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Dogs detect hypoglycemia

H Fink, C Herbert, C Gilor
Insulin glargine 300 U/mL and insulin detemir are synthetic long-acting insulin analogs associated with minimal day-to-day variability or episodes of hypoglycemia in people. Here, 8 healthy purpose-bred dogs each received 2.4 nmol/kg subcutaneous injections of insulin detemir (0.1 U/kg) and insulin glargine 300 U/mL (0.4 U/kg) on 2 different days, >1 wk apart, in random order. Blood glucose (BG) was measured every 5 min, and glucose was administered intravenously at a variable rate with the goal of maintaining BG within 10% of baseline BG ("isoglycemic clamp")...
April 10, 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
Nick Jeffery, C Elizabeth Boudreau, Megan Konarik, Travis Mays, Virginia Fajt
Background: Glyburide (also known as glibenclamide) is effective in reducing the severity of tissue destruction and improving functional outcome after experimental spinal cord injury in rodents and so has promise as a therapy in humans. There are many important differences between spinal cord injury in experimental animals and in human clinical cases, making it difficult to introduce new therapies into clinical practice. Spinal cord injury is also common in pet dogs and requires new effective therapies, meaning that they can act as a translational model for the human condition while also deriving direct benefits from such research...
2018: PeerJ
A A Megahed, M W H Hiew, P D Constable
BACKGROUND: Plasma fructosamine concentration ([FRA]) is a widely used long term hyperglycemic biomarker in humans and dogs, but its clinical usefulness as a hypoglycemic biomarker in dairy cattle is uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between plasma [FRA] and glucose concentration ([gluc]) as well as indices of energy balance during early lactation in dairy cattle, and to characterize the influence of plasma total protein concentration ([TP]) and albumin concentration ([albumin]) on [FRA]...
March 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Janet Kovak Mcclaran, Philippa Pavia, Anthony J Fischetti, Taryn A Donovan
Laparoscopic partial pancreatectomy has been performed in experimental canine studies and has been evaluated in human medicine but has not been reported in a clinical veterinary case. The authors present a 9 yr old field spaniel with weakness and hypoglycemia with insulin levels and Amended Insulin: Glucose Ratio results equivocal for a pancreatic insulinoma. Multiple abdominal ultrasounds did not detect the tumor, yet dual-phase computed tomographic angiography revealed the presence of a focal hypoattenuating nodule in the left lobe of the pancreas...
September 11, 2017: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Amanda P Siegel, Ali Daneshkhah, Dana S Hardin, Sudhir Shrestha, Kody Varahramyan, Mangilal Agarwal
Diabetes is a disease that involves dysregulation of metabolic processes. Patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) require insulin injections and measured food intake to maintain clinical stability, manually tracking their results by measuring blood glucose levels. Low blood glucose levels, hypoglycemia, can be extremely dangerous and can result in seizures, coma, or even death. Canines trained as diabetes alert dogs (DADs) have demonstrated the ability to detect hypoglycemia from breath, which led us to hypothesize that hypoglycemia, a metabolic dysregulation leading to low blood glucose levels, could be identified through analyzing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) contained within breath...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
Emilee C Venn, Karolina Preisner, Pedro L Boscan, David C Twedt, Lauren A Sullivan
OBJECTIVE: To compare 2 treatment protocols (standard in-hospital versus modified outpatient) in affecting the duration of treatment or survival of dogs with parvoviral enteritis. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized study. SETTING: University teaching hospital. ANIMALS: Client-owned dogs with naturally acquired parvovirus were randomized to receive either an inpatient (n = 20) or outpatient (n = 20) treatment protocol. INTERVENTIONS: Both groups received intravenous (IV) fluid resuscitation and correction of hypoglycemia at hospital admission...
January 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Giuseppe Lippi, Gianfranco Cervellin, Maurizio Dondi, Giovanni Targher
The recent publication of the results of 3 small trials, and as many as 5 case reports on dogs producing clear and intelligible alerts in the presence of their owners' hypoglycemia, opens an intriguing clinical scenario for management of diabetes. The skill seems attributable to the ability of dogs to identify patterns in skin and breath odors as well as to understand and interpret visual cues from humans during hypoglycemia. Provided that further trials can confirm the findings, the use of diabetes alert dogs that are trained to detect the onset of hypoglycemia can be regarded as a fast, versatile, reliable, and cost-effective approach for safeguarding the health of individuals with diabetes...
