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Alejandra Hernandez-Agreda, William Leggat, Pim Bongaerts, Tracy D Ainsworth
UNLABELLED: For ecosystems vulnerable to environmental change, understanding the spatiotemporal stability of functionally crucial symbioses is fundamental to determining the mechanisms by which these ecosystems may persist. The coral Pachyseris speciosa is a successful environmental generalist that succeeds in diverse reef habitats. The generalist nature of this coral suggests it may have the capacity to form functionally significant microbial partnerships to facilitate access to a range of nutritional sources within different habitats...
2016: MBio
Birte Mensch, Sven C Neulinger, Angelika Graiff, Andreas Pansch, Sven Künzel, Martin A Fischer, Ruth A Schmitz
Marine multicellular organisms in composition with their associated microbiota-representing metaorganisms-are confronted with constantly changing environmental conditions. In 2110, the seawater temperature is predicted to be increased by ~5°C, and the atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) is expected to reach approximately 1000 ppm. In order to assess the response of marine metaorganisms to global changes, e.g., by effects on host-microbe interactions, we evaluated the response of epibacterial communities associated with Fucus vesiculosus forma mytili (F...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sofie Thijs, Wouter Sillen, Francois Rineau, Nele Weyens, Jaco Vangronsveld
Phytoremediation is a promising technology to clean-up contaminated soils based on the synergistic actions of plants and microorganisms. However, to become a widely accepted, and predictable remediation alternative, a deeper understanding of the plant-microbe interactions is needed. A number of studies link the success of phytoremediation to the plant-associated microbiome functioning, though whether the microbiome can exist in alternative, functional states for soil remediation, is incompletely understood...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Renee Greer, Xiaoxi Dong, Andrey Morgun, Natalia Shulzhenko
The scientific community has recently come to appreciate that, rather than existing as independent organisms, multicellular hosts and their microbiota comprise a complex evolving superorganism or metaorganism, termed a holobiont. This point of view leads to a re-evaluation of our understanding of different physiological processes and diseases. In this paper we focus on experimental and computational approaches which, when combined in one study, allowed us to dissect mechanisms (traditionally named host-microbiota interactions) regulating holobiont physiology...
2016: Gut Microbes
Gabriele Berg, Daria Rybakova, Martin Grube, Martina Köberl
The importance of microbial root inhabitants for plant growth and health was recognized as early as 100 years ago. Recent insights reveal a close symbiotic relationship between plants and their associated microorganisms, and high structural and functional diversity within plant microbiomes. Plants provide microbial communities with specific habitats, which can be broadly categorized as the rhizosphere, phyllosphere, and endosphere. Plant-associated microbes interact with their host in essential functional contexts...
February 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Julie L Meyer, Sarath P Gunasekera, Raymond M Scott, Valerie J Paul, Max Teplitski
Disruption of the microbiome often correlates with the appearance of disease symptoms in metaorganisms such as corals. In Black Band Disease (BBD), a polymicrobial disease consortium dominated by the filamentous cyanobacterium Roseofilum reptotaenium displaces members of the epibiotic microbiome. We examined both normal surface microbiomes and BBD consortia on Caribbean corals and found that the microbiomes of healthy corals were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria, in particular Halomonas spp., and were remarkably stable across spatial and temporal scales...
May 2016: ISME Journal
Leonard A Mermel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Future Microbiology
Walter Gottlieb Land
Modern immunology, in many ways, is based on 3 major paradigms: the clonal selection theory (Medawar, Burnet; 1953/1959), the pattern recognition theory (Janeway; 1989), and the danger/injury theory (Matzinger, Land; 1994). The last theory holds that any cell stress and tissue injury including allograft injury, via induction of damage-associated molecular patterns, induces immunity including alloimmunity leading to allograft rejection. On the other hand, the concept precludes that "non-self " per se induces immunity as proposed by the two former theories...
