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Morphological assessment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545157/the-aminoestrogen-prolame-increases-recognition-memory-and-hippocampal-neuronal-spine-density-in-aged-mice
#1
Alfonso Diaz, Samuel Treviño, Rubén Vázquez-Roque, Berenice Venegas, Blanca Espinosa, Gonzalo Flores, Juan Manuel Fernández-G, Luis F Montaño, Jorge Guevara
The aging brain shows biochemical and morphological changes in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons from the limbic system associated with memory loss. Prolame (N-(3-hydroxy-1,3,5 (10) -estratrien-17β-yl) -3-hydroxypropylamine) is a non-feminizing aminoestrogen with antithrombotic activity that prevents neuronal deterioration, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of prolame on motor and cognitive processes, as well as its influence on the dendritic morphology of neurons at the CA1, CA3 and granule cells of the dentate gyrus (DG) regions of hippocampus (HP), and medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) of aged mice...
May 25, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545103/combined-effects-of-cotyledon-excision-and-nursery-fertilization-on-root-growth-nutrient-status-and-outplanting-performance-of-quercus-variabilis-container-seedlings
#2
Wenhui Shi, Mark Bloomberg, Guolei Li, Shuchai Su, Liming Jia
Artificial excision of the distal part of acorns in order to promote germination is well researched in oak seedling cultivation studies. However, studies of combined effects of cotyledon excision and nursery fertilization on container seedlings are lacking, especially for seedling root growth and outplanting performance. This study aimed to explore the main effects of cotyledon excision on Quercus variabilis seedling emergence characteristics and demonstrated the combined effects of cotyledon excision and nursery fertilization on seedling quality to improve Quercus variabilis seedling outplanting performance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544632/understanding-the-limiting-factors-of-solvent-annealed-small-molecule-bulk-heterojunction-organic-solar-cells-from-a-chemical-perspective
#3
Aurelien Viterisi, Daniel Fernandez, Vijay Kumar Challuri, James William Ryan, Eugenia Martinez-Ferrero, Francesc Guispert-Guirado, Marta Martinez, Eduardo Escudero, Caterina Stenta, Lluis Francisco Marsal, Emilio Palomares
A detailed account on the limiting factors of solvent annealed bulk-heterojunction small molecule organic solars cell is given. This account is based on the extensive characterization of solar cell devices made from a library of five diketopyrolopyrole (DPP) donor dyes. Their chemical structure is designed in such a way as to provide insights on the energetics of solar cell active layer microstructure formation. Numerous chemical and physical properties of the active layers are assessed and interrelated such as light absorption, molecular packing in the solid state, crystal-forming properties in thin films, charge carrier mobility and charge carrier recombination kinetics...
May 24, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544427/advanced-consumable-free-morphological-analysis-of-intact-red-blood-cells-by-a-compact-scanning-flow-cytometer
#4
K V Gilev, E S Yastrebova, D I Strokotov, M A Yurkin, N A Karmadonova, A V Chernyshev, V V Lomivorotov, V P Maltsev
Whereas modern automated blood cell analyzers measure the volume of individual red blood cells (RBCs), leading to four RBC indices (mean corpuscular volume, MCV; mean corpuscular hemoglobin, MCH; mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, MCHC; red cell distribution width, and RDW), the RBC shape has not been assessed by clinical screening tools. We applied the scanning flow cytometer (SFC) for complete characterization of intact RBC morphology in terms of diameter, maximal and minimal thicknesses, volume, surface area, sphericity index, spontaneous curvature, hemoglobin concentration, and content...
