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Dogs detect hypoglycemia

Evan A Los, Katrina L Ramsey, Ines Guttmann-Bauman, Andrew J Ahmann
BACKGROUND: We examined the reliability of trained dogs to alert to hypoglycemia in individuals with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Patients with type 1 diabetes who currently used diabetes alert dogs participated in this exploratory study. Subjects reported satisfaction, perceived dog glucose sensing ability and reasons for obtaining a trained dog. Reliability of dog alerts was assessed using capillary blood glucose (CBG) and blinded continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) as comparators in 8 subjects (age 4-48)...
August 28, 2016: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Amie Koenig, Margarethe E Hoenig, David A Jimenez
OBJECTIVE To identify variations in glucose values concurrently obtained by use of a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) at the same site, reliability of results for each site, lag time for each site, and influence of site thickness on CGMS accuracy. ANIMALS 8 random-source research dogs. PROCEDURES In experiment 1, 8 CGMS sensors were implanted bilaterally at 1 site (4 sensors/side) in 4 dogs. In experiment 2, 2 CGMS sensors were implanted bilaterally at each of 4 sites (1 sensor/side) in 8 dogs; 4 of those 8 dogs then were subjected to a glycemic clamp technique...
August 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Dana S Hardin, Wesley Anderson, Jennifer Cattet
INTRODUCTION: Hypoglycemia (Hypo) is the most common side effect of insulin therapy in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Over time, patients with T1D become unaware of signs and symptoms of Hypo. Hypo unawareness leads to morbidity and mortality. Diabetes alert dogs (DADs) represent a unique way to help patients with Hypo unawareness. Our group has previously presented data in abstract form which demonstrates the sensitivity and specificity of DADS. The purpose of our current study is to expand evaluation of DAD sensitivity and specificity using a method that reduces the possibility of trainer bias...
December 2015: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Gerard McLauchlan, Angela McLaughlin, Adrian C Sewell, Rory Bell
An 8 wk old male Yorkshire terrier was presented with a 2 wk history of recurrent hypoglycemia, lethargy, and seizures. Investigations revealed a marked increase in blood ammonia, low serum cobalamin, and increased levels of urinary methylmalonic acid (MMA) excretion. No liver vascular abnormality was detected. The patient was diagnosed with methylmalonic aciduria due to cobalamin malabsorption. The patient responded well to parenteral cobalamin administration, and the urinary MMA levels normalized rapidly following instigation of treatment...
July 2015: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
N M Petry, J A Wagner, C J Rash, K K Hood
AIMS: Patients with diabetes increasingly have questions about diabetes alert dogs. This study evaluated perceptions about dogs trained professionally or otherwise to detect glucose levels. METHODS: A link to a survey about glucose detecting dogs was announced on diabetes websites. RESULTS: 135 persons responded, with 63 answering about their child with diabetes. Most respondents obtained their dog from a professional trainer (n = 54) or trained it themselves (n = 51)...
August 2015: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Kensuke Nakamura, Sue-Yee Lim, Kenji Ochiai, Masahiro Yamasaki, Hiroshi Ohta, Keitaro Morishita, Satoshi Takagi, Mitsuyoshi Takiguchi
Abdominal ultrasonography is one of the most common diagnostic imaging modalities used for dogs with suspected insulinoma; however, pancreatic masses are clearly identified in fewer than half of affected dogs and benign pancreatic nodules can be difficult to differentiate from malignant ones. The purpose of this prospective study was to describe contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) characteristics of confirmed pancreatic insulinoma in a group of dogs. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) repeated hypoglycemia (blood glucose levels <60 mg/dl, twice or more); (2) elevated blood insulin levels with hypoglycemia; (3) pancreatic nodules detected with conventional ultrasonography; and (4) histological confirmation of pancreatic islet cell carcinoma...