November 2016: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
Evan A Los, Katrina L Ramsey, Ines Guttmann-Bauman, Andrew J Ahmann
BACKGROUND: We examined the reliability of trained dogs to alert to hypoglycemia in individuals with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Patients with type 1 diabetes who currently used diabetes alert dogs participated in this exploratory study. Subjects reported satisfaction, perceived dog glucose sensing ability and reasons for obtaining a trained dog. Reliability of dog alerts was assessed using capillary blood glucose (CBG) and blinded continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) as comparators in 8 subjects (age 4-48)...
May 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Amie Koenig, Margarethe E Hoenig, David A Jimenez
OBJECTIVE To identify variations in glucose values concurrently obtained by use of a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) at the same site, reliability of results for each site, lag time for each site, and influence of site thickness on CGMS accuracy. ANIMALS 8 random-source research dogs. PROCEDURES In experiment 1, 8 CGMS sensors were implanted bilaterally at 1 site (4 sensors/side) in 4 dogs. In experiment 2, 2 CGMS sensors were implanted bilaterally at each of 4 sites (1 sensor/side) in 8 dogs; 4 of those 8 dogs then were subjected to a glycemic clamp technique...
August 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Dana S Hardin, Wesley Anderson, Jennifer Cattet
INTRODUCTION: Hypoglycemia (Hypo) is the most common side effect of insulin therapy in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Over time, patients with T1D become unaware of signs and symptoms of Hypo. Hypo unawareness leads to morbidity and mortality. Diabetes alert dogs (DADs) represent a unique way to help patients with Hypo unawareness. Our group has previously presented data in abstract form which demonstrates the sensitivity and specificity of DADS. The purpose of our current study is to expand evaluation of DAD sensitivity and specificity using a method that reduces the possibility of trainer bias...
December 2015: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Gerard McLauchlan, Angela McLaughlin, Adrian C Sewell, Rory Bell
An 8 wk old male Yorkshire terrier was presented with a 2 wk history of recurrent hypoglycemia, lethargy, and seizures. Investigations revealed a marked increase in blood ammonia, low serum cobalamin, and increased levels of urinary methylmalonic acid (MMA) excretion. No liver vascular abnormality was detected. The patient was diagnosed with methylmalonic aciduria due to cobalamin malabsorption. The patient responded well to parenteral cobalamin administration, and the urinary MMA levels normalized rapidly following instigation of treatment...
July 2015: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
N M Petry, J A Wagner, C J Rash, K K Hood
AIMS: Patients with diabetes increasingly have questions about diabetes alert dogs. This study evaluated perceptions about dogs trained professionally or otherwise to detect glucose levels. METHODS: A link to a survey about glucose detecting dogs was announced on diabetes websites. RESULTS: 135 persons responded, with 63 answering about their child with diabetes. Most respondents obtained their dog from a professional trainer (n = 54) or trained it themselves (n = 51)...
August 2015: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Kensuke Nakamura, Sue-Yee Lim, Kenji Ochiai, Masahiro Yamasaki, Hiroshi Ohta, Keitaro Morishita, Satoshi Takagi, Mitsuyoshi Takiguchi
Abdominal ultrasonography is one of the most common diagnostic imaging modalities used for dogs with suspected insulinoma; however, pancreatic masses are clearly identified in fewer than half of affected dogs and benign pancreatic nodules can be difficult to differentiate from malignant ones. The purpose of this prospective study was to describe contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) characteristics of confirmed pancreatic insulinoma in a group of dogs. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) repeated hypoglycemia (blood glucose levels <60 mg/dl, twice or more); (2) elevated blood insulin levels with hypoglycemia; (3) pancreatic nodules detected with conventional ultrasonography; and (4) histological confirmation of pancreatic islet cell carcinoma...
