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Genitourinary cancer,melanoma

Jessica M Ruck, Joseph K Canner, Thomas J Smith, Fabian M Johnston
BACKGROUND: Although mounting evidence supports the use of palliative care (PC) to improve care experiences and quality of life for oncology patients, the frequency of and factors associated with PC use during oncology-related hospitalizations remain unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the National Inpatient Sample dataset, hospitalizations during 2012-2014 for a primary diagnosis of cancer with high risk of in-hospital mortality were identified. PC use was identified using the V66...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
Michael J Dohopolski, Zachary Horne, David Clump, Steven A Burton, Dwight E Heron
Purpose Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is increasingly used in the management of patients with oligometastatic cancers and is under prospective evaluation by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). Here we report outcomes from a high-volume institution of patients treated with SBRT for pulmonary oligometastases. Materials and methods We conducted a retrospective review of 105 patients who had one to five pulmonary oligometastases (185 lesions) without extrapulmonary disease treated with SBRT from 2002-2014...
February 7, 2018: Curēus
Danielle Benedict Sacdalan, Josephine Anne Lucero, Dennis Lee Sacdalan
Introduction: Systemic inflammation is associated with prognosis in solid tumors. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a marker for the general immune response to various stress stimuli. Studies have shown correlation of NLR to outcomes in immune checkpoint blockade, peripheral neutrophil count to intratumor neutrophil population, and NLR to intratumoral levels of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Studies have shown elevated peripheral blood regulator T cells accompanied by elevated NLR are associated with poor outcomes further highlighting the importance of inflammation in the prognosis of cancer patients...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Seung Tae Kim, Samuel J Klempner, Se Hoon Park, Joon Oh Park, Young Suk Park, Ho Yeong Lim, Won Ki Kang, Kyoung-Mee Kim, Jeeyun Lee
The identification of biomarkers associated with response to therapeutic agents is central to optimizing patient outcomes. Expression of the immune checkpoint proteins PD-1/L1, and DNA mismatch repair deficiency (dMMR) status may be predictive response biomarkers for immunotherapies, but their overlap requires further study. We prospectively conducted PD-L1 and MMR immunohistochemistry (IHC) on 430 consecutive patients with advanced gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, genitourinary (GU) cancers or rare cancers between June 2012 and March 2016...
September 29, 2017: Oncotarget
Valeria M Moncayo, Adina L Alazraki, Naomi P Alazraki, John N Aarsvold
Accurate staging of many cancers with no clinical evidence of lymph node involvement is often a critical component of the management of such cancers and is generally and historically accomplished by accurate pathological assessment of multiple nodes. Unfortunately, such assessment usually involves excision of the multiple nodes and can result in significant morbidities. Over the past half century, and particularly over the last quarter century, investigators have defined and refined the "sentinel lymph node(s)" concept and have developed and investigated sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) procedures...
November 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
Gregory P Botta, Eric Granowicz, Carrie Costantini
Genitourinary (GU) cancers are a group of epithelial malignancies associated with the organs involved in the excretion of urine. Renal cell, urothelial, and prostatic carcinoma are the overwhelming subtypes diagnosed by oncologists. Each of these was traditionally treated surgically when local and non-invasive. When these carcinomas spread, invade, or metastasize, surgical control lacks in efficacy. Chemotherapeutic regimens have been implemented for decades and have increased overall survival but many patients progress...
February 2017: Translational Cancer Research
Shu-Hui Wang, Ching-Chi Chi, Zi-Hao Zhao, Tao-Hsin Tung
PURPOSE: Previous western studies have found Caucasians with skin cancer, either melanoma or nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), have an elevated risk of second primary cancer. Our objective was to assess the risk of second primary cancer in Taiwanese with NMSC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: By using data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, we conducted a population-based cohort study to assess the risk of incident second primary cancer in Taiwanese affected by NMSC...