April 2015: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Florence Abram
Some of the most transformative discoveries promising to enable the resolution of this century's grand societal challenges will most likely arise from environmental science and particularly environmental microbiology and biotechnology. Understanding how microbes interact in situ, and how microbial communities respond to environmental changes remains an enormous challenge for science. Systems biology offers a powerful experimental strategy to tackle the exciting task of deciphering microbial interactions. In this framework, entire microbial communities are considered as metaorganisms and each level of biological information (DNA, RNA, proteins and metabolites) is investigated along with in situ environmental characteristics...
2015: Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
Christoph A Thaiss, David Zeevi, Maayan Levy, Gili Zilberman-Schapira, Jotham Suez, Anouk C Tengeler, Lior Abramson, Meirav N Katz, Tal Korem, Niv Zmora, Yael Kuperman, Inbal Biton, Shlomit Gilad, Alon Harmelin, Hagit Shapiro, Zamir Halpern, Eran Segal, Eran Elinav
All domains of life feature diverse molecular clock machineries that synchronize physiological processes to diurnal environmental fluctuations. However, no mechanisms are known to cross-regulate prokaryotic and eukaryotic circadian rhythms in multikingdom ecosystems. Here, we show that the intestinal microbiota, in both mice and humans, exhibits diurnal oscillations that are influenced by feeding rhythms, leading to time-specific compositional and functional profiles over the course of a day. Ablation of host molecular clock components or induction of jet lag leads to aberrant microbiota diurnal fluctuations and dysbiosis, driven by impaired feeding rhythmicity...
October 23, 2014: Cell
Mairi H McLean, Dario Dieguez, Lindsey M Miller, Howard A Young
The microbiota of the human metaorganism is not a mere bystander. These microbes have coevolved with us and are pivotal to normal development and homoeostasis. Dysbiosis of the GI microbiota is associated with many disease susceptibilities, including obesity, malignancy, liver disease and GI pathology such as IBD. It is clear that there is direct and indirect crosstalk between this microbial community and host immune response. However, the precise mechanism of this microbial influence in disease pathogenesis remains elusive and is now a major research focus...
February 2015: Gut
Amiran Dzutsev, Romina S Goldszmid, Sophie Viaud, Laurence Zitvogel, Giorgio Trinchieri
Commensal microorganisms colonize barrier surfaces of all multicellular organisms, including those of humans. For more than 500 million years, commensal microorganisms and their hosts have coevolved and adapted to each other. As a result, the commensal microbiota affects many immune and nonimmune functions of their hosts, and de facto the two together comprise one metaorganism. The commensal microbiota communicates with the host via biologically active molecules. Recently, it has been reported that microbial imbalance may play a critical role in the development of multiple diseases, such as cancer, autoimmune conditions, and increased susceptibility to infection...
January 2015: European Journal of Immunology
Paolo Garagnani, Chiara Pirazzini, Cristina Giuliani, Marco Candela, Patrizia Brigidi, Federica Sevini, Donata Luiselli, Maria Giulia Bacalini, Stefano Salvioli, Miriam Capri, Daniela Monti, Daniela Mari, Sebastiano Collino, Massimo Delledonne, Patrick Descombes, Claudio Franceschi
Usually the genetics of human longevity is restricted to the nuclear genome (nDNA). However it is well known that the nDNA interacts with a physically and functionally separated genome, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that, even if limited in length and number of genes encoded, plays a major role in the ageing process. The complex interplay between nDNA/mtDNA and the environment is most likely involved in phenomena such as ageing and longevity. To this scenario we have to add another level of complexity represented by the microbiota, that is, the whole set of bacteria present in the different part of our body with their whole set of genes...