May 19, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543281/exoanal-imaging-of-the-anal-sphincters
#5
Hans Peter Dietz
Since its introduction in the early 1990s, endoanal sonography has become the mainstay of morphologic assessment of the anal canal and sphincter, especially for obstetric anal sphincter trauma. Lack of availability of suitable systems and the invasive nature of the method have limited uptake and clinical utility. More recently, exoanal or transperineal/translabial tomographic imaging has been developed as a noninvasive alternative. This pictorial overview aims to introduce the reader to this new diagnostic modality and to demonstrate common findings in asymptomatic and symptomatic women...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543265/stricter-criteria-for-left-bundle-branch-block-diagnosis-do-not-improve-response-to-crt
#6
Emanuele Bertaglia, Federico Migliore, Anna Baritussio, Antonio De Simone, Albino Reggiani, Domenico Pecora, Antonio D'Onofrio, Antonio Rapacciuolo, Gianluca Savarese, Attilio Pierantozzi, Biondino Marenna, Franco Ruffa, Monica Campari, Maurizio Malacrida, Giuseppe Stabile
BACKGROUND: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has proved to be effective in patients with heart failure and left bundle branch block (LBBB). Recently, new ECG criteria have been proposed for the diagnosis of LBBB. These criteria are stricter than the current American Heart Association (AHA) criteria. We assessed the rate of echocardiographic response to CRT in patients with traditional LBBB versus patients who met the new criteria (strict LBBB). METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing CRT were enrolled in the CRT MORE registry...
May 23, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543106/the-concept-of-triple-wavefront-fusion-during-biventricular-pacing-using-the-egm-to-produce-the-best-acute-hemodynamic-improvement-in-crt
#7
Iris A H Ter Horst, Margot D Bogaard, Anton E Tuinenburg, Thomas P Mast, Teun P de Boer, Pieter A Doevendans, Mathias Meine
BACKGROUND: Previous reports suggest that Biventricular pacing (BiVp) fused with intrinsic conduction (BiVp-fusion, triple wavefront fusion) is associated with improved resynchronization compared to pure-BiVp in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). This study aimed to assess the association between acute hemodynamic benefit of CRT and signs of BiVp-fusion by using a novel EGM-based method. METHODS: In 17 patients undergoing CRT implantation, 28 combinations of atrioventricular (AV) and interventricular (VV) delays were applied while invasively measuring acute hemodynamic response based on maximum rate of LV pressure rise (LV dP/dtmax ) to assess optimal BiVp settings...
May 23, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543029/temporal-trends-in-craniometric-estimates-of-admixture-for-a-modern-american-sample
#8
Bridget F B Algee-Hewitt
OBJECTIVES: Temporal trends in craniometric estimates of admixture are investigated for three U.S. populations in the FDB. Patterns of association between birth years and posterior probabilities of cluster membership are identified to assess how these proportions of admixture have changed over recent time. Demographic and genetic data correlates, patterns of morphological expression, and shifts in source populations are evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Estimates of three-way admixture were obtained for 1,521 individuals of documented population, sex, and birth years that span the 20th century...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542781/morphological-variation-in-brain-through-domestication-of-fowl
#9
Soichiro Kawabe, Naoki Tsunekawa, Kohei Kudo, Chanin Tirawattanawanich, Fumihito Akishinonomiya, Hideki Endo
Great variations in the size, shape, color, feather structure and behavior are observed among fowl breeds. Because many types of domestic fowls have been bred for various purposes, they are ideal to assess the relationship between brain morphology and avian biology. However, little is known about changes in brain shape that may have occurred during fowl domestication. We analyzed the brains of red jungle fowl and domestic fowl to clarify differences in the brain shape between these breeds, as well as the shape changes associated with size enlargement using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542570/evolutionary-morphology-in-shape-and-size-of-haptoral-anchors-in-14-ligophorus-spp-monogenea-dactylogyridae
#10
Abril Rodríguez-González, Volodimir Sarabeev, Juan Antonio Balbuena