January 2015: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
Viorica Ionut, Ana Valeria B Castro, Orison O Woolcott, Darko Stefanovski, Malini S Iyer, Josiane L Broussard, Hasmik Mkrtchyan, Miguel Burch, Ram Elazary, Erlinda Kirkman, Richard N Bergman
A major issue of in the treatment of diabetes is the risk of hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia is detected both centrally and peripherally in the porto-hepatic area. The portal locus for hypoglycemic detection was originally described using the "local irrigation of the liver" approach in a canine model. Further work using portal vein denervation (DEN) in a rodent model characterized portal hypoglycemic sensing in detail. However, recent controversy about the relevance of rodent findings to large animals and humans prompted us to investigate the effect of portal DEN on the hypoglycemic response in the canine, a species with multiple similarities to human glucose homeostasis...
April 2014: Endocrinology
M Isidoro-Ayza, A Lloret, M Bardagí, L Ferrer, J Martínez
A 10-year-old dog presented with convulsive crisis and symmetrical hyperkeratotic cutaneous lesions affecting the abdomen, inguinal area, eyelids, muzzles, both pinnae, and all the paw pads. Hypoglycemia and hyperinsulinemia were the main biochemical findings. A mass 2 cm in diameter was detected within the left pancreatic lobe by ultrasonography. It was surgically removed and histologically and immunohistochemically diagnosed as an insulin-producing pancreatic islet cell carcinoma. The animal was eventually euthanized due to lack of clinical improvement...
July 2014: Veterinary Pathology
Nicola J Rooney, Steve Morant, Claire Guest
Previous studies have suggested that some pet dogs respond to their owners' hypoglycaemic state. Here, we show that trained glycaemia alert dogs placed with clients living with diabetes afford significant improvements to owner well-being. We investigated whether trained dogs reliably respond to their owners' hypoglycaemic state, and whether owners experience facilitated tightened glycaemic control, and wider psychosocial benefits. Since obtaining their dog, all seventeen clients studied reported positive effects including reduced paramedic call outs, decreased unconscious episodes and improved independence...
2013: PloS One
Kevin T Fitzgerald, Alvin C Bronstein
The American Psychiatric Association estimates that 3-7% of US school-aged children exhibit attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Adderall(®) (amphetamine dextroamphetamine) and a variety of brand names and generic versions of this combination are available by prescription to treat ADHD and narcolepsy. Both immediate and sustained release products are used as are single agent amphetamine medication. Knowing the exact agent ingested can provide information of dose labeled and length of clinical effects...
February 2013: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Elizabeth Drake Brooks, Dianne Little, Ramamani Arumugam, Baodong Sun, Sarah Curtis, Amanda Demaster, Michael Maranzano, Mark W Jackson, Priya Kishnani, Michael S Freemark, Dwight D Koeberl
Glycogen Storage Disease type Ia (GSD-Ia) in humans frequently causes delayed bone maturation, decrease in final adult height, and decreased growth velocity. This study evaluates the pathogenesis of growth failure and the effect of gene therapy on growth in GSD-Ia affected dogs and mice. Here we found that homozygous G6pase (-/-) mice with GSD-Ia have normal growth hormone (GH) levels in response to hypoglycemia, decreased insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 levels, and attenuated weight gain following administration of GH...
June 2013: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Sean Surman, Linda Fleeman
The use of continuous glucose monitoring systems in veterinary patients is summarized and discussed. The current clinical uses in veterinary medicine, including monitoring of hospitalized/sick diabetic patients, long-term monitoring of stable diabetic patients, anesthetized patients, and other patients with altered blood glucose homeostasis are presented. The most important advantage of these systems over intermittent blood glucose measurements is that they facilitate detection of brief periods of hypoglycemia and provide information overnight...
March 2013: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
Deborah L Wells
Researchers have long reported that dogs and cats improve the physical and psychological health of their human caregivers, and while it is still inconclusive, a substantial amount of research now lends support for the commonly held view that pets are good for us. Recently, studies have directed attention toward exploring the use of animals, most notably dogs, in the detection of disease and other types of health problems in people. This article reviews the evidence for dogs' ability to detect ill health in humans, focusing specifically on the detection of cancer, epileptic seizures, and hypoglycemia...
