araújo, Mariza Aires Fernandes, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado, Marlus Chorilli
Ursolic acid (UA) is a naturally occurring triterpenoid which is a promising candidate for the development of new therapeutic approaches and for the prevention and treatment of several diseases owing to its pharmacological importance. However, its low solubility in aqueous medium affects its therapeutic application. Several strategies have been used to overcome this obstacle. In this study, the incorporation of UA in to different drug delivery systems was found to be highly efficient. In addition, important investigations were performed about methods for qualitative and quantitative analyses of UA in various raw materials, including plants, biological fluids, and drug delivery systems, were investigated...
October 17, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036903/resveratrol-and-amyloid-beta-mechanistic-insights
#6
REVIEW
Yongming Jia, Na Wang, Xuewei Liu
The amyloid-beta (Aβ) hypothesis that dyshomeostasis between Aβ production and clearance is a very early, key molecular factor in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been proposed and examined in the AD research field. Scientists have focused on seeking natural products or drugs to influence the dynamic equilibrium of Aβ, targeting production and clearance of Aβ. There is emerging evidence that resveratrol (Res), a naturally occurring polyphenol mainly found in grapes and red wine, acts on AD in numerous in vivo and in vitro models...
October 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036899/targeting-strategies-for-the-combination-treatment-of-cancer-using-drug-delivery-systems
#7
REVIEW
Janel Kydd, Rahul Jadia, Praveena Velpurisiva, Aniket Gad, Shailee Paliwal, Prakash Rai
Cancer cells have characteristics of acquired and intrinsic resistances to chemotherapy treatment-due to the hostile tumor microenvironment-that create a significant challenge for effective therapeutic regimens. Multidrug resistance, collateral toxicity to normal cells, and detrimental systemic side effects present significant obstacles, necessitating alternative and safer treatment strategies. Traditional administration of chemotherapeutics has demonstrated minimal success due to the non-specificity of action, uptake and rapid clearance by the immune system, and subsequent metabolic alteration and poor tumor penetration...
October 14, 2017: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036618/unsuccessful-treatment-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis-factors-and-a-consequent-predictive-model
#8
Ana Costa-Veiga, Teodoro Briz, Carla Nunes
Background: Cure is particularly valuable in pulmonary cases (PTB), as unsuccessful treatment fuels incidence and resistance to antibiotics. This study aims to identify individual factors of PTB unsuccessful treatment in Portugal and to develop a consequent predictive model. Methods: Using the Portuguese TB surveillance database (SVIG-TB), PTB cases older than 15 years notified from 2000 to 2012 in Continental Portugal were analyzed. Unsuccessful treatment included the WHO categories (failure, default, death and transferred out)...
October 3, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036388/risk-factors-for-suicidality-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression-of-96-studies
#9
Ryan Michael Cassidy, Fang Yang, Flávio Kapczinski, Ives Cavalcante Passos
The lifetime risk of suicide and suicide attempt in patients with schizophrenia are 5% and 25%-50%, respectively. The current meta-analysis aims to determine risk factors associated with suicidality in subjects with schizophrenia. We searched Pubmed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and the reference lists of included studies. Inclusion criteria were met if an article reported a dichotomous sample of patients with schizophrenia with suicidal ideation, attempted suicide, or suicide compared to patients without. We also performed a cohort study meta-analysis as a supplemental analysis...
September 23, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036019/targeting-the-interleukin-4-and-interleukin-13-pathways-in-severe-asthma-current-knowledge-and-future-needs
#10
Amit D Parulekar, Christina C Kao, Zuzana Diamant, Nicola A Hanania
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Severe asthma is a heterogeneous disease that can be classified into phenotypes and endotypes based upon clinical or biological characteristics. Interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 play a key role in type 2 (T2) asthma. This article reviews the signaling pathway of IL-4 and IL-13 and highlights its targeted therapy in severe asthma. RECENT FINDINGS: Several clinical trials of biologics targeting the IL-4/IL-13 pathway have recently been completed. In patients with severe, uncontrolled asthma, targeting IL-13 alone with biologics including lebrikizumab and tralokinumab has not shown consistent reduction in asthma exacerbations...
October 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035933/psoriatic-arthritis-new-evidence-for-old-concepts
#11
Enrique R Soriano, Josefina Marin, Maria L Acosta-Felquer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review gives an updated overview of some of the new concepts in the management of psoriatic arthritis (PsA): early diagnosis, remission as an objective, treat-to-target, and treatment guidelines. RECENT FINDINGS: Early diagnosis, targeting remission as part of a treatment strategy, and new guidelines providing evidence-based support to these concepts are main topics in recent publications. SUMMARY: Dermatologists and rheumatologists should work together to reduce the number of patients remaining undiagnosed, and the time to do so...
October 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035832/new-insights-into-vinca-alkaloids-resistance-mechanism-and-circumvention-in-lung-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Ying Zhang, Shao-Hui Yang, Xiu-Li Guo
Nowadays, lung cancer, as a health problem in worldwide, has high mortality both in men and women. Despite advances in diagnosis and surgical techniques of lung cancer in recent decades, chemotherapy is still a fundamentally and extensively useful strategy. Vinca alkaloids are a class of important and widely used drugs in the treatment of lung cancer, targeting on the Vinca binding site at the exterior of microtubule plus ends. Either intrinsic or acquired resistance to chemotherapy of Vinca alkaloids has been a major obstacle to the treatment of lung cancer, which arose great interests in studies of understanding and overcoming resistance...