The search for phylogenetic signal in morphological traits using geometric morphometrics represents a powerful approach to estimate the relative weights of convergence and shared evolutionary history in shaping organismal form. We assessed phylogenetic signal in the form of ventral and dorsal haptoral anchors of 14 species of Ligophorus occurring on grey mullets (Osteichthyes: Mugilidae) from the Mediterranean, the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. The phylogenetic relationships among these species were mapped onto the morphospaces of shape and size of dorsal and ventral anchors and two different tests were applied to establish whether the spatial positions in the morphospace were dictated by chance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542454/controlled-delivery-of-tauroursodeoxycholic-acid-from-biodegradable-microspheres-slows-retinal-degeneration-and-vision-loss-in-p23h-rats
#11
Laura Fernández-Sánchez, Irene Bravo-Osuna, Pedro Lax, Alicia Arranz-Romera, Victoria Maneu, Sergio Esteban-Pérez, Isabel Pinilla, María Del Mar Puebla-González, Rocío Herrero-Vanrell, Nicolás Cuenca
Successful drug therapies for treating ocular diseases require effective concentrations of neuroprotective compounds maintained over time at the site of action. The purpose of this work was to assess the efficacy of intravitreal controlled delivery of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) encapsulated in poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres for the treatment of the retina in a rat model of retinitis pigmentosa. PLGA microspheres (MSs) containing TUDCA were produced by the O/W emulsion-solvent evaporation technique...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541599/improvement-of-left-ventricular-diastolic-function-and-left-heart-morphology-in-young-women-with-morbid-obesity-six-months-after-bariatric-surgery
#12
Katarzyna Kurnicka, Justyna Domienik-Karłowicz, Barbara Lichodziejewska, Maksymilian Bielecki, Marta Kozłowska, Sylwia Goliszek, Olga Dzikowska-Diduch, Wojciech Lisik, Maciej Kosieradzki, Piotr Pruszczyk
BACKGROUND: Obesity contributes to left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) and may lead to diastolic heart failure. Weight loss (WL) after bariatric surgery (BS) may influence LV morphology and function. Using echocardiography, this study assessed the effect of WL on LV diastolic function (LVDF) and LV and left atrium (LA) morphology 6 months after BS in young women with morbid obesity. METHODS: Echocardiography was performed in 60 women with BMI ≥ 40kg/m², aged 37...
May 25, 2017: Cardiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541378/what-does-a-single-semen-sample-tell-you-implications-for-male-factor-infertility-research
#13
Yu-Han Chiu, Regina Edifor, Bernard A Rosner, Feiby L Nassan, Audrey J Gaskins, Lidia Minguez-Alarcon, Paige L Williams, Cigdem Tanrikut, Russ Hauser, Jorge E Chavarro
Semen parameters are variable within-man but it is unclear whether one sample could represent a man's long-term average in epidemiologic studies. Between 2005 and 2014, 329 men from a fertility clinic provided 768 semen samples in the EARTH study in Boston, Massachusetts.Total sperm count, concentration, morphology, motility, and ejaculate volume were assessed. We used linear mixed models to compare men's first samples to their long-term averages, and calculate intraclass correlation coefficients for each parameter...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540628/effect-of-collapse-on-the-deformity-of-the-femoral-head-neck-junction-in-osteonecrosis-of-the-femoral-head
#14
Yusuke Kubo, Goro Motomura, Satoshi Ikemura, Kazuhiko Sonoda, Takuaki Yamamoto, Yasuharu Nakashima
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to morphologically assess the effect of collapse on the deformity of the femoral head-neck junction in patients with nontraumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2005 through March 2016, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging including the oblique view was repeatedly performed before and after collapse in 24 hips of patients with ONFH (16 men, 8 women; mean age 43 years; range 23-68 years), that were the subjects of this study...
May 24, 2017: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540540/molecular-mechanisms-of-bombyx-batryticatus-ethanol-extract-inducing-gastric-cancer-sgc-7901-cells-apoptosis
#15
Jin-Yi Wu, Almutamad Sheikho, He Ma, Tian-Ci Li, Ya-Qi Zhao, Ya-Lin Zhang, Dun Wang
Bombyx batryticatus is a traditional Chinese medicine. To understand apoptotic effect of B. batryticatus ethanol extract (BBE), we investigated the role of BBE in inducing apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells SGC-7901. Cells treated with BBE and apoptosis was assessed by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, morphological changes, DNA fragmentation and flow cytometry assays. The expression of Bcl-2, Bax and P21 were evaluated by western blot analysis and real time polymerase chain reaction. MTT assay showed that the cytotoxicity of BBE extract on SGC-7901 cells was correlated with treatment time and concentration...