2014: BioMed Research International
Terrence H Bell, Simon Joly, Frédéric E Pitre, Etienne Yergeau
Phytoremediation is a cost-effective green alternative to traditional soil remediation technologies, but has experienced varied success in practice. The recent omics revolution has led to leaps in our understanding of soil microbial communities and plant metabolism, and some of the conditions that promote predictable activity in contaminated soils and heterogeneous environments. Combinations of omics tools and new bioinformatics approaches will allow us to understand integrated activity patterns between plants and microbes, and determine how this metaorganism can be modified to maximize growth, appropriate assembly of microbial communities, and, ultimately, phytoremediation activity...
May 2014: Trends in Biotechnology
Thomas C G Bosch
Most epithelia in animals are colonized by microbial communities. These resident microbes influence fitness and thus ecologically important traits of their hosts, ultimately forming a metaorganism consisting of a multicellular host and a community of associated microorganisms. Recent discoveries in the cnidarian Hydra show that components of the innate immune system as well as transcriptional regulators of stem cells are involved in maintaining homeostasis between animals and their resident microbiota. Here I argue that components of the innate immune system with its host-specific antimicrobial peptides and a rich repertoire of pattern recognition receptors evolved in early-branching metazoans because of the need to control the resident beneficial microbes, not because of invasive pathogens...
2013: Annual Review of Microbiology
Thomas C G Bosch
Any multicellular organism may be considered a metaorganism or holobiont-comprised of the macroscopic host and synergistic interdependence with bacteria, archaea, fungi, viruses, and numerous other microbial and eukaryotic species including algal symbionts. Defining the individual microbe-host conversations in these consortia is a challenging but necessary step on the path to understanding the function of the associations as a whole. Dissecting the fundamental principles that underlie all host-microbe interactions requires simple animal models with only a few specific bacterial species...
July 2012: Gut Microbes
Gabriele Hörmannsperger, Thomas Clavel, Dirk Haller
The human body can be considered a metaorganism made up of its own eukaryotic cells and trillions of microbes that colonize superficial body sites, such as the skin, airways, and gastrointestinal tract. The coevolution of host and microbes brought about a variety of molecular mechanisms, which ensure a peaceful relationship. The mammalian barrier and immune functions warrant simultaneous protection of the host against deleterious infections, as well as tolerance toward harmless commensals. Because these pivotal host functions evolved under high microbial pressure, they obviously depend on a complex network of microbe-host interactions...
June 2012: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
E Ottaviani, N Ventura, M Mandrioli, M Candela, A Franchini, C Franceschi
An emerging central concept in evolutionary biology suggests that symbiosis is a universal characteristic of living organisms that can help in understanding complex traits and phenotypes. During evolution, an integrative circuitry fundamental for survival has been established between commensal gut microbiota and host. On the basis of recent knowledge in worms, flies, and humans, an important role of the gut microbiota in aging and longevity is emerging. The complex bacterial community that populates the gut and that represents an evolutionary adapted ecosystem correlated with nutrition appears to limit the accumulation of pathobionts and infections in all taxa, being able of affecting the efficiency of the host immune system and exerting systemic metabolic effects...
December 2011: Biogerontology
Thomas C G Bosch, Margaret J McFall-Ngai
Because it appears that almost all organisms are part of an interdependent metaorganism, an understanding of the underlying host-microbe species associations, and of evolution and molecular underpinnings, has become the new frontier in zoology. The availability of novel high-throughput sequencing methods, together with the conceptual understanding that advances mostly originate at the intersection of traditional disciplinary boundaries, enable biologists to dissect the mechanisms that control the interdependent associations of species...
September 2011: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Elena Biagi, Marco Candela, Susan Fairweather-Tait, Claudio Franceschi, Patrizia Brigidi
Human beings have been recently reviewed as 'metaorganisms' as a result of a close symbiotic relationship with the intestinal microbiota. This assumption imposes a more holistic view of the ageing process where dynamics of the interaction between environment, intestinal microbiota and host must be taken into consideration. Age-related physiological changes in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as modification in lifestyle, nutritional behaviour, and functionality of the host immune system, inevitably affect the gut microbial ecosystem...
February 2012: Age (2005-)
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