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Genetic markers

Boris A Levin, Evgeniy Simonov, Michael P Matveyev, Oleg N Artaev, Namig J Mustafayev, Andrey N Pashkov, Haikaz R Roubenyan
Spirlins of the genus Alburnoides are widespread fishes, which taxonomy has been rapidly developing in recent years. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) was used as DNA barcode marker to create a reference dataset of Caucasian Alburnoides and to test its barcoding efficiency. All four previously known Caucasian species of Alburnoides were confirmed as valid species with high genetic distances to sister species as well confirmed as Caucasian endemics. Alburnoides samiii, previously known from Sefidroud basin (Iran), was discovered in Transcaucasia...
October 19, 2016: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
E Garcia-Mayoral, M Olsen, R Hedeholm, S Post, E E Nielsen, D Bekkevold
In this study, 11 microsatellite markers were used to determine the structure of West Greenlandic lumpfish Cyclopterus lumpus populations across six spawning locations spanning >1500 km and compared with neighbouring populations in Canada and Iceland. To evaluate whether data allow for identification of origin of C. lumpus in Greenlandic waters, genetic assignment analysis was performed for 86 C. lumpus sampled on a feeding migration. Significant structuring with isolation by distance was observed in the West Greenland samples and two major subpopulations, north and south, were suggested...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
Malleswarapu Mahesh, Munugala Bharathi, Mooli Raja Gopal Reddy, Manchiryala Sravan Kumar, Uday Kumar Putcha, Ayyalasomayajula Vajreswari, Shanmugam M Jeyakumar
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most prevalent liver diseases associated with an altered lifestyle, besides genetic factors. The control and management of NAFLD mostly depend on lifestyle modifications, due to the lack of a specific therapeutic approach. In this context, we assessed the effect of carrot juice on the development of high fructose-induced hepatic steatosis. For this purpose, male weanling Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups, fed either a control (Con) or high fructose (HFr) diet of AIN93G composition, with or without carrot juice (CJ) for 8 weeks...
September 2016: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
George Taylor-Walker, Savannah A Lynn, Eloise Keeling, Rosie Munday, David A Johnston, Anton Page, Jennifer A Scott, Srini Goverdhan, Andrew J Lotery, J Arjuna Ratnayaka
Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is a common, irreversible blinding condition that leads to the loss of central vision. AMD has a complex aetiology with both genetic as well as environmental risks factors, and share many similarities with Alzheimer's disease. Recent findings have contributed significantly to unravelling its genetic architecture that is yet to be matched by molecular insights. Studies are made more challenging by observations that aged and AMD retinas accumulate the highly pathogenic Alzheimer's-related Amyloid beta (Aβ) group of peptides, for which there appears to be no clear genetic basis...
October 14, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
Nathan D Montgomery, Wilborn B Coward, Steven Johnson, Ji Yuan, Margaret L Gulley, Stephanie P Mathews, Kathleen Kaiser-Rogers, Kathleen W Rao, Warren G Sanger, Jennifer N Sanmann, Yuri Fedoriw
Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) is morphologically characterized by scattered malignant Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells that are far outnumbered by surrounding reactive hematolymphoid cells. Approximately half of all cases of CHL are associated with infection by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), an oncogenic herpesvirus that expresses a number of proteins thought to contribute to transformation. While a small number of published studies have attempted to identify recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities in CHL, no large case series have explored karyotypic differences between EBV-positive and EBV-negative tumors...
September 2016: Cancer Genetics
Logan Horne, Frank R Avilucea, Huifeng Jin, Jared J Barrott, Kyllie Smith-Fry, Yanliang Wang, Bang H Hoang, Kevin B Jones
Previous reports document expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) in osteosarcoma (OS) tissue. Expression of this Wnt receptor correlated with metastatic disease and poor disease-free survival. Forced expression of dominant-negative LRP5 (dnLRP5), which lacks the membrane binding domain of the native protein and therefore functions as a soluble receptor-sponge for Wnt ligands, reduced in vitro cellular invasion and in vivo xenograft tumor growth for osteosarcoma cell lines. Here, we use a genetically engineered mouse model of osteosarcomagenesis with and without expression of dnLRP5 to assess to what degree tumorigenesis is affected and whether Wnt/β-catenin signaling is circumvented or maintained...
October 2016: Translational Oncology
Anna Palau, Mar Mallo, Laura Palomo, Ines Rodríguez-Hernández, Jeannine Diesch, Diana Campos, Isabel Granada, Jordi Juncà, Hans G Drexler, Francesc Solé, Marcus Buschbeck
Leukemia cell lines have been widely used in the hematology field to unravel mechanistic insights and to test new therapeutic strategies. Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) comprise a heterogeneous group of diseases that are characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis and frequent progress to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A few cell lines have been established from MDS patients after progression to AML but their characterization is incomplete. Here we provide a detailed description of the immunophenotypic profile of the MDS-derived cell lines SKK-1, SKM-1, F-36P; and MOLM-13...
