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equine anatomy

E D Aldrich, L R Goodrich, M K Monahan, J D Conway, A Valdés-Martínez
BACKGROUND: Injury to the tendons and ligaments of the equine stifle is a common cause of lameness in horses. Individual radiographic localisation of each tendon and ligament of the stifle has not been previously reported and demonstrated in multiple radiographic projections. OBJECTIVE: To create a series of radiographs identifying the origins and/or insertions of the tendons and ligaments of the equine stifle. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive study of radiographic anatomy...
July 10, 2016: Equine Veterinary Journal
Arjun Ballal, H Ravindranath Rai, Siddharth M Shetty, Lawrence John Mathias, Vikram Shetty, Ashwin Shetty
INTRODUCTION: Managing pilon fractures is still a great challenge for surgeons in terms of reduction and fixation. The soft tissue anatomy and the bony configuration, results in angular and rotational instability and other bony and soft tissue complications. AIM: To evaluate the results of minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis using locking plates in management of fractures of tibial pilon in terms of radiological fracture union, restoration of ankle function and complications...
January 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
A N Fadden, K P Poulsen, J Vanegas, J Mecham, R Bildfell, S M Stieger-Vanegas
Healthy teeth are important in the first stages of digestion for dairy cattle, yet little is known about bovine dental disease. This study aimed to investigate dental pathology of dairy cattle in two parts. First dairy cattle cadaver heads (n=11) were examined at the time of culling. Second, the authors performed oral exams in cattle fed a total mixed ration (TMR) (n=200) and pasture-based (n=71) grazing cattle. Cadaver heads were imaged using radiography and computed tomography before gross dissection to study dental anatomy and pathology...
January 2, 2016: Veterinary Record
Vicky Simons
After her final year studying veterinary medicine at the Royal Veterinary College (RVC) and before starting an internship, Vicky Simons took on the job of creating a life-size equine anatomical model 'anatohorse' (also known as Geoff).
December 19, 2015: Veterinary Record
R Senos, M S Ribeiro, K de Souza Martins, L V Pereira, M F Mattos, J R Kfoury Júnior, M R Rodrigues
Although bodypainting has been reported as a great resource for teaching surface anatomy of humans, its use in veterinary anatomy has not been scientifically reported. In the present study, bodypainting was performed on 4 horses for anatomy teaching purposes of the equine locomotor apparatus. We aimed to use the bodypainting method as an additional tool to classic teaching and to test the relevance of our purpose. Twenty one Brazilian veterinary students were given a 90-min session, which included a presentation of painted horses, with opportunities for the students to ask questions and to palpate anatomic locations on the horses...
2015: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
C Staszyk
The routine inspection of the equine oral cavity allows a numerical assessment of the teeth and provides information about positional changes within the dentition. By use of appropriate dental equipment, the occlusal surfaces of all teeth can be inspected and diagnosed. However, neither the teeth nor their occlusal surfaces are constant structures. Instead, equine teeth and, in particular, their occlusal surfaces are subjected to continuous morphological and positional changes due to the effects of aging and the equine-specific high amount of occlusal wear...
2015: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
T J Froydenlund, P M Dixon, S H Smith, R J M Reardon
The morphology of the dorsal conchal bulla (DCB) and ventral conchal bulla (VCB) are poorly described. The recent recognition that these bullae can become infected, causing chronic unilateral nasal discharge, has stimulated interest in these structures. Fourteen cadaveric horse heads were transected sagittally midline and dissected to expose the nasal conchal bullae. The dimensions of each bulla, the number and orientation of drainage apertures, and cellulae septae were recorded. Randomly selected samples were examined histologically...
November 28, 2015: Veterinary Record
Katharina Thieme, Anna Ehrle, Christoph Lischer
Knowledge of the normal radiographic anatomy of the equine foot and the relationship between the distal phalanx and the hoof capsule is imperative for objective assessment of hoof health. Little information is available for the hooves of ponies. The aim of this study was to establish a database of reference values for normal ponies and to investigate the relationship between the height at the withers and radiographic measurements of the hooves. Radiographic examinations were performed on 81 ponies, ranging from 81...
December 2015: Veterinary Journal
Lisa S Lancaster, Robert M Bowker
Veterinary acupuncture charts were developed based on the concept of transpositional points whereby human acupuncture maps were adapted to animal anatomy. Transpositional acupuncture points have traditionally been placed in specific locations around the horse's coronet and distal limb believed to be the closest approximation to the human distal limb points. Because the horse has a single digit and lacks several structures analogous to the human hand and foot, precisely transposing all of the human digital points is not anatomically possible...