April 2018: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
Katherine Ramsey Gilmore, Patricia Chapman, Paula A Lewis-Patterson, Maria Alma Rodriguez
239 Background: Despite the growing committment to improve survivorship care, measuring its quality remains difficult. In 2006, the American Society of Clinical Oncologists (ASCO) launched a practice-based system known as the Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI) to measure the quality of cancer care. Here, we demonstrate the use of QOPI procedures to compare compliance with survivorship care plans (SCPs) across different disease-specific clinics. METHODS: Measures based on survivorship clinical practice guidelines were abstracted from SCPs issued to survivors scheduled for appointments in site-specific clinics...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Anna S Berghoff, Sophie Schur, Lisa M Füreder, Brigitte Gatterbauer, Karin Dieckmann, Georg Widhalm, Johannes Hainfellner, Christoph C Zielinski, Peter Birner, Rupert Bartsch, Matthias Preusser
AIM: We provide a descriptive statistical analysis of baseline characteristics and the clinical course of a large real-life cohort of brain metastases (BM) patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review for patients treated for BM of solid cancers at the Medical University of Vienna between 1990 and 2011. RESULTS: We identified a total of 2419 BM patients (50.5% male, 49.5% female, median age 59 years). The primary tumour was lung cancer in 43...
2016: ESMO Open
Lisa Altieri, Michael K Wong, David H Peng, Myles Cockburn
BACKGROUND: Mucosal melanomas are rare, poorly understood neoplasms without a consensus standard of care. OBJECTIVE: We sought to define mucosal melanoma tumor characteristics and the racial/ethnic attributes of patients with mucosal melanomas. METHODS: We analyzed 130,920 cutaneous melanomas and 1919 mucosal melanomas recorded in the population-based California Cancer Registry from 1988 to 2013. RESULTS: Although only 1% of melanomas occurring in nonHispanic whites were mucosal, other racial/ethnic groups had a higher proportion of mucosal melanomas (15% for Asian/Pacific Islanders, 9% for nonHispanic blacks, and 4% for Hispanics)...
February 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Jean Hoffman-Censits, Lindsay Wilde
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Combination immunotherapy has already shown promise in several tumor types, such as melanoma and nonsmall cell lung cancer, and studies are ongoing to evaluate this approach in other malignancies. Trials such as these will only continue to expand as additional immune therapies are shown to have efficacy as single agents in cancer. The purpose of this review is to outline the current landscape of immunotherapy in genitourinary cancer, and to highlight ongoing and pending combination immunotherapy trials in bladder, kidney, and prostate cancers...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Urology
Ritva Vyas, Cheryl L Thompson, Homayoun Zargar, Jacqueline Selph, Meg R Gerstenblith
BACKGROUND: Primary melanoma arising in the genitourinary tract is rare and poorly characterized. OBJECTIVES: We sought to describe the epidemiology of genitourinary melanoma in the United States. METHODS: Incident case and population data were obtained for genitourinary melanoma from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 13 Registries Database between 1992 and 2012. RESULTS: A total of 817 patients with genitourinary melanoma were identified; most cases occurred in the vulva...
July 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Carlo Cattrini, Chiara Dellepiane, Alessia Cavo, Giulia Buzzatti, Francesco Tolomeo, Carlo Messina, Francesco Boccardo
In the last few years, cancer immunotherapy has changed the natural history and treatment strategies of a number of solid tumors, including melanoma and lung cancer. The anti-PD-1 nivolumab showed a survival benefit compared with everolimus in the second-line treatment of renal cell carcinoma, resulting in a radical shift in perspective in the treatment of this neoplasia and suggesting a new scenario beyond tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Checkpoint inhibitors might also improve the treatment of urothelial cancer, considering the promising results achieved so far and the relatively low efficacy of currently available treatments...
August 2016: Anti-cancer Drugs
Angela K B Alme, Beerinder S Karir, Bishoy M Faltas, Charles G Drake
Despite a long history of immunotherapeutic approaches to treatment, most genitourinary malignancies are not cured by existing immunotherapy regimens. More recently, cell surface molecules known as immune checkpoints have become the focus of efforts to develop more effective immunotherapies. Interactions between these molecules and their ligands inhibit the proliferation and function of tumor-specific lymphocytes. A monoclonal antibody blocking 1 of these checkpoints was approved for the treatment of metastatic melanoma and is now being tested in other malignancies...