March 2012: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
A J Collings, A G Gow, A Marques, D Yool, R Furneaux, R Mellanby, P J Watson
OBJECTIVES: Hypoglycaemia is a common cause of morbidity in dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts but the aetiology is unknown. The hypothesis of this study was that dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts would have significantly higher insulin concentrations than dogs without congenital portosystemic shunts. The main objective of the study was to compare peripheral glucose and insulin concentrations between dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts and dogs without congenital portosystemic shunts...
April 2012: Journal of Small Animal Practice
N Affenzeller, J G Thalhammer, M Willmann
A subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring system (GlucoDay; Menarini Diagnostics) based on microdialysis was investigated for its clinical applicability in veterinary medicine. Ten diabetic dogs, referred as clinically stable, were equipped with this system and sent home for a maximum observation period of 48 hours. Time of insulin administration, feeding and other events were written in a diary and plotted afterwards in the glucose graph. Implantation of the microdialysis fibre, acceptance of the device and evaluation of individual canine glucose profiles were without complication...
August 20, 2011: Veterinary Record
T Sako, A Mori, P Lee, H Oda, K Saeki, Y Miki, M Kurishima, K Mimura, S Nozawa, H Mizutani, Y Makino, K Ishioka, T Arai
Insulin detemir is the first member of a new class of long-acting soluble insulin analogues capable of maintaining the basal level of insulin in humans. In this preliminary study, we investigated the time-action profiles of insulin detemir in normal and diabetic dogs since the use of insulin detemir in canines has yet to be determined. Eight animals were used in our study (three normal and five insulin dependent diabetic dogs). Time-action profiles of insulin detemir were monitored in normal dogs using an artificial pancreas apparatus under euglycemic condition...
June 2011: Research in Veterinary Science
Kerry L Bilicki, Thomas Schermerhorn, Emily E Klocke, Rose M McMurphy, James K Roush
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of a real-time, continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) in healthy dogs undergoing anesthesia for elective ovariohysterectomy or orchiectomy. ANIMALS: 10 healthy dogs undergoing routine elective surgery. PROCEDURES: A CGMS was placed and used to obtain calculated glucose measurements before, during, and after anesthesia in each dog. Periodically, CGMS measurements were compared with concurrent measurements of glucose concentration in peripheral venous blood obtained with a portable chemistry analyzer (PCA)...
January 2010: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Nadja Affenzeller, Thomas Benesch, Johann G Thalhammer, Michael Willmann
Serial blood glucose measurements are currently regarded as the 'gold standard' for evaluating glycaemic control of canine diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to investigate a subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring system based on microdialysis. Analyses were performed by taking interstitial glucose samples from two different anatomical regions (interscapular region [IR], thoracic region [TR]) in six healthy Beagle dogs during induced hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia, the feeding period and a period of stable glucose values...
April 2010: Veterinary Journal
Deborah L Wells, Shaun W Lawson, A Niroshan Siriwardena
OBJECTIVE: Anecdotal evidence suggests that domestic dogs may be able to detect hypoglycemia in their human caregivers; scientific investigation of this phenomenon, however, is sorely lacking. This study thus aimed to investigate how pet dogs respond to the hypoglycemic episodes of their owners with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Two hundred and twelve dog owners (64.2% female) with medically diagnosed type 1 diabetes participated in the study. All participants owned at least 1 dog...
December 2008: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
M B O'Connor, C O'Connor, C H Walsh
One of the life threatening complications of diabetes is hypoglycaemia. It is a common complication, with times of greatest risk being before meals and during the night. Symptoms usually develop when the blood glucose level falls below 3.5 mmol/l. Many patients with long-standing diabetes report loss of warning symptoms. Prevention of such hypoglycaemic attacks is highly desirable. Recently a dog's ability to detect hypoglycaemia in diabetic patients has been recorded. This is the first recorded case of hypoglycaemia in a non-diabetic patient being detected by a dog and also we believe it to be the first report of hypoglycaemia being detected by a dog in this country (Ireland)...
June 2008: Irish Journal of Medical Science
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