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ZIKA VIRUS AND PREGNANCY

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811170/zika-virus-research-models
#1
REVIEW
Jessica L Kublin, James B Whitney
The 2015 Brazilian Zika virus outbreak sparked a rapid response to control the spread of the virus. What was first understood to be a mild self-resolving infection is now linked to significant neurological defects in both neonates, and adults. The WHO declared the 2016 Zika epidemic a public health emergency and issued an unprecedented recommendation to women in affected regions to delay pregnancy until the risks surrounding Zika virus could be understood, or the epidemic contained. Since that time, considerable effort has been dedicated to understanding Zika transmission and pathogenesis to aid the development of drugs and vaccines...
August 12, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804687/zika-virus-zikv-a-review-of-proposed-mechanisms-of-transmission-and-associated-congenital-abnormalities
#2
Sruti K Desai, Steven D Hartman, Shilpa Jayarajan, Stephanie Liu, G Ian Gallicano
Zika virus (ZIKV) has been of major international public health concern following large outbreaks in the Americas occurring in 2015-2016. Most notably, ZIKV has been seen to pose dangers in pregnancy due to its association with congenital abnormalities such as microcephaly. Numerous experimental approaches have been taken to address how the virus can cross the placenta, alter normal fetal development, and disrupt specific cellular functions. Many areas concerning the mechanisms of transmission, especially from mother to fetus, are largely unknown but demand further research...
2017: American Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798738/zika-virus-an-emerging-worldwide-threat
#3
Irfan A Rather, Jameel B Lone, Vivek K Bajpai, Woon K Paek, Jeongheui Lim
ZIKA virus (ZIKV) poses a severe threat to the world. Recent outbreaks of ZIKV after 2007 along with its quick transmission have made this virus a matter of international concern. The virus shows symptoms that are similar to those caused in the wake of dengue virus (DENV) and other flaviviruses, which makes it difficult to discern the viral infection. Diagnosis is further complicated as the virus cross-reacts with antibodies of other viruses. Currently, molecular diagnosis of the virus is being performed by RT-PCR and IgM-captured enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796762/notes-from-the-field-zika-virus-associated-neonatal-birth-defects-surveillance-texas-january-2016-july-2017
#4
Noemi Borsay Hall, Kelly Broussard, Nicole Evert, Mark Canfield
On November 28, 2016, the Texas Department of State Health Services (Texas DSHS) reported its first confirmed case of local mosquitoborne Zika virus transmission in the city of Brownsville, located in south Texas along the U.S.-Mexico border. Zika virus infection during pregnancy has been linked to adverse congenital outcomes including microcephaly, neural tube defects, early brain malformations, structural eye abnormalities, congenital deafness, and limb contractures (1). On January 1, 2016, Texas DSHS established enhanced surveillance to identify women with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy and suspected cases of Zika virus-associated birth defects among completed pregnancies...
August 11, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795959/zika-virus-and-the-eye
#5
Bruno de Paula Freitas, Camila V Ventura, Mauricio Maia, Rubens Belfort
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to review the ocular findings related to the Zika virus (ZIKV) based on the main studies published to date, describe the patterns of the lesions and risk factors, and identify the public health implications and scientific importance of this emerging disease. RECENT FINDINGS: In most studies, the ZIKV seems related to congenital ocular lesions and most mothers reported mild symptoms during the first pregnancy trimester...
August 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783051/microcephaly-prevalence-in-infants-born-to-zika-virus-infected-women-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Antonio Victor Campos Coelho, Sergio Crovella
Zika virus is an emergent flavivirus transmitted by Aedes genus mosquitoes that recently reached the Americas and was soon implicated in an increase of microcephaly incidence. The objective of the present study is to systematically review the published data and perform a meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of microcephaly in babies born to Zika virus-infected women during pregnancy. We searched PubMed and Cochrane databases, included cohort studies, and excluded case reports and case series publications...
