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Athletes stem cells cartilage

Kyla F Ortved, Alan J Nixon
Damage to the articular cartilage surface is common in the equine athlete and, due to the poor intrinsic healing capabilities of cartilage, can lead to osteoarthritis (OA). Joint disease and OA are the leading cause of retirement in equine athletes and currently there are no effective treatments to stop the progression of OA. Several different cell-based strategies have been investigated to bolster the weak regenerative response of chondrocytes. Such techniques aim to restore the articular surface and prevent further joint degradation...
February 2016: Veterinary Journal
David A Ajibade, Danica D Vance, Joshua M Hare, Lee D Kaplan, Bryson P Lesniak
BACKGROUND: The treatment of sports-related musculoskeletal injuries with stem cells has become more publicized because of recent reports of high-profile athletes undergoing stem cell procedures. There has been increased interest in defining the parameters of safety and efficacy and the indications for potential use of stem cells in clinical practice. PURPOSE: To review the role of regenerative medicine in the treatment of sports-related injuries. STUDY DESIGN: Review...
February 2014: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Kenneth Zaslav, Timothy McAdams, Jason Scopp, Jason Theosadakis, Vivek Mahajan, Alberto Gobbi
OBJECTIVE: Articular cartilage injury is common after athletic injury and remains a difficult treatment conundrum both for the surgeon and athlete. Although recent treatments for damage to articular cartilage have been successful in alleviating symptoms, more durable and complete, long-term articular surface restoration remains the unattained goal. In this article, we look at both new ways to prevent damage to articular surfaces as well as new techniques to recreate biomechanically sound and biochemically true articular surfaces once an athlete injures this surface...
January 2012: Cartilage
Jianying Zhang, James H-C Wang
Tendon-bone junctions (TBJs) are frequently injured, especially in athletic settings. Healing of TBJ injuries is slow and is often repaired with scar tissue formation that compromises normal function. This study explored the feasibility of using kartogenin (KGN), a biocompound, to enhance the healing of injured TBJs. We first determined the effects of KGN on the proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and patellar tendon stem/progenitor cells (PTSCs) in vitro...
2014: Bone Research
Anita Breu, Ingrid Scheidhammer, Richard Kujat, Bernhard Graf, Peter Angele
PURPOSE: This study was to investigate the cytotoxic potency of local anesthetics on human mesenchymal stem cells during chondrogenesis. METHODS: Aggregates were created from density-gradient centrifugation-separated bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. After 7, 14, and 21 days, aggregates were analyzed histologically and immunohistochemically and exposed to equipotent concentrations of bupivacaine, ropivacaine, and mepivacaine for 1 h. Cell viability, apoptosis, and necrosis were determined using live-dead and caspase staining...
April 2015: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Sarah Broeckx, Marieke Zimmerman, Sara Crocetti, Marc Suls, Tom Mariën, Stephen J Ferguson, Koen Chiers, Luc Duchateau, Alfredo Franco-Obregón, Karin Wuertz, Jan H Spaas
Degenerative joint disease (DJD) is a major cause of reduced athletic function and retirement in equine performers. For this reason, regenerative therapies for DJD have gained increasing interest. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were isolated from a 6-year-old donor horse. MSCs were either used in their native state or after chondrogenic induction. In an initial study, 20 horses with naturally occurring DJD in the fetlock joint were divided in 4 groups and injected with the following: 1) PRP; 2) MSCs; 3) MSCs and PRP; or 4) chondrogenic induced MSCs and PRP...
2014: PloS One
Alberto Gobbi, Georgios Karnatzikos, Sukesh Rao Sankineani
BACKGROUND: Chondral lesions in athletically active patients cause considerable morbidity, and treatment with existing cell-based therapies can be challenging. Bone marrow has been shown as a possible source of multipotent stem cells (MSCs) with chondrogenic potential and is easy to harvest during the same surgical procedure. PURPOSE: To investigate the clinical outcome in a group of active patients with large full-thickness chondral defects of the knee treated with 1-step surgery using bone marrow-derived MSCs and a second-generation matrix...
March 2014: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Wei-Li Fu, Ying-Fang Ao, Xiao-Yan Ke, Zhuo-Zhao Zheng, Xi Gong, Dong Jiang, Jia-Kuo Yu
Minimal-invasive procedure and one-step surgery offer autologous mesenchymal stem cells derived from peripheral blood (PB-MSCs) a promising prospective in the field of cartilage regeneration. We report a case of a 19-year-old male athlete of kickboxing with ICRS grade IV chondral lesions at the 60° region of lateral femoral trochlea, which was repaired by activating endogenous PB-MSCs plus autologous periosteum flap transplantation combined with correcting the patellofemoral malalignment. After a 7.5 year follow-up, the result showed that the patient returned to competitive kickboxing...
March 2014: Knee
Christopher D Murawski, John G Kennedy
➤ Osteochondral lesions of the talus are common injuries in recreational and professional athletes, with up to 50% of acute ankle sprains and fractures developing some form of chondral injury. Surgical treatment paradigms aim to restore the articular surface with a repair tissue similar to native cartilage and to provide long-term symptomatic relief.➤ Arthroscopic bone-marrow stimulation techniques, such as microfracture and drilling, perforate the subchondral plate with multiple openings to recruit mesenchymal stem cells from the underlying bone marrow to stimulate the differentiation of fibrocartilaginous repair tissue in the defect site...
June 5, 2013: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Brandon J Erickson, Peter N Chalmers, Adam B Yanke, Brian J Cole
Osteochondritis dissecans of the knee primarily affects subchondral bone, with a secondary effect on the overlying articular cartilage. This process can lead to pain, effusions, and loose body formation. While stable juvenile lesions often respond well to nonoperative management, unstable juvenile lesions, as well as symptomatic adult lesions, often require operative intervention. Short-term goals focus on symptomatic relief, while long-term expectations include the hope of preventing early-onset arthritis...