April 2016: Urologic Oncology
Ulf Kulik, Frank Lehner, Hüseyin Bektas, Jürgen Klempnauer
BACKGROUND: Due to the uncertain benefit of liver resection for non-colorectal liver metastases (NCLM), patient selection for surgery is generally difficult. Therefore, the aim of this article was to propose standard and extended indications for liver resection in this heterogeneous disease collective. METHODS: Review of the literature. RESULTS: The myriad of biologically different primary tumor entities as well as the mostly small and retrospective studies investigating the benefit of surgery for NCLM limits the proposal of general recommendations...
December 2015: Viszeralmedizin
Alejandro Sanchez, Dayron Rodríguez, Christopher B Allard, Seth K Bechis, Ryan J Sullivan, Caroline E Boeke, David Kuppermann, Jed-Sian Cheng, Glen W Barrisford, Mark A Preston, Adam S Feldman
BACKGROUND: Primary genitourinary (GU) melanoma is a rare disease, which is poorly characterized. OBJECTIVE: To examine clinical characteristics and survival outcomes of primary GU melanoma among men and women. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective study using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (1973-2010) was used to identify primary GU melanoma cases by tumor site and histology codes. We examined associations of GU melanoma with demographic, clinical, and pathologic characteristics, as well as disease-specific survival (DSS)...
April 2016: Urologic Oncology
Flavia Neri, Giorgio Ercolani, Paolo Di Gioia, Massimo Del Gaudio, Antonio Daniele Pinna
Liver resection is integrated in the oncological surgical management of metastatic gastrointestinal and neuroendocrine tumours. However, the good prognosis reached in these cases has not been obtained for metastatic tumours of other histological types. In this review, we analysed the published case reports and series of hepatectomies in patients with metastatic breast cancer, melanoma, sarcoma, genitourinary tumours, pulmonary and adrenocortical tumours. From the reported data the surgical resection of oligometastases yields good results in terms of improved survival, in particular when the disease-free time period is longer than 1 year...
September 2015: Updates in Surgery
Luisa Carbognin, Sara Pilotto, Michele Milella, Vanja Vaccaro, Matteo Brunelli, Anna Caliò, Federica Cuppone, Isabella Sperduti, Diana Giannarelli, Marco Chilosi, Vincenzo Bronte, Aldo Scarpa, Emilio Bria, Giampaolo Tortora
BACKGROUND: The potential predictive role of programmed death-ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression on tumor cells in the context of solid tumor treated with checkpoint inhibitors targeting the PD-1 pathway represents an issue for clinical research. METHODS: Overall response rate (ORR) was extracted from phase I-III trials investigating nivolumab, pembrolizumab and MPDL3280A for advanced melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and genitourinary cancer, and cumulated by adopting a fixed and random-effect model with 95% confidence interval (CI)...
2015: PloS One
Daniel Le Bui, James Byunghoon Yu
PURPOSE: Cancer care is becoming increasingly complicated, in particular with the integration of radiation and surgery. Institutions may need to increase coordination between multidisciplinary clinical teams to optimize patient care. This study examines historical trends in adjuvant and neoadjuvant radiation therapy (ANRT) before or after cancer-directed surgery to identify disease sites that may benefit from coordinated care. METHODS: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was queried to identify patients with bladder cancer; breast cancer; cervical cancer; colorectal cancer; kidney cancer; cancer of the lung, bronchus, and pleura; lymphoma; melanoma; cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx; ovarian cancer; pancreatic cancer; prostate cancer; thyroid cancer; and uterine cancer from 1973 to 2011...
May 2015: Cancer Journal
Kar Wai Tan, Maximilien Evrard, Muly Tham, Michelle Hong, Caleb Huang, Masashi Kato, Armelle Prevost-Blondel, Emmanuel Donnadieu, Lai Guan Ng, Jean-Pierre Abastado
The infiltration of T lymphocytes within tumors is associated with better outcomes in cancer patients, yet current understanding of factors that influence T-lymphocyte infiltration into tumors remains incomplete. In our study, Temozolomide (TMZ), a chemotherapeutic drug used to treat metastatic melanoma, induced T-cell infiltration into transplanted melanoma and into genitourinary (GU) tumors in mice developing spontaneous melanoma. In contrast, TMZ treatment did not increase T-cell infiltration into cutaneous tumors, despite similar increases in the expression of the (C-X-C) chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 in all sites after TMZ exposure...
February 2015: Oncoimmunology
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