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leaky gut and autism

Rafail I Kushak, Timothy M Buie, Katherine F Murray, David S Newburg, Ceng Chen, Eirini Nestoridi, Harland S Winter
OBJECTIVE: Alterations in intestinal function, often characterized as a "leaky gut," have been attributed to children who are on the autism spectrum. Disaccharidase activity, intestinal inflammation, and permeability were analyzed in 61 children with autism and 50 nonautistic individuals with gastrointestinal symptoms. METHODS: All patients had duodenal biopsies assayed for lactase, sucrase, maltase, and palatinase activity. Intestinal permeability was evaluated by rhamnose/lactulose test and measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry...
May 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Elena Lionetti, Salvatore Leonardi, Chiara Franzonello, Margherita Mancardi, Martino Ruggieri, Carlo Catassi
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a syndrome diagnosed in patients with symptoms that respond to removal of gluten from the diet, after celiac disease and wheat allergy have been excluded. NCGS has been related to neuro-psychiatric disorders, such as autism, schizophrenia and depression. A singular report of NCGS presenting with hallucinations has been described in an adult patient. We report a pediatric case of a psychotic disorder clearly related to NCGS and investigate the causes by a review of literature...
July 8, 2015: Nutrients
Bronson Weston, Benjamin Fogal, Daniel Cook, Prasad Dhurjati
The number of cases diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders is rising at an alarming rate with the Centers for Disease Control estimating the 2014 incidence rate as 1 in 68. Recently, it has been hypothesized that gut bacteria may contribute to the development of autism. Specifically, the relative balances between the inflammatory microbes clostridia and desulfovibrio and the anti-inflammatory microbe bifidobacteria may become destabilized prior to autism development. The imbalance leads to a leaky gut, characterized by a more porous epithelial membrane resulting in microbial toxin release into the blood, which may contribute to brain inflammation and autism development...
April 2015: Medical Hypotheses
A Mezzelani, M E Raggi, A Marabotti, L Milanesi
The role of dysbiosis causing leaky gut with xenobiotic production and absorption is increasingly demonstrated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) pathogenesis. Among xenobiotics, we focused on ochratoxin A (one of the major food contaminating mycotoxin), that in vitro and in vivo exerts a male-specific neurotoxicity probably via microRNA modulation of a specific target gene. Among possible targets, we focused on neuroligin4X. Interestingly, this gene carries some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) already correlated with the disease and with illegitimate microRNA binding sites and, being located on X-chromosome, could explain the male prevalence...
2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
Mohtashem Samsam, Raheleh Ahangari, Saleh A Naser
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) comprise a group of neurodevelopmental abnormalities that begin in early childhood and are characterized by impairment of social communication and behavioral problems including restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. Several genes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of ASD, most of them are involved in neuronal synaptogenesis. A number of environmental factors and associated conditions such as gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities and immune imbalance have been linked to the pathophysiology of ASD...
August 7, 2014: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Alessandra Mezzelani, Martina Landini, Francesco Facchiano, Maria Elisabetta Raggi, Laura Villa, Massimo Molteni, Barbara De Santis, Carlo Brera, Anna Maria Caroli, Luciano Milanesi, Anna Marabotti
BACKGROUND: Autism is an increasing neurodevelopmental disease that appears by 3 years of age, has genetic and/or environmental etiology, and often shows comorbid situations, such as gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Autism has also a striking sex-bias, not fully genetically explainable. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to explain how and in which predisposing conditions some compounds can impair neurodevelopment, why this occurs in the first years of age, and, primarily, why more in males than females...
May 2015: Nutritional Neuroscience
Fernando Navarro, Deborah A Pearson, Nicole Fatheree, Rosleen Mansour, S Shahrukh Hashmi, J Marc Rhoads
OBJECTIVES: Studies have suggested a link between diet and behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Parental reports of behavioral changes upon exposure to gluten and/or casein are common in clinical practice. An association between diet type, intestinal permeability (IP) ('leaky gut'), and behavior has been long proposed but not substantiated. We explored this possible association in this trial. METHODS: This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study explored the effects of gluten and milk on IP and behavior in children with ASDs over a period of 4 weeks...
May 2015: Nutritional Neuroscience
Laura de Magistris, Valeria Familiari, Antonio Pascotto, Anna Sapone, Alessandro Frolli, Patrizia Iardino, Maria Carteni, Mario De Rosa, Ruggiero Francavilla, Gabriele Riegler, Roberto Militerni, Carmela Bravaccio
OBJECTIVES: Intestinal permeability (IPT) was investigated in patients with autism as well as in their first-degree relatives to investigate leaky gut hypothesis. Faecal calprotectin (FC) was also measured in patients with autism, either with or without gastrointestinal symptoms, and in their first-degree relatives. PATIENTS AND METHODS: IPT results, assessed by means of the lactulose/mannitol test, were compared with adult and child controls and with FC values...
October 2010: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Anthony F Russo
Metallothioneins (MTs) are a family of small proteins containing 61-68 amino acids with an unusually high concentration of cysteine. MT-1, the most functional and active MT in humans, has the ability to react with and enhance the detoxification of a number of metals including zinc, mercury, copper and cadmium. MT dysfunction may result, then, in many of the aetiological syndromes observed in autistic children, such as the leaky gut. It has been proposed that allergic autoimmune reactions occurring after exposure to heavy metals, may contribute to some symptoms associated with autism...
February 9, 2008: Swiss Medical Weekly
Manuel F Casanova
Gastrointestinal symptoms are common medical problems among autistic patients. A leaky gut and viruses have been proposed as possible culprits but evidence for these etiological agents remains elusive. In this article, we put forward an alternate etiology: abdominal migraines. Recent postmortem studies in autism indicate the presence of a minicolumnopathy and its relationship to both serotonergic abnormalities and a hyperexcitable cortex. These features of phenomenology are also observed in miganeurs. A putative relationship between autism and migraine is further suggested by similarities in clinical histories and laboratory evidence...
2008: Medical Hypotheses
Z Liu, N Li, J Neu
BACKGROUND: Tight junctions (TJs) represent the major barrier within the paracellular pathway between intestinal epithelial cells. Disruption of TJs leads to intestinal hyperpermeability (the so-called "leaky gut") and is implicated in the pathogenesis of several acute and chronic pediatric disease entities that are likely to have their origin during infancy. AIM: This review provides an overview of evidence for the role of TJ breakdown in diseases such as systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 diabetes, allergies, asthma, and autism...
April 2005: Acta Paediatrica
John F White
Autism is a life-long developmental disorder affecting as many as 1 in 500 children. The causes for this profound disorder are largely unknown. Recent research has uncovered pathology in the gastrointestinal tract of autistic children. The pathology, reported to extend from the esophagus to the colon, is described here along with other studies pointing to a connection between diet and the severity of symptoms expressed in autism. The evidence that there is impaired intestinal permeability in autism is reviewed, and various theories are discussed by which a leaky gut could develop...
June 2003: Experimental Biology and Medicine
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