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Stress fracture

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542108/contralateral-spondylolysis-and-fracture-of-the-lumbar-pedicle-in-a-young-athlete
#1
Eran Kessous, Tracy Borsinger, Ayesha Rahman, Pierre A d'Hemecourt
STUDY DESIGN: Clinical case report of unilateral pedicular stress fracture with a contralateral spondylolysis in a male high school athlete presenting with low back pain. OBJECTIVES: To report this uncommon cause of low back pain in an adolescent athlete, and review the relevant literature. SUMMARY AND BACKGROUND DATA: The incidence of spondylolysis in the caucasian population was found to be about 3-6%. This number is probably higher in the athletic adolescent age group, with reports ranging from 8-15%...
May 24, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533626/nonhealing-progressive-stress-fractures-of-the-foot-in-a-13-year-old-basketball-player-is-vitamin-k-deficiency-a-risk-factor
#2
Meral Bayramoğlu, Nuray Ünlütürk
[Purpose] To report an adolescent male basketball player with nonhealing stress fractures of the foot and discuss the probable factors. [Subject and Methods] A 13-year-old basketball player presented with right foot pain. He had been playing basketball for three years and practicing 5 days/week. He denied any increase in daily training intensity. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed stress fractures of the cuboid and cuneiform, with mild edema of the soft tissues between the tarsal bones and tenosynovitis of the flexor hallucis and flexor digitorum longi...
April 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530814/reactive-molecular-dynamics-simulations-to-understand-mechanical-response-of-thaumasite-under-temperature-and-strain-rate-effects
#3
Shahin Hajilar, Behrouz Shafei, Tao Cheng, Andres Jaramillo-Botero
Understanding the structural, thermal, and mechanical properties of thaumasite is of great interest to the cement industry, mainly because it is the phase responsible for the aging and deterioration of civil infrastructures made of cementitious materials attacked by external sources of sulfate. Despite its importance, the effects of temperature and strain rate on the mechanical response of thaumasite have remained unexplored to date. In this study, the mechanical properties of thaumasite are fully characterized using the reactive molecular dynamics (RMD) method...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530017/mechanical-stress-by-spasticity-accelerates-fracture-healing-after-spinal-cord-injury
#4
Naoyoshi Sakitani, Hiroyuki Iwasawa, Masato Nomura, Yasushi Miura, Hiroshi Kuroki, Junya Ozawa, Hideki Moriyama
Accelerated fracture healing in patients with spinal cord injuries (SCI) is often encountered in clinical practice. However, there is no distinct evidence in the accelerated fracture healing, and the mechanisms of accelerated fracture healing in SCI are poorly understood. We aimed to determine whether SCI accelerated fracture healing in morphology and strength, to characterize the healing process with SCI, and to clarify the factors responsible for accelerated fracture healing. In total, 39 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into healthy control without intervention, SCI only, fracture with SCI, botulinum toxin (BTX) A-treated fracture with SCI, and propranolol-treated fracture with SCI groups...
May 22, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527191/understanding-how-a-sport-helmet-protects-the-head-from-closed-injury-by-virtual-impact%C3%A2-tests
#5
Yunhua Luo, Zhaoyang Liang
Understanding how a helmet protects the head, especially the soft brain tissues, is the prerequisite for improving helmet design. Intracranial pressure and stresses/strains in the brain tissues are the direct indicators of traumatic brain injury and they can be used to measure helmet performance. In this study, the effects of helmet design parameters such as the helmet shell stiffness, liner compliance and thickness on the brain injury indicators were investigated by virtual impact tests. A finite element head model (FEHM) was first constructed from medical images; a personally-fitted helmet made of composite material and foam was virtually prototyped using geometric information extracted from the FEHM; a helmet-head finite element model was then assembled...
2017: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524243/bulk-filled-posterior-resin-restorations-based-on-stress-decreasing-resin-technology-a-randomized-controlled-6-year-evaluation
#6
Jan W V van Dijken, Ulla Pallesen
This randomized study evaluated a flowable resin composite bulk-fill technique in posterior restorations and compared it intraindividually with a conventional 2-mm resin composite layering technique over a 6-yr follow-up period. Thirty-eight pairs of Class II restorations and 15 pairs of Class I restorations were placed in 38 adults. In all cavities a single-step self-etch adhesive (Xeno V) was applied. In the first cavity of each pair, the flowable resin composite (SDR) was placed, in bulk increments of up to 4 mm...
May 19, 2017: European Journal of Oral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517009/stress-induced-surface-instabilities-and-defects-in-thin-films-sputter-deposited-on-compliant-substrates
#7
Timothy Ibru, Kyriaki Kalaitzidou, J Kevin Baldwin, Antonia Antoniou
Existing analyses predict that thin metal films deposited on compliant substrates are subject to a variety of surface instabilities, such as wrinkles, folds, creases, etc., that become more prominent with increased compressive residual stress. Under compressive stress, cracks have been assumed to form only when the interfacial strength is weak, allowing the film to detach from the substrate. In this work, we demonstrate that cracks also form on surfaces under compressive mismatch strain when the interface is strong...