August 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775298/sexual-and-vertical-transmission-of-zika-virus-in-anti-interferon-receptor-treated-rag1-deficient-mice
#7
Clayton W Winkler, Tyson A Woods, Rebecca Rosenke, Dana P Scott, Sonja M Best, Karin E Peterson
Although Zika virus (ZIKV) is primarily transmitted to humans by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, human-to-human transmission has also been observed from males-to-females as well as mother-to-offspring. In the current study, we studied both sexual transmission (STx) and vertical transmission (VTx) of ZIKV using anti-IFNAR1-treatment of Rag1 (-/-) (AIR) mice. These mice have suppressed type I IFN responses and lack adaptive immune responses, leading to a prolonged infection prior to clinical disease. STx of ZIKV from infected AIR males to naive Ifnar1 (-/-) females was observed with greater than 50% incidence, with infection observed in the vaginal tract at early time points...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758019/current-trends-in-zika-vaccine-development
#8
EDITORIAL
Francisco A Lagunas-Rangel, Martha E Viveros-Sandoval, Arturo Reyes-Sandoval
The Zika virus (ZIKV) was first isolated in 1947 in Uganda. While it took 60 years for this virus to cause major outbreaks, an important shift in its ability to cause epidemics took place in the first and second decades of the this century: in 2007 in Yap Island, Micronesia, followed by French Polynesia in 2013 and, finally in 2015 and 2016, when ZIKV infections occurred throughout South America, Central America and the Caribbean, spreading rapidly to reach North America in just a single year. No licensed prophylactic vaccine is yet available but recent efforts towards the development of a vaccine have been remarkable from both the private and public sectors and include new candidate vaccines ranging from the classical live-attenuated or inactivated vaccines to more sophisticated approaches such as mRNA or genetically engineered viral platforms...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750247/macaque-monkeys-in-zika-virus-research-1947-present
#9
REVIEW
Christina Newman, Thomas C Friedrich, David H O'Connor
Zika virus was first isolated in 1947 from an exotic rhesus macaque. Nearly 70 years later, the emergence of Zika virus in the Americas and its newly described association with birth defects has motivated the development of captive macaque monkey models of human Zika virus infection. This review describes similarities between macaque and human Zika virus pathogenesis and discusses specific advantages and disadvantages of using macaques instead of other laboratory animal models. In particular, macaques provide an outstanding model for understanding in utero Zika virus infections that are essential for evaluating preclinical interventions for use in pregnancy...
July 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749921/update-interim-guidance-for-health-care-providers-caring-for-pregnant-women-with-possible-zika-virus-exposure-united-states-including-u-s-territories-july-2017
#10
Titilope Oduyebo, Kara D Polen, Henry T Walke, Sarah Reagan-Steiner, Eva Lathrop, Ingrid B Rabe, Wendi L Kuhnert-Tallman, Stacey W Martin, Allison T Walker, Christopher J Gregory, Edwin W Ades, Darin S Carroll, Maria Rivera, Janice Perez-Padilla, Carolyn Gould, Jeffrey B Nemhauser, C Ben Beard, Jennifer L Harcourt, Laura Viens, Michael Johansson, Sascha R Ellington, Emily Petersen, Laura A Smith, Jessica Reichard, Jorge Munoz-Jordan, Michael J Beach, Dale A Rose, Ezra Barzilay, Michelle Noonan-Smith, Denise J Jamieson, Sherif R Zaki, Lyle R Petersen, Margaret A Honein, Dana Meaney-Delman
CDC has updated the interim guidance for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure in response to 1) declining prevalence of Zika virus disease in the World Health Organization's Region of the Americas (Americas) and 2) emerging evidence indicating prolonged detection of Zika virus immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. Zika virus cases were first reported in the Americas during 2015-2016; however, the incidence of Zika virus disease has since declined. As the prevalence of Zika virus disease declines, the likelihood of false-positive test results increases...
July 28, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745255/-zika-virus-and-sexual-transmission-when-and-for-how-long-does-one-need-to-use-a-condom
#11
J W Duijster, D A H Brandwagt, A Timen, A A van der Eijk, H Vennema, M J M Te Wierik
- More evidence has become available concerning the sexual transmission of Zika virus and viral shedding in semen, which has led to the expansion of international guidelines for prevention of sexual transmission; Dutch guidelines have not been altered.- Internationally, the use of condoms during sex or sexual abstinence is advised for the duration of the pregnancy. Furthermore, when actively trying to conceive one should use a condom for six months.- In the Dutch guidelines, men who have visited a Zika virus epidemic area are advised to use a condom for 2 months upon return, irrespective of their partner possibly being pregnant or their wish to conceive...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719330/case-report-microcephaly-in-twins-due-to-the-zika-virus
#12
Victor S Santos, Sheila J G Oliveira, Ricardo Q Gurgel, Dorothy R R Lima, Cliomar A Dos Santos, Paulo R S Martins-Filho
Recent studies have demonstrated an association between congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and microcephaly; however, to date, there have been no reports on the consequences of ZIKV infection on fetuses in twin pregnancies. Herein, we reported on the first case of a monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) twin pregnancy having ZIKV-related microcephaly. Our findings suggested that, in an MCDA twin pregnancy, the ZIKV may cause infection in both fetuses, resulting in severe abnormalities in the central nervous system due to neural cell destruction and the disruption of the normal development processes of the brain...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719291/knowledge-and-prevention-practices-among-u-s-pregnant-immigrants-from-zika-virus-outbreak-areas
