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ZIKA VIRUS AND PREGNANCY

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332092/the-spectrum-of-neuropathological-changes-associated-with-congenital-zika-virus-infection
#1
Leila Chimelli, Adriana S O Melo, Elyzabeth Avvad-Portari, Clayton A Wiley, Aline H S Camacho, Vania S Lopes, Heloisa N Machado, Cecilia V Andrade, Dione C A Dock, Maria Elisabeth Moreira, Fernanda Tovar-Moll, Patricia S Oliveira-Szejnfeld, Angela C G Carvalho, Odile N Ugarte, Alba G M Batista, Melania M R Amorim, Fabiana O Melo, Thales A Ferreira, Jacqueline R L Marinho, Girlene S Azevedo, Jeime I B F Leal, Rodrigo F Madeiro da Costa, Stevens Rehen, Monica B Arruda, Rodrigo M Brindeiro, Rodrigo Delvechio, Renato S Aguiar, Amilcar Tanuri
A major concern associated with ZIKV infection is the increased incidence of microcephaly with frequent calcifications in infants born from infected mothers. To date, postmortem analysis of the central nervous system (CNS) in congenital infection is limited to individual reports or small series. We report a comprehensive neuropathological study in ten newborn babies infected with ZIKV during pregnancy, including the spinal cords and dorsal root ganglia (DRG), and also muscle, pituitaries, eye, systemic organs, and placentas...
March 22, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330900/adaptive-immune-responses-to-zika-virus-are-important-for-controlling-virus-infection-and-preventing-infection-in-brain-and-testes
#2
Clayton W Winkler, Lara M Myers, Tyson A Woods, Ronald J Messer, Aaron B Carmody, Kristin L McNally, Dana P Scott, Kim J Hasenkrug, Sonja M Best, Karin E Peterson
The recent association between Zika virus (ZIKV) and neurologic complications, including Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and CNS abnormalities in fetuses, highlights the importance in understanding the immunological mechanisms controlling this emerging infection. Studies have indicated that ZIKV evades the human type I IFN response, suggesting a role for the adaptive immune response in resolving infection. However, the inability of ZIKV to antagonize the mouse IFN response renders the virus highly susceptible to circulating IFN in murine models...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330514/zika-virus-related-photo-sharing-on-pinterest-and-instagram
#3
Isaac Chun-Hai Fung, Elizabeth B Blankenship, M Elizabeth Goff, Lindsay A Mullican, Kwun Cheung Chan, Nitin Saroha, Carmen H Duke, Marina E Eremeeva, King-Wa Fu, Zion Tsz Ho Tse
OBJECTIVE: Pinterest (San Francisco, CA) and Instagram (Menlo Park, CA) are 2 popular photo-sharing social media platforms among young individuals. We assessed differences between Instagram and Pinterest in relaying photographic information regarding Zika virus. Specifically, we investigated whether the percentage of Zika-virus-related photos with Spanish or Portuguese texts embedded therein was higher for Instagram than for Pinterest and whether the contents of Zika-virus-related photos shared on Pinterest were different from those shared on Instagram...
March 23, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329257/lessons-learned-at-the-epicenter-of-brazil-s-congenital-zika-epidemic-evidence-from-87-confirmed-cases
#4
Jucille do Amaral Meneses, Ana Catarina Ishigami, Luisa Medeiros de Mello, Luciano Lira de Albuquerque, Carlos Alexandre Antunes de Brito, Marli Tenório Cordeiro, Lindomar José Pena
Congenital Zika virus infection has stimulated great international concern. A prospective case series of 87 infants with laboratory-confirmed congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) at the epicenter of the Brazilian Zika epidemic in Pernambuco state is presented. Mothers were interviewed for symptoms of possible Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy and fetal ultrasounds were obtained. Infant cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were tested for ZIKV specific antibodies and sera were screened for other congenital infections...
February 24, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320497/laboratory-evaluation-of-infants-with-possible-congenital-zika-virus-infection
#5
Susan Givens Bell
Our understanding of the effects of maternal Zika virus infection on the newborn continues to evolve. First discovered in 1947 in the Zika Forest in Uganda, the world became more aware of the virus in 2015, with reports of hundreds of cases of microcephaly in Brazilian newborns whose mothers reported symptoms related to Zika viral infection during pregnancy. This article reviews the current guidelines for laboratory evaluation of newborns with possible congenital Zika virus infection.