October 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035761/lab-on-a-chip-systems-for-photodynamic-therapy-investigations
#13
REVIEW
Michał Chudy, Katarzyna Tokarska, Elżbieta Jastrzębska, Magdalena Bułka, Sławomir Drozdek, Łukasz Lamch, Kazimiera A Wilk, Zbigniew Brzózka
In recent years photodynamic therapy (PDT) has received widespread attention in cancer treatment due to its smaller surgical trauma, better selectivity towards tumor cells, reduced side effects and possibility of repeatable treatment. Since cancer is the second cause of death worldwide, scientists constantly seek for new potential therapeutic agents including nanotechnology-based photosensitizers used in PDT. The new-designed nanostructures must be carefully studied and well characterized what require analytically useful and powerful tools that enable real progress in nanoscience development...
October 7, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035739/physical-oncology-new-targets-for-nanomedicine
#14
REVIEW
Alba Nicolas-Boluda, Amanda K A Silva, Sylvie Fournel, Florence Gazeau
Physical oncology is an emerging paradigm which recognizes tissue mechanics, per se, as an active modulator of tumorigenesis, treatment resistance and clinical outcome, mediated by mechanosignaling pathways, matrix remodeling and physical barriers to drugs. The tumor microenvironment displays abnormal physical properties in comparison to healthy tissue which contribute to cancer progression and resistance to current treatments. Physical aberrancies comprise the chaotic organization of tumor vasculature, an increased interstitial pressure, an increased solid stress, hypoxia, an abundant extracellular matrix and a progressive stiffening of solid tumors...
October 6, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035510/crispri-and-crispra-screens-in-mammalian-cells-for-precision-biology-and-medicine
#15
Martin Kampmann
Next-generation DNA sequencing technologies have led to a massive accumulation of genomic and transcriptomic data from patients and healthy individuals. The major challenge ahead is to understand the functional significance of the elements of the human genome and transcriptome, and implications for diagnosis and treatment. Genetic screens in mammalian cells are a powerful approach to systematically elucidate gene function in health and disease states. In particular, recently developed CRISPR/Cas9-based screening approaches have enormous potential to uncover mechanisms and therapeutic strategies for human diseases...
October 16, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035325/advanced-prodrug-strategies-in-nucleoside-and-non-nucleoside-antiviral-agents-a-review-of-the-recent-five-years
#16
REVIEW
Hanadi Sinokrot, Tasneem Smerat, Anas Najjar, Rafik Karaman
Background: Poor pharmacokinetic profiles and resistance are the main two drawbacks from which currently used antiviral agents suffer, thus make them excellent targets for research, especially in the presence of viral pandemics such as HIV and hepatitis C. Methods: The strategies employed in the studies covered in this review were sorted by the type of drug synthesized into ester prodrugs, targeted delivery prodrugs, macromolecular prodrugs, other nucleoside conjugates, and non-nucleoside drugs. Results: Utilizing the ester prodrug approach a novel isopropyl ester prodrug was found to be potent HIV integrase inhibitor...
October 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035169/prospective-longitudinal-substance-use-patterns-in-patients-preparing-for-hepatitis-c-treatment
#17
Carol S North, David E Pollio, Omar T Sims, Mamta K Jain, Barry A Hong
OBJECTIVE: This study prospectively examined the independent courses of alcohol, drugs, and smoking over 18 months in 154 patients preparing for hepatitis C (HCV) treatment in relation to functioning, negative coping, and satisfaction with quality of life, in data collected from a randomized controlled trial of multiple-family group psychoeducation for patients preparing for HCV treatment. Patients with HCV who had consistent abstinence, consistent use, or achievement of abstinence after study entry were examined for outcomes pertaining to functioning in the context of HCV, negative coping, and satisfaction with quality of life...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034843/research-progress-in-reversal-of-tumor-multi-drug-resistance-via-natural-products
#18
Qi Guo, Hongyan Cao, Xianghui Qi, Huikai Li, Peizhi Ye, Zhiguo Wang, Danqiao Wang, Hua Zhou, Jingui Xue, Mingyu Sun
Multidrug resistance (MDR) occurs when a tumor develops resistance to multiple chemotherapeutic drugs, which may include antitumor drugs with different chemical structures and mechanisms. MDR limits the treatment effects of antitumor drugs, and is the main cause of chemotherapy failure. MDR is caused by numerous factors including changes in ABC transporters, target proteins, detoxification, DNA repair, drug metabolic enzymes, and signal pathways of apoptosis. Clinical research indicates that natural products have great potential to treat tumors and reverse MDR...
October 16, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034722/the-efficacy-of-apaziquone-in-the-treatment-of-bladder-cancer
#19
Francesco Caramés Masana, Theo M de Reijke
Bladder cancer is nowadays a common tumor. Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has still chances of recurrence and progression in spite of surgery and adjuvant treatments. New therapies are being developed to reduce these percentages with less adverse effects - Apaziquone (EO9) is an example. Areas covered: A literature search has been performed using Pubmed, UpToDate and Google verified information (mainly from Food and Drug Administration and Spectrum Pharmaceutics websites). We have included data from the most representative clinical trials and reviews published...
October 16, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034533/efficacy-tolerability-and-safety-of-cannabis-based-medicines-for-chronic-pain-management-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#20
REVIEW
W Häuser, F Petzke, M-A Fitzcharles
Medicinal cannabis has already entered mainstream medicine in some countries. This systematic review (SR) aimed at evaluating the efficacy, acceptability and safety of cannabis-based medicines for chronic pain management. Qualitative systematic review of SRs of randomized controlled trials with cannabis-based medicines for chronic pain management. The Cochrane databases of SRs, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects and PubMed were searched for SR published in the period January 2009 to January 2017. Assessment of the methodological quality of SR was performed by the AMSTAR checklist...
October 15, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
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