#13
Abbey B Berenson, Ha N Trinh, Jacqueline M Hirth, Fangjian Guo, Erika L Fuchs, Scott C Weaver
We administered an anonymous survey to assess knowledge, attitudes, and prevention practices related to the Zika virus among pregnant women residing in Texas. Multivariate logistic regression models controlling for age, race/ethnicity, education, and number of years in the United States assessed differences between women born in outbreak areas (N = 390) versus those born in the United States (N = 249). Results demonstrated that most women wanted more information on the Zika virus and desired to obtain it from their physician...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715527/screening-criteria-for-ophthalmic-manifestations-of-congenital-zika-virus-infection
#14
Andrea A Zin, Irena Tsui, Julia Rossetto, Zilton Vasconcelos, Kristina Adachi, Stephanie Valderramos, Umme-Aiman Halai, Marcos Vinicius da Silva Pone, Sheila Moura Pone, Joel Carlos Barros Silveira Filho, Mitsue S Aibe, Ana Carolina C da Costa, Olivia A Zin, Rubens Belfort, Patricia Brasil, Karin Nielsen-Saines, Maria Elisabeth Lopes Moreira
Importance: Current guidelines recommend screening eye examinations for infants with microcephaly or laboratory-confirmed Zika virus infection but not for all infants potentially exposed to Zika virus in utero. Objective: To evaluate eye findings in a cohort of infants whose mothers had polymerase chain reaction-confirmed Zika virus infection during pregnancy. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this descriptive case series performed from January 2 through October 30, 2016, infants were examined from birth to 1 year of age by a multidisciplinary medical team, including a pediatric ophthalmologist, from Fernandes Figueira Institute, a Ministry of Health referral center for high-risk pregnancies and infectious diseases in children in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil...
July 17, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708997/vaccine-mediated-protection-against-zika-virus-induced-congenital-disease
#15
Justin M Richner, Brett W Jagger, Chao Shan, Camila R Fontes, Kimberly A Dowd, Bin Cao, Sunny Himansu, Elizabeth A Caine, Bruno T D Nunes, Daniele B A Medeiros, Antonio E Muruato, Bryant M Foreman, Huanle Luo, Tian Wang, Alan D Barrett, Scott C Weaver, Pedro F C Vasconcelos, Shannan L Rossi, Giuseppe Ciaramella, Indira U Mysorekar, Theodore C Pierson, Pei-Yong Shi, Michael S Diamond
The emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) and its association with congenital malformations has prompted the rapid development of vaccines. Although efficacy with multiple viral vaccine platforms has been established in animals, no study has addressed protection during pregnancy. We tested in mice two vaccine platforms, a lipid nanoparticle-encapsulated modified mRNA vaccine encoding ZIKV prM and E genes and a live-attenuated ZIKV strain encoding an NS1 protein without glycosylation, for their ability to protect against transmission to the fetus...
July 13, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704657/dual-blades-the-role-of-musashi-1-in-zika-replication-and-microcephaly
#16
Robyn S Klein
Infection with Zika virus (ZIKV) during pregnancy may cause severe developmental defects in the human brain via unknown mechanisms. In a recent issue of Science, Chavali et al. (2017) identified a neural progenitor cell (NPC)-specific RNA binding protein that may underlie the high levels of ZIKV replication and apoptosis observed in these cells during congenital infections.
July 12, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696532/unmet-contraceptive-needs-in-rural-communities-in-the-dominican-republic-during-an-international-zika-virus-outbreak
#17
Rebecca Shaw, Michaela Simmons, Corrine Nelson, Brooke Bachelor, Shant Adamian, Ana Frausto
Zika virus infection during pregnancy is linked with adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes.(1,2) Therefore, women and their partners need education about the complications of Zika virus and reliable contraception in the context of this global health concern. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694387/inhibition-of-autophagy-limits-vertical-transmission-of-zika-virus-in-pregnant-mice
#18
Bin Cao, Lindsay A Parnell, Michael S Diamond, Indira U Mysorekar
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy leads to devastating fetal outcomes, including intrauterine growth restriction and microcephaly. Greater understanding of mechanisms underlying ZIKV maternal-fetal transmission is needed to develop new therapeutic interventions. Here, we define an important role for the autophagy pathway in ZIKV vertical transmission. ZIKV infection induced autophagic activity in human trophoblasts and pharmacological inhibition limited ZIKV infectivity. Furthermore, deficiency in an essential autophagy gene, Atg16l1, in mice limited ZIKV vertical transmission and placental and fetal damage and overall improved placental and fetal outcomes...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692228/-zika-virus-a-review
#19
Isabelle Eperon, Manon Vouga, Manuel Schibler, David Baud, Gilles Eperon
Since early 2015, the Zika virus epidemic has spread rapidly through South America and the Caribbean and the first cases of local transmission have just been reported in Florida. Maternal infection during pregnancy can cause serious birth defects. Pregnant women and their partners should avoid travelling to areas of Zika epidemic.
October 26, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680473/zika-virus-infection-and-pregnancy-issue-for-further-concern
#20
Viroj Wiwanitkit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Obstetric Medicine
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