May 18, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516447/metacarpophalangeal-joint-injury-patterns-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging-a-comparison-in-racing-standardbreds-and-thoroughbreds
#8
Julien Olive, Nicolas Serraud, Thibault Vila, Jean-Philippe Germain
The metacarpal condyle has received extensive attention as a predominant site of overload arthropathy in racehorses. However, detailed descriptions of MRI lesion patterns for the metacarpophalangeal joint and comparisons between types of racing horses are currently lacking. Aims of this retrospective, cross-sectional study were to describe and compare standing low-field magnetic resonance findings in the metacarpophalangeal joints for groups of Standardbreds and Thoroughbreds using systematic semiquantitative scores...
May 17, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515495/the-failure-envelope-concept-applied-to-the-bone-dental-implant-system
#9
R Korabi, K Shemtov-Yona, A Dorogoy, D Rittel
Dental implants interact with the jawbone through their common interface. While the implant is an inert structure, the jawbone is a living one that reacts to mechanical stimuli. Setting aside mechanical failure considerations of the implant, the bone is the main component to be addressed. With most failure criteria being expressed in terms of stress or strain values, their fulfillment can mean structural flow or fracture. However, in addition to those effects, the bony structure is likely to react biologically to the applied loads by dissolution or remodeling, so that additional (strain-based) criteria must be taken into account...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514440/extreme-hydrothermal-conditions-at-an-active-plate-bounding-fault
#10
Rupert Sutherland, John Townend, Virginia Toy, Phaedra Upton, Jamie Coussens, Michael Allen, Laura-May Baratin, Nicolas Barth, Leeza Becroft, Carolin Boese, Austin Boles, Carolyn Boulton, Neil G R Broderick, Lucie Janku-Capova, Brett M Carpenter, Bernard Célérier, Calum Chamberlain, Alan Cooper, Ashley Coutts, Simon Cox, Lisa Craw, Mai-Linh Doan, Jennifer Eccles, Dan Faulkner, Jason Grieve, Julia Grochowski, Anton Gulley, Arthur Hartog, Jamie Howarth, Katrina Jacobs, Tamara Jeppson, Naoki Kato, Steven Keys, Martina Kirilova, Yusuke Kometani, Rob Langridge, Weiren Lin, Timothy Little, Adrienn Lukacs, Deirdre Mallyon, Elisabetta Mariani, Cécile Massiot, Loren Mathewson, Ben Melosh, Catriona Menzies, Jo Moore, Luiz Morales, Chance Morgan, Hiroshi Mori, Andre Niemeijer, Osamu Nishikawa, David Prior, Katrina Sauer, Martha Savage, Anja Schleicher, Douglas R Schmitt, Norio Shigematsu, Sam Taylor-Offord, Damon Teagle, Harold Tobin, Robert Valdez, Konrad Weaver, Thomas Wiersberg, Jack Williams, Nick Woodman, Martin Zimmer
Temperature and fluid pressure conditions control rock deformation and mineralization on geological faults, and hence the distribution of earthquakes. Typical intraplate continental crust has hydrostatic fluid pressure and a near-surface thermal gradient of 31 ± 15 degrees Celsius per kilometre. At temperatures above 300-450 degrees Celsius, usually found at depths greater than 10-15 kilometres, the intra-crystalline plasticity of quartz and feldspar relieves stress by aseismic creep and earthquakes are infrequent...
May 17, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512620/adjacent-bilateral-stress-pedicle-fractures-after-instrumented-lumbar-fusion-a-case-report
#11
Hak Sung Kim, Sang Woo Ha, Chang Il Ju, Seok Won Kim
Bilateral pedicle stress fractures are rare even in the elderly. Bilateral pedicle fractures are due to post-surgical complications at the level of fusion or stress related activities in most cases. The authors describe a unique case of adjacent L4 bilateral pedicle fractures, which developed 4 years after anterior lumbar interbody fusion with bone cement augmented screw fixation at the L5-S1 level. As far as the authors' knowledge, no similar case has been previously reported in the literature. The pathophysiological mechanism of this rare entity is discussed with review of relevant literature...
April 2017: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512006/stress-fracture-in-athletes
#12
Jordane Saunier, Roland Chapurlat
Stress fractures are widely encountered in sport medicine and rheumatology. Stress fractures result from abnormal and repetitive loading on normal bone that lead to microdamage and then fracture. They occur after sudden increase in physical activity. They appear mostly at lower limbs. Women are at higher risk than men. Patients complain of mechanical pain. Clinical findings include focused pain and sometimes swelling. No biological test is useful for diagnosis. Plain radiographs are normal in early stage disease...
May 13, 2017: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511569/weightbearing-vs-gravity-stress-radiographs-for-stability-evaluation-of-supination-external-rotation-fractures-of-the-ankle
#13
Angela Seidel, Fabian Krause, Martin Weber
BACKGROUND: Isolated lateral malleolar fractures may result from a supination-external rotation (SER) injury of the ankle. Stable fractures maintain tibiotalar congruence due to competent medial restraints and can be treated nonoperatively with excellent functional results and long-term prognosis. Stability might be assessed with either stress radiographs or weightbearing radiographs. METHODS: A consecutive series of patients with closed SER fractures (presumed AO 44-B1) were prospectively enrolled from 2008 to 2015...