March 1, 2017: Neonatal Network: NN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319995/clinical-trials-of-therapeutics-for-the-prevention-of-congenital-zika-virus-disease-challenges-and-potential-solutions
#6
Alex P Salam, Amanda Rojek, Jake Dunning, Peter W Horby
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in pregnancy is associated with adverse fetal outcomes, such as microcephaly and other congenital malformations. No therapeutic options are available to pregnant women with ZIKV infection to prevent these effects. Drug trials in pregnancy raise several scientific, ethical, and logistical challenges, which are compounded further in ZIKV because of limited knowledge of the disease pathophysiology and a product development pipeline in its infancy. We evaluate the major challenges in choosing therapeutics to prevent congenital ZIKV disease and conducting clinical trials of these treatments, with a focus on preventing congenital central nervous system malformations...
March 21, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315476/comparative-analysis-of-protein-evolution-in-the-genome-of-pre-epidemic-and-epidemic-zika-virus
#7
Arunachalam Ramaiah, Lei Dai, Deisy Contreras, Sanjeev Sinha, Ren Sun, Vaithilingaraja Arumugaswami
Zika virus (ZIKV) causes microcephaly in congenital infection, neurological disorders, and poor pregnancy outcome and no vaccine is available for use in humans or approved. Although ZIKV was first discovered in 1947, the exact mechanism of virus replication and pathogenesis remains unknown. Recent outbreaks of Zika virus in the Americas clearly suggest a human-mosquito cycle or urban cycle of transmission. Understanding the conserved and adaptive features in the evolution of ZIKV genome will provide a hint on the mechanism of ZIKV adaptation to a new cycle of transmission...
March 14, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296632/severe-neurologic-disorders-in-2-fetuses-with-zika-virus-infection-colombia
#8
Jorge Acosta-Reyes, Edgar Navarro, Maria José Herrera, Eloina Goenaga, Martha L Ospina, Edgar Parra, Marcela Mercado, Pablo Chaparro, Mauricio Beltran, Maria Luz Gunturiz, Lissethe Pardo, Catalina Valencia, Sandra Huertas, Jorge Rodríguez, Germán Ruiz, Diana Valencia, Lisa B Haddad, Sarah C Tinker, Cynthia A Moore, Hernando Baquero
We report the results of pathologic examinations of 2 fetuses from women in Colombia with Zika virus infection during pregnancy that revealed severe central nervous system defects and potential associated abnormalities of the eye, spleen, and placenta. Amniotic fluid and tissues from multiple fetal organs tested positive for Zika virus.
June 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293228/prevention-and-control-strategies-to-counter-zika-epidemic
#9
REVIEW
Irfan A Rather, Sanjay Kumar, Vivek K Bajpai, Jeongheui Lim, Yong-Ha Park
ZIKA virus (ZIKA) has now become a global phenomenon. Since 2007, evidence of ZIKA transmission has been reported over 72 countries and territories. The transmission of ZIKA has made World Health Organization to categorize the situation under the ambit of a health emergency. This situation is serious because there appears to be a highly tangible link between infection during pregnancy and the occurrence of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. In the context of this emergency situation, this review article intends to discuss the prevention and control strategies such as avoiding travel to infected area, being careful from mosquito bites, take precautions to reduce the risk of sexual transmission, and seek medical care for any acute illness with rash or fever...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289727/seroprevalence-of-zika-virus-in-wild-african-green-monkeys-and-baboons
#10
Connor R Buechler, Adam L Bailey, Andrea M Weiler, Gabrielle L Barry, Meghan E Breitbach, Laurel M Stewart, Anna J Jasinska, Nelson B Freimer, Cristian Apetrei, Jane E Phillips-Conroy, Clifford J Jolly, Jeffrey Rogers, Thomas C Friedrich, David H O'Connor
Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently spread through the Americas and has been associated with a range of health effects, including birth defects in children born to women infected during pregnancy. Although the natural reservoir of ZIKV remains poorly defined, the virus was first identified in a captive "sentinel" macaque monkey in Africa in 1947. However, the virus has not been reported in humans or nonhuman primates (NHPs) in Africa outside Gabon in over a decade. Here, we examine ZIKV infection in 239 wild baboons and African green monkeys from South Africa, the Gambia, Tanzania, and Zambia using combinations of unbiased deep sequencing, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR), and an antibody capture assay that we optimized using serum collected from captive macaque monkeys exposed to ZIKV, dengue virus, and yellow fever virus...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283425/a-rapid-zika-diagnostic-assay-to-measure-neutralizing-antibodies-in-patients
#11
Chao Shan, Xuping Xie, Ping Ren, Michael J Loeffelholz, Yujiao Yang, Andrea Furuya, Alan P Dupuis, Laura D Kramer, Susan J Wong, Pei-Yong Shi
The potential association of microcephaly and other congenital abnormalities with Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy underlines the critical need for a rapid and accurate diagnosis. Due to the short duration of ZIKV viremia in infected patients, a serologic assay that detects antibody responses to viral infection plays an essential role in diagnosing patient specimens. The current serologic diagnosis of ZIKV infection relies heavily on the labor-intensive Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT) that requires more than one-week turnaround time and represents a major bottleneck for patient diagnosis...