January 2015: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
Viorica Ionut, Ana Valeria B Castro, Orison O Woolcott, Darko Stefanovski, Malini S Iyer, Josiane L Broussard, Hasmik Mkrtchyan, Miguel Burch, Ram Elazary, Erlinda Kirkman, Richard N Bergman
A major issue of in the treatment of diabetes is the risk of hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia is detected both centrally and peripherally in the porto-hepatic area. The portal locus for hypoglycemic detection was originally described using the "local irrigation of the liver" approach in a canine model. Further work using portal vein denervation (DEN) in a rodent model characterized portal hypoglycemic sensing in detail. However, recent controversy about the relevance of rodent findings to large animals and humans prompted us to investigate the effect of portal DEN on the hypoglycemic response in the canine, a species with multiple similarities to human glucose homeostasis...
April 2014: Endocrinology
M Isidoro-Ayza, A Lloret, M Bardagí, L Ferrer, J Martínez
A 10-year-old dog presented with convulsive crisis and symmetrical hyperkeratotic cutaneous lesions affecting the abdomen, inguinal area, eyelids, muzzles, both pinnae, and all the paw pads. Hypoglycemia and hyperinsulinemia were the main biochemical findings. A mass 2 cm in diameter was detected within the left pancreatic lobe by ultrasonography. It was surgically removed and histologically and immunohistochemically diagnosed as an insulin-producing pancreatic islet cell carcinoma. The animal was eventually euthanized due to lack of clinical improvement...
July 2014: Veterinary Pathology
Nicola J Rooney, Steve Morant, Claire Guest
Previous studies have suggested that some pet dogs respond to their owners' hypoglycaemic state. Here, we show that trained glycaemia alert dogs placed with clients living with diabetes afford significant improvements to owner well-being. We investigated whether trained dogs reliably respond to their owners' hypoglycaemic state, and whether owners experience facilitated tightened glycaemic control, and wider psychosocial benefits. Since obtaining their dog, all seventeen clients studied reported positive effects including reduced paramedic call outs, decreased unconscious episodes and improved independence...
2013: PloS One
Kevin T Fitzgerald, Alvin C Bronstein
The American Psychiatric Association estimates that 3-7% of US school-aged children exhibit attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Adderall(®) (amphetamine dextroamphetamine) and a variety of brand names and generic versions of this combination are available by prescription to treat ADHD and narcolepsy. Both immediate and sustained release products are used as are single agent amphetamine medication. Knowing the exact agent ingested can provide information of dose labeled and length of clinical effects...
February 2013: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
Elizabeth Drake Brooks, Dianne Little, Ramamani Arumugam, Baodong Sun, Sarah Curtis, Amanda Demaster, Michael Maranzano, Mark W Jackson, Priya Kishnani, Michael S Freemark, Dwight D Koeberl
Glycogen Storage Disease type Ia (GSD-Ia) in humans frequently causes delayed bone maturation, decrease in final adult height, and decreased growth velocity. This study evaluates the pathogenesis of growth failure and the effect of gene therapy on growth in GSD-Ia affected dogs and mice. Here we found that homozygous G6pase (-/-) mice with GSD-Ia have normal growth hormone (GH) levels in response to hypoglycemia, decreased insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 levels, and attenuated weight gain following administration of GH...
June 2013: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Sean Surman, Linda Fleeman
The use of continuous glucose monitoring systems in veterinary patients is summarized and discussed. The current clinical uses in veterinary medicine, including monitoring of hospitalized/sick diabetic patients, long-term monitoring of stable diabetic patients, anesthetized patients, and other patients with altered blood glucose homeostasis are presented. The most important advantage of these systems over intermittent blood glucose measurements is that they facilitate detection of brief periods of hypoglycemia and provide information overnight...
March 2013: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
Deborah L Wells
Researchers have long reported that dogs and cats improve the physical and psychological health of their human caregivers, and while it is still inconclusive, a substantial amount of research now lends support for the commonly held view that pets are good for us. Recently, studies have directed attention toward exploring the use of animals, most notably dogs, in the detection of disease and other types of health problems in people. This article reviews the evidence for dogs' ability to detect ill health in humans, focusing specifically on the detection of cancer, epileptic seizures, and hypoglycemia...
March 2012: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
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