June 2013: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Pawan K Gupta, Anjan K Das, Anoop Chullikana, Anish S Majumdar
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease of the connective tissue and progresses with age in the older population or develops in young athletes following sports-related injury. The articular cartilage is especially vulnerable to damage and has poor potential for regeneration because of the absence of vasculature within the tissue. Normal load-bearing capacity and biomechanical properties of thinning cartilage are severely compromised during the course of disease progression. Although surgical and pharmaceutical interventions are currently available for treating OA, restoration of normal cartilage function has been difficult to achieve...
2012: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
B A Tucker, S S Karamsadkar, Wasim S Khan, P Pastides
The therapeutic use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) has been applied to many different tissue types that are vulnerable to sports injuries. Avenues of treatment include direct injection of BM-MSCs into the defect, however although minimally invasive, research has highlighted flaws which have been improved upon with the use of scaffolds. BM-MSCs have been applied via many different scaffold types, for example PLGA, collagen gel and coral each with advantages and disadvantages of which can be improved through further research...
2010: Journal of Stem Cells
Hideki Takeda, Takumi Nakagawa, Kozo Nakamura, Lars Engebretsen
Articular cartilage defects in the knee of young or active individuals remain a problem in orthopaedic practice. These defects have limited ability to heal and may progress to osteoarthritis. The prevalence of knee osteoarthritis among athletes is higher than in the non-athletic population. The clinical symptoms of osteoarthritis are joint pain, limitation of range of motion and joint stiffness. The diagnosis of osteoarthritis is confirmed by the symptoms and the radiological findings (narrowing joint space, osteophyte formation and subchondral sclerosis)...
April 2011: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Andrea Hoffmann, Gerhard Gross
Our aim is to review the recent progress in the management of musculoskeletal disorders. We will cover novel therapeutic approaches based on growth factors, gene therapy and cells, including stem cells, which may be combined with each other as appropriate. We focus mainly on the treatment of soft tissue injuries - muscle, cartilage, and tendon/ligament for both human and animal athletes. The need for innovative strategies results from the fact that despite all efforts, the current strategies for cartilage and tendon/ligament still result in the formation of functionally and biomechanically inferior tissues after injury (a phenomenon called 'repair' as opposed to proper 'regeneration'), whereas the outcome for muscle is more favorable...
2009: Medicine and Sport Science
Lauren V Schnabel, Maureen E Lynch, Marjolein C H van der Meulen, Amy E Yeager, Matthew A Kornatowski, Alan J Nixon
Tendinitis remains a catastrophic injury among athletes. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have recently been investigated for use in the treatment of tendinitis. Previous work has demonstrated the value of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) to stimulate cellular proliferation and tendon fiber deposition in the core lesion of tendinitis. This study examined the effects of MSCs, as well as IGF-I gene-enhanced MSCs (AdIGF-MSCs) on tendon healing in vivo. Collagenase-induced bilateral tendinitis lesions were created in equine flexor digitorum superficialis tendons (SDFT)...
October 2009: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
M R Steinwachs, P C Kreuz, U Guhlke-Steinwachs, P Niemeyer
Joint cartilage damage in adults has practically no tendency to self healing. Symptomatic grade III/IV damage requires surgical treatment. There are special challenges involved in cartilage damage in the patellofemoral joint as the complicated biomechanics of the joint is often combined with dysplasia. All tissue regeneration measures are based on the recruitment of cells. The synovial cells available in the joint can be differentiated to fibrous cartilage under certain mechanical conditions; however, they cannot sufficiently fill in defects...
September 2008: Der Orthopäde
Yinghua Xu, George A C Murrell
Tendinopathy is a common clinical problem with athletes and in many occupational settings. Tendinopathy can occur in any tendon, often near its insertion or enthesis where there is an area of stress concentration, and is directly related to the volume of repetitive load to which the tendon is exposed. Recent studies indicate tendinopathy is more likely to occur in situations that increase the "dose" of load to the tendon enthesis - including increased activity, weight, advancing age, and genetic factors. The cells in tendinopathic tendon are rounder, more numerous, and show evidence of oxidative damage and more apoptosis...
July 2008: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Riley J Williams, Heather W Harnly
The so-called "marrow stimulating" technique of microfracture uses an awl to penetrate the subchondral bone in cartilage defects. Disruption of the subchondral bone induces fibrin clot formation in the area of the chondral defect. This clot contains pluripotent, marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, which are able to differentiate into fibrochondrocytes, resulting in a fibrocartilage repair with varying amounts of type I, II, and III collagen content. Microfracture is a single-stage procedure that is ideally suited for small, well-contained, Outerbridge grade 3 to 4 cartilage lesions...
2007: Instructional Course Lectures
R Kuroda, K Ishida, T Matsumoto, T Akisue, H Fujioka, K Mizuno, H Ohgushi, S Wakitani, M Kurosaka
OBJECTIVES: Human bone-marrow stromal cells are believed to be multipotent even in adults. This study assessed the effectiveness of autologous bone-marrow stromal cells, which were embedded within a collagen scaffold, to repair a full-thickness articular cartilage defect in the medial femoral condyle of an athlete. PATIENT AND METHODS: A 31-year-old male judo player suffering from pain in the right knee was reviewed. A 20 x 30-mm full-thickness cartilage defect (International Cartilage Repair Society classification (ICRS) grade IV) was revealed in the weight-bearing area of the medial femoral condyle...
February 2007: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
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