March 4, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281680/human-endometrial-stromal-cells-are-highly-permissive-to-productive-infection-by-zika-virus
#12
Isabel Pagani, Silvia Ghezzi, Adele Ulisse, Alicia Rubio, Filippo Turrini, Elisabetta Garavaglia, Massimo Candiani, Concetta Castilletti, Giuseppe Ippolito, Guido Poli, Vania Broccoli, Paola Panina-Bordignon, Elisa Vicenzi
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a recently re-emerged flavivirus transmitted to humans by mosquito bites but also from mother to fetus and by sexual intercourse. We here show that primary human endometrial stromal cells (HESC) are highly permissive to ZIKV infection and support its in vitro replication. ZIKV envelope expression was detected in the endoplasmic reticulum whereas double-stranded viral RNA colocalized with vimentin filaments to the perinuclear region. ZIKV productive infection also occurred in the human T-HESC cell line together with the induction of interferon-β (IFN-β) and of IFN-stimulated genes...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280063/surveillance-report-of-zika-virus-among-canadian-travellers-returning-from-the-americas
#13
Andrea K Boggild, Jennifer Geduld, Michael Libman, Cedric P Yansouni, Anne E McCarthy, Jan Hajek, Wayne Ghesquiere, Yazdan Mirzanejad, Jean Vincelette, Susan Kuhn, Pierre J Plourde, Sumontra Chakrabarti, David O Freedman, Kevin C Kain
BACKGROUND: Widespread transmission of Zika virus in the Americas has occurred since late 2015. We examined demographic and travel-related characteristics of returned Canadian travellers with Zika infection acquired in the Americas to illuminate risk factors for acquisition and the clinical spectrum. METHODS: We analyzed demographic and travel-related data for returned Canadian travellers who presented to a CanTravNet site between October 2015 and September 2016 for care of Zika virus acquired in the Americas...
March 6, 2017: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277362/access-to-contraception-in-the-context-of-zika-health-system-challenges-and-responses
#14
Blair G Darney, Abigail R A Aiken, Stephanie Küng
Women in areas of the Americas with endemic Aedes mosquito populations are at risk for exposure to Zika virus, which can cause fetal brain abnormalities and associated congenital microcephaly. Individual health care providers may encounter health system barriers to providing evidence-based care. We focus on Mexico and the state of Texas to highlight the role of health system factors in contraceptive access in the context of Zika and highlight efforts in Puerto Rico as an example of initiatives to improve access to contraception...
April 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256913/family-planning-and-zika-virus-need-for-renewed-and-cohesive-efforts-to-ensure-availability-of-intrauterine-contraception-in-latin-america-and-the-caribbean
#15
Moazzam Ali, Kelsey Miller, Rodolfo Federico Gómez Ponce de Leon
OBJECTIVES: The advantages of intrauterine contraception (IUC) are well established (highly effective, low discontinuation rate, easy to use, low cost, and suitable for immediate postpartum use), but low levels of use in many countries and declining use in others are causes for concern. Due to the ongoing Zika virus outbreak, public health officials are calling for the continued practice of safe sex and the delay of pregnancy. Our study was conducted to assess the current situation of IUC availability and provision in Latin America and to determine the role of national policies in meeting the contraceptive needs of the populations in these countries...