May 24, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540501/morphometric-characterization-of-rat-and-human-alveolar-macrophage-cell-models-and-their-response-to-amiodarone-using-high-content-image-analysis
#16
Ewelina Hoffman, Aateka Patel, Doug Ball, Jan Klapwijk, Val Millar, Abhinav Kumar, Abigail Martin, Rhamiya Mahendran, Lea Ann Dailey, Ben Forbes, Victoria Hutter
PURPOSE: Progress to the clinic may be delayed or prevented when vacuolated or "foamy" alveolar macrophages are observed during non-clinical inhalation toxicology assessment. The first step in developing methods to study this response in vitro is to characterize macrophage cell lines and their response to drug exposures. METHODS: Human (U937) and rat (NR8383) cell lines and primary rat alveolar macrophages obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage were characterized using high content fluorescence imaging analysis quantification of cell viability, morphometry, and phospholipid and neutral lipid accumulation...
May 24, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540422/loss-and-remodeling-of-striatal-dendritic-spines-in-parkinson-s-disease-from-homeostasis-to-maladaptive-plasticity
#17
REVIEW
Rosa M Villalba, Yoland Smith
In Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and animal models of PD, the progressive degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) projection leads to two major changes in the morphology of striatal projection neurons (SPNs), i.e., a profound loss of dendritic spines and the remodeling of axospinous glutamatergic synapses. Striatal spine loss is an early event tightly associated with the extent of striatal DA denervation, but not the severity of parkinsonian motor symptoms, suggesting that striatal spine pruning might be a form of homeostatic plasticity that compensates for the loss of striatal DA innervation and the resulting dysregulation of corticostriatal glutamatergic transmission...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540316/ultrasonographic-characteristics-of-the-common-extensor-tendon-of-the-elbow-in-asymptomatic-individuals-thickness-color-doppler-activity-and-bony-spurs
#18
Thøger P Krogh, Ulrich Fredberg, Christian Ammitzbøl, Torkell Ellingsen
BACKGROUND: Ultrasonography (US) of the common extensor tendon (CET) of the elbow is often part of the assessment of patients with lateral epicondylitis. This US assessment is currently based on general tendinopathy references and not well-defined US entities. PURPOSE: To describe CET thickness, color Doppler activity, and bony spurs on US in asymptomatic volunteers and to investigate the influence of sex, age, height, body mass index (BMI), weight, and elbow dominance on the measurements...
May 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540065/dynamic-and-quantitative-evaluation-of-degenerative-mitral-valve-disease-a-dedicated-framework-based-on-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#19
Francesco Sturla, Francesco Onorati, Giovanni Puppini, Omar A Pappalardo, Matteo Selmi, Emiliano Votta, Giuseppe Faggian, Alberto Redaelli
BACKGROUND: Accurate quantification of mitral valve (MV) morphology and dynamic behavior over the cardiac cycle is crucial to understand the mechanisms of degenerative MV dysfunction and to guide the surgical intervention. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging has progressively been adopted to evaluate MV pathophysiology, although a dedicated framework is required to perform a quantitative assessment of the functional MV anatomy. METHODS: We investigated MV dynamic behavior in subjects with normal MV anatomy (n=10) and patients referred to surgery due to degenerative MV prolapse, classified as fibro-elastic deficiency (FED, n=9) and Barlow's disease (BD, n=10)...
April 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540060/microparticle-formation-in-peritoneal-dialysis-a-proof-of-concept-study
#20
Shareef Akbari, Rima Abou-Arkoub, Suzy Sun, Swapnil Hiremath, Arkadiy Reunov, Brendan B McCormick, Marcel Ruzicka, Dylan Burger
BACKGROUND: Injury to the mesothelial layer of the peritoneal membrane during peritoneal dialysis (PD) is implicated in loss of ultrafiltration capacity, but there are no validated biomarkers for mesothelial cell injury. Microparticles (MPs) are 0.1 to 1.0 µm membrane vesicles shed from the cell surface following injury and are sensitive markers of tissue damage. Formation of MPs in the peritoneal cavity during PD has not been reported to date. METHODS: We designed a single-center, proof of concept study to assess whether peritoneal solution exposure induces formation of mesothelial MPs suggestive of PD membrane injury...
2017: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
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