October 17, 2016: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
Francesco Russo, Guglielmina Chimienti, Michele Linsalata, Caterina Clemente, Antonella Orlando, Giuseppe Riezzo
BACKGROUND: Ghrelin levels and obestatin/ghrelin ratio have been proposed as activity markers in ulcerative colitis, but no data are available in celiac disease (CD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Our aims were as follows: (a) to assess obestatin and ghrelin concentrations in adult active CD patients, diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-d), and healthy controls (HC) in relation to intestinal permeability; (b) to evaluate the ghrelin-obestatin profile in CD patients after a 1-year gluten-free diet (GFD); and (c) to establish the impact of ghrelin genetics...
October 12, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Yaser Atlasi, Rubina Noori, Ivana Marolin, Patrick Franken, Joana Brandao, Katharina Biermann, Paola Collini, Mariam Grigorian, Eugene Lukanidin, Noona Ambartsumian, Riccardo Fodde
INTRODUCTION: S100a4 is a calcium-binding protein belonging to the family of S100-proteins, highly expressed in different stromal cell types. S100A4 has been reported as a prognostic marker in colorectal cancer in association with tumour progression and metastasis. METHODS: In this study, we analysed the in vivo role of S100a4 in intestinal tumour initiation and progression using different transgenic and knockout mouse models. RESULTS: We found that genetic ablation or overexpression of S100a4 in both Apc- and Smad4-mutant mice do not affect tumour initiation in the intestinal tract...
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Cancer
Sijia Yan, Sheng-An Chen, Wen Zhang, Fanping Yang, Ying Yang, Qinyuan Zhu, Huizhong Zhu, Xinfen Sun, Menglin Jiang, Yu Su, Lirong Zhang, Qinghe Xing, Xiaoqun Luo
OBJECTIVE: Tetanus antitoxin (TAT) is an effective antitetanus medicine, but may sometimes cause adverse drug reactions such as rapid-onset anaphylactic shock and late-onset cutaneous adverse drug reactions, including exanthematous drug eruptions (EDE). Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I alleles are strongly associated with different types of cutaneous adverse drug reactions. This study aimed to assess whether there is an association between TAT-induced EDE and HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C alleles in the Chinese Han population...
October 5, 2016: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
Fernanda Wisnieski, Mariana Ferreira Leal, Danielle Queiroz Calcagno, Leonardo Caires Santos, Carolina Oliveira Gigek, Elizabeth Suchi Chen, Ricardo Artigiani, Sâmia Demachki, Paulo Pimentel Assumpção, Laércio Gomes Lourenço, Rommel Rodriguez Burbano, Marília Cardoso Smith
Different from genetic alterations, the reversible nature of epigenetic modifications provides an interesting opportunity for the development of clinically relevant therapeutics in different tumors. In this study, we aimed to screen and validate candidate genes regulated by the epigenetic marker associated with transcriptional activation, histone acetylation, in gastric cancer (GC). We first compared gene expression profile of trichostatin A-treated and control GC cell lines using microarray assay. Among the 55 differentially expressed genes identified in this analysis, we chose the up-regulated genes BMP8B and BAMBI for further analyzes, that included mRNA and histone acetylation quantification in paired GC and nontumor tissue samples...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Keping Sun, Rebecca T Kimball, Tong Liu, Xuewen Wei, Longru Jin, Tinglei Jiang, Aiqing Lin, Jiang Feng
Palaeoclimatic oscillations and different landscapes frequently result in complex population-level structure or the evolution of cryptic species. Elucidating the potential mechanisms is vital to understanding speciation events. However, such complex evolutionary patterns have rarely been reported in bats. In China, the Rhinolophus macrotis complex contains a large form and a small form, suggesting the existence of a cryptic bat species. Our field surveys found these two sibling species have a continuous and widespread distribution with partial sympatry...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Zhijiao Song, Miaomiao Zhang, Fagen Li, Qijie Weng, Chanpin Zhou, Mei Li, Jie Li, Huanhua Huang, Xiaoyong Mo, Siming Gan
Identification of loci or genes under natural selection is important for both understanding the genetic basis of local adaptation and practical applications, and genome scans provide a powerful means for such identification purposes. In this study, genome-wide simple sequence repeats markers (SSRs) were used to scan for molecular footprints of divergent selection in Eucalyptus grandis, a hardwood species occurring widely in costal areas from 32° S to 16° S in Australia. High population diversity levels and weak population structure were detected with putatively neutral genomic SSRs...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jordi Gamir, Rabih Darwiche, Pieter Van't Hof, Vineet Choudhary, Michael Stumpe, Roger Schneiter, Felix Mauch
Pathogenesis-related proteins played a pioneering role fifty years ago in the discovery of plant innate immunity as a set of proteins that accumulated upon pathogen challenge. The most abundant of these proteins, PATHOGENESIS-RELATED 1 (PR-1) encodes a small antimicrobial protein that has become, as a marker of plant immune signaling, one of the most referred to plant proteins. However, the biochemical activity and mode of action of PR-1 proteins has remained elusive. Here, we provide genetic and biochemical evidence for the capacity of PR-1 proteins to bind sterols and demonstrate that the inhibitory effect on pathogen growth is caused by sterol sequestration from pathogens...