April 2017: European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253231/baseline-prevalence-of-birth-defects-associated-with-congenital-zika-virus-infection-massachusetts-north-carolina-and-atlanta-georgia-2013-2014
#16
Janet D Cragan, Cara T Mai, Emily E Petersen, Rebecca F Liberman, Nina E Forestieri, Alissa C Stevens, Augustina Delaney, April L Dawson, Sascha R Ellington, Carrie K Shapiro-Mendoza, Julie E Dunn, Cathleen A Higgins, Robert E Meyer, Tonya Williams, Kara N D Polen, Kim Newsome, Megan Reynolds, Jennifer Isenburg, Suzanne M Gilboa, Dana M Meaney-Delman, Cynthia A Moore, Coleen A Boyle, Margaret A Honein
Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause serious brain abnormalities, but the full range of adverse outcomes is unknown (1). To better understand the impact of birth defects resulting from Zika virus infection, the CDC surveillance case definition established in 2016 for birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection* (2) was retrospectively applied to population-based birth defects surveillance data collected during 2013-2014 in three areas before the introduction of Zika virus (the pre-Zika years) into the World Health Organization's Region of the Americas (Americas) (3)...
March 3, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250532/risk-of-microcephaly-after-zika-virus-infection-in-brazil-2015-to-2016
#17
Thomas Jaenisch, Kerstin Daniela Rosenberger, Carlos Brito, Oliver Brady, Patrícia Brasil, Ernesto Ta Marques
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the risk of microcephaly in babies born to women infected by the Zika virus during pregnancy in Brazil in an epidemic between 2015 and 2016. METHODS: We obtained data on the number of notified and confirmed microcephaly cases in each Brazilian state between November 2015 and October 2016 from the health ministry. For Pernambuco State, one of the hardest hit, weekly data were available from August 2015 to October 2016 for different definitions of microcephaly...
March 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243937/zika-virus-an-emerging-flavivirus
#18
REVIEW
Sang-Im Yun, Young-Min Lee
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a previously little-known flavivirus closely related to Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, dengue, and yellow fever viruses, all of which are primarily transmitted by blood-sucking mosquitoes. Since its discovery in Uganda in 1947, ZIKV has continued to expand its geographic range, from equatorial Africa and Asia to the Pacific Islands, then further afield to South and Central America and the Caribbean. Currently, ZIKV is actively circulating not only in much of Latin America and its neighbors but also in parts of the Pacific Islands and Southeast Asia...
March 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241773/zika-virus-infection-in-pregnancy-a-systematic-review-of-disease-course-and-complications
#19
REVIEW
Ezinne C Chibueze, Veronika Tirado, Katharina da Silva Lopes, Olukunmi O Balogun, Yo Takemoto, Toshiyuki Swa, Amarjargal Dagvadorj, Chie Nagata, Naho Morisaki, Clara Menendez, Erika Ota, Rintaro Mori, Olufemi T Oladapo
OBJECTIVES: To characterize maternal Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and complement the evidence base for the WHO interim guidance on pregnancy management in the context of ZIKV infection. METHODS: We searched the relevant database from inception until March 2016. Two review authors independently screened and assessed full texts of eligible reports and extracted data from relevant studies. The quality of studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) and the National Institute of Health (NIH) tool for observational studies and case series/reports, respectively...
February 28, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231312/analysis-of-the-t-cell-response-to-zika-virus-and-identification-of-a-novel-cd8-t-cell-epitope-in-immunocompetent-mice
#20
Ryan D Pardy, Maaran M Rajah, Stephanie A Condotta, Nathan G Taylor, Selena M Sagan, Martin J Richer
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family. Although ZIKV infection is typically mild and self-limiting in healthy adults, infection has been associated with neurological symptoms such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, and a causal link has been established between fetal microcephaly and ZIKV infection during pregnancy. These risks, and the magnitude of the ongoing ZIKV pandemic, have created an urgent need for the development of animal models to study the immune response to ZIKV infection...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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