May 1, 2017: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508577/intrinsic-notch-effect-leads-to-breakdown-of-griffith-criterion-in-graphene
#14
Feng Liu, Qiheng Tang, Tzu-Chiang Wang
Due to lack of the third dimension in 3D bulk materials, the crack tip in graphene locates on several atoms implying that its fracture behavior can be closely associated with its lattice structure, i.e., the bond length and angle. As the bond length reflects the discrete nature of the atomic structure, theoretical discussion is focused on the concomitant size effect at the nanoscale with few or no reports about the influence of the bond angle. Through the comparisons between theoretical calculations and experimental data, here it is first demonstrated that the bond angle is essential for understanding the fracture behavior in graphene, serving as an intrinsic notch reducing the stress singularity near the crack tip (the intrinsic notch effect), leading to the breakdown of the Griffith criterion in graphene...
May 16, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507975/charcot-fracture-in-the-calcaneus-after-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-case-report
#15
Hirokazu Takai, Katsuhiko Kiyota, Nobutake Nakane, Tomoki Takahashi
INTRODUCTION: Only a few reports have described calcaneus fractures after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Therefore, in this report, we describe a case of calcaneal avulsion fracture that occurred 5 weeks after a TKA in a relatively young male patient with syphilis. CASE REPORT: A 63-year-old man with syphilis had Charcot joint of the right knee. The patient developed severe varus deformity and contracture and experienced severe pain in the knee. TKA was performed to alleviate the pain and improve the patient's gait...
November 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507642/diagnostic-imaging-of-pregnant-women-the-role-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#16
Monika Bekiesińska-Figatowska, Anna Romaniuk-Doroszewska, Sylwia Szkudlińska-Pawlak, Agnieszka Duczkowska, Jarosław Mądzik, Martyna Szopa-Krupińska, Tomasz M Maciejewski
BACKGROUND: Presentation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in pregnant women in the Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Institute of Mother and Child, Warsaw, Poland. MATERIAL/METHODS: Forty-three symptomatic pregnant women underwent MRI between 9 and 33 weeks of gestation (mean of 23 weeks). Moreover, we included 2 pregnant women who underwent fetal MRI and had incidental abnormalities. RESULTS: In 9 cases, we excluded the suspected brain abnormalities...
2017: Polish Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507534/stress-and-alterations-in-bones-an-interdisciplinary-perspective
#17
REVIEW
Pia-Maria Wippert, Michael Rector, Gisela Kuhn, Karin Wuertz-Kozak
Decades of research have demonstrated that physical stress (PS) stimulates bone remodeling and affects bone structure and function through complex mechanotransduction mechanisms. Recent research has laid ground to the hypothesis that mental stress (MS) also influences bone biology, eventually leading to osteoporosis and increased bone fracture risk. These effects are likely exerted by modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, resulting in an altered release of growth hormones, glucocorticoids and cytokines, as demonstrated in human and animal studies...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505788/flow-and-evolution-of-ice-sucrose-crystal-mushes
#18
Andrew J Gilbert, Felix K Oppong, Robert S Farr
We study the rheology of suspensions of ice crystals at moderate to high volume fractions in a sucrose solution in which they are partially soluble, a model system for a wide class of crystal mushes or slurries. Under step changes in shear rate, the viscosity changes to a relaxed value over several minutes, in a manner well fitted by a single exponential. The behavior of the relaxed viscosity is power-law shear thinning with shear rate, with an exponent of -1.76±0.25, so that shear stress falls with increasing shear rate...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503415/kickboxing-power-hour-case-report-of-fifth-metatarsal-apophysitis-iselin-disease-and-its-magnetic-resonance-imaging-features
#19
Nishant Gupta, Komal Sharma, Itisha Bansal, Yogesh Kumar, Daichi Hayashi
Youth now-a-days are getting more involved in mixed martial arts, with increasing number of cases of lateral foot pain due to various causes. The differential diagnoses of lateral foot pain in the pediatric population include avulsion fracture of the fifth metatarsal base, Jones fracture, diaphyseal stress fracture as well as os vesalianum pedis. We present a case of a 15-year-old athletic boy who presented with left lateral foot pain for a few weeks. The patient was actively involved in Kickboxing as well as active running...
April 2017: Translational pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501568/polytrauma-induced-hepatic-stress-response-and-the-development-of-liver-insulin-resistance
#20
Robert M Akscyn, J Lee Franklin, Tatyana A Gavrikova, Joseph L Messina
Insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction are common following injury. Polytrauma is defined as combined injuries to more than one body part or organ system, and is common in modern warfare, as well as automobile and industrial accidents. Polytrauma can include any combination of burn injury, fracture, hemorrhage, trauma to the extremities, and blunt or penetrating trauma. Multiple minor injuries are often more deleterious than a more severe single injury. To investigate the mechanisms of development of insulin resistance following injury, we have developed a rat model of polytrauma which combined soft tissue trauma with burn injury and penetrating gastrointestinal (GI) trauma...
May 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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