October 16, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Khawaja Muhammad Imran Bashir, Man-Gi Cho
Antibiotics are routinely used in microalgae culture screening, stock culture maintenance, and genetic transformation. By studying the effect of antibiotics on microalgae growth, we can estimate the least value to inhibit growth of undesired pathogens in algal culture. We studied the effect of kanamycin and tetracycline on the growth and photosynthetic activity of two chlorophyte microalgae, Dictyosphaerium pulchellum and Micractinium pusillum. We measured CFU mL(-1) on agar plates, optical density, fluorescence yields, and photosynthetic inhibition...
2016: BioMed Research International
Ying Liu, Lili Yu, Yue Qu, Jingjing Chen, Xiexiang Liu, Huilong Hong, Zhangxiong Liu, Ruzhen Chang, Matthew Gilliham, Lijuan Qiu, Rongxia Guan
Soil salinity reduces soybean growth and yield. The recently identified GmSALT3 (Glycine max salt Tolerance-associated gene on chromosome 3) has the potential to improve soybean yields in salinized conditions. Here we evaluate the impact of GmSALT3 on soybean performance under saline or non-saline conditions. Three sets of near isogenic lines (NILs), with genetic similarity of 95.6-99.3% between each pair of NIL-T and NIL-S, were generated from a cross between two varieties 85-140 (salt-sensitive, S) and Tiefeng 8 (salt-tolerant, T) by using marker-assisted selection...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Akiko Mori, Masatsugu Toyota, Masayoshi Shimada, Mika Mekata, Tetsuya Kurata, Masao Tasaka, Miyo T Morita
Forward genetics is a powerful approach used to link genotypes and phenotypes, and mutant screening/analysis has provided deep insights into many aspects of plant physiology. Gravitropism is a tropistic response in plants, in which hypocotyls and stems sense the direction of gravity and grow upward. Previous studies of gravitropic mutants have suggested that shoot endodermal cells in Arabidopsis stems and hypocotyls are capable of sensing gravity (i.e., statocytes). In the present study, we report a new screening system using hypergravity conditions to isolate enhancers of gravitropism mutants, and we also describe a rapid and efficient genome mapping method, using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based markers...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yu-Bin Yan, Norm C Duke, Mei Sun
Rhizophora species are the most widely distributed mangrove trees in the Indo-West Pacific (IWP) region. Comparative studies of these species with shared life history traits can help identify evolutionary factors that have played most important roles in determining genetic diversity within and between populations in ocean-current dispersed mangrove tree species. We sampled 935 individuals from 54 natural populations for genotyping with 13 microsatellite markers to investigate the level of genetic variation, population structure, and gene flow on a broad geographic scale in Rhizophora apiculata, Rhizophora mucronata, and Rhizophora stylosa across the IWP region...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Angelica Giancaspro, Stefania L Giove, Daniela Zito, A Blanco, Agata Gadaleta
Fusarium head blight (scab) is one of the most widespread and damaging diseases of wheat, causing grain yield and quality losses and production of harmful mycotoxins. Development of resistant varieties is hampered by lack of effective resistance sources in the tetraploid wheat primary gene pool. Here we dissected the genetic basis of resistance in a new durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population obtained by crossing an hexaploid resistant line and a durum susceptible cultivar...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Wenyao Chen, Tingzi Fang, Xiujuan Zhou, Daofeng Zhang, Xianming Shi, Chunlei Shi
The wide usage of antibiotics contributes to the increase in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella. Plasmids play a critical role in horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance markers in Salmonella. This study aimed to screen and characterize plasmid profiles responsible for antibiotic resistance in Salmonella and ultimately to clarify the molecular mechanism of transferable plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance. A total of 226 Salmonella isolates were examined for antimicrobial susceptibility by a disk diffusion method...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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