2012: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
T Liuti, R Reardon, S Smith, P M Dixon
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Infection of the dorsal nasal conchal bulla and ventral nasal conchal bulla has recently been shown to cause clinical disease in horses, but the anatomy of these 2 structures is poorly documented. OBJECTIVES: To describe the anatomical features, dimensions and relationships to adjacent structures of the dorsal conchal bulla and ventra conchal bulla in normal horses using computed tomography (CT). STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive imaging study using cadavers...
November 2016: Equine Veterinary Journal
R Pascalau, C C Aldea, V A Padurean, B Szabo
The spatial anatomy of the white matter tracts is a subject of growing interest not only for researchers but also for clinicians. Imagistic methods have some limitations so that they should be confronted with dissection studies. The aim of this paper was to provide a three-dimensional view of the major white matter tracts in equine, feline and canine brains by use of the fibre dissection technique. Twenty cerebral hemispheres (six equine, four feline and 10 canine brains) were prepared according to the Klingler method...
October 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
T J Froydenlund, P M Dixon, S H Smith, R J M Reardon
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: The morphology of the dorsal (DCB) and ventral (VCB) nasal conchal bullae, including their cellulae, drainage and histology, are poorly described. The recent recognition that these bullae can become infected, causing chronic unilateral nasal discharge has stimulated interest in these structures. A more complete understanding of their anatomy would be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of their disorders. OBJECTIVES: To document the structure, drainage and histology of the equine DCB and VCB...
September 2015: Equine Veterinary Journal
R Tucker, Z E Windley, A D Abernethy, T H Witte, A R Fiske-Jackson, S Turner, L J Smith, J D Perkins
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Knowledge of imaging anatomy, surgical anatomy and disorders affecting the sphenopalatine sinus are currently lacking. OBJECTIVES: To describe the computed tomographic (CT) and surgical anatomy of the sphenopalatine sinus and diagnosis, treatment and outcome in clinical cases with sphenopalatine sinus disease. STUDY DESIGN: Cadaver observational study and retrospective case series. METHODS: The sphenopalatine sinuses of 10 normal cadaver heads were examined with digital radiography, CT and sinoscopic examination prior to anatomical sectioning...
September 2016: Equine Veterinary Journal
Nurul H Khairuddin, Martin Sullivan, Patrick J Pollock
OBJECTIVES: To record the angiographic anatomy of the equine internal carotid artery (ICA) using angiography techniques. STUDY DESIGN: In vitro descriptive study. SAMPLE POPULATION: Equine cadaver specimens (n = 50). METHODS: Head and neck specimens from horses of mixed breed, age, sex, and use without a history of guttural pouch disease had carotid and cerebral angiography using conventional (n = 7) and rotational angiography (43)...
August 2015: Veterinary Surgery: VS
K E Jones
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: The thoracolumbar region is clinically important in horses; however, the link between joint mobility and bony joint morphology has not been tested quantitatively. OBJECTIVES: To establish which aspects of vertebral morphology correlate with ex vivo range of motion in the thoracolumbar region of Equus caballus, and demonstrate methodologies for linking vertebral form and function. STUDY DESIGN: Morphometric study of osteological specimens...
July 2016: Equine Veterinary Journal
Rita Gonçalves, Fernando Malalana, James Fraser McConnell, Thomas Maddox
For accurate interpretation of magnetic resonance (MR) images of the equine brain, knowledge of the normal cross-sectional anatomy of the brain and associated structures (such as the cranial nerves) is essential. The purpose of this prospective cadaver study was to describe and compare MRI and computed tomography (CT) anatomy of cranial nerves' origins and associated skull foramina in a sample of five horses. All horses were presented for euthanasia for reasons unrelated to the head. Heads were collected posteuthanasia and T2-weighted MR images were obtained in the transverse, sagittal, and dorsal planes...
July 2015: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
David E Freeman
The most common disorders of the equine guttural pouches are empyema, tympany, mycosis, and temporohyoid osteoarthropathy. Diagnosis of these conditions is made primarily by imaging with endoscopy, radiographs, computed tomography, and/or MRI. Medical treatment with anti-inflammatories, antimicrobials, and/or antifungals may be successful in some cases, but many of these disorders necessitate surgical intervention. Direct surgical approaches to the guttural pouch are difficult because of their complex anatomy and relationship with important structures, thus precipitating a move toward minimally invasive procedures when possible...
April 2015: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
S L Pownder, M F Koff, P H Shah, L A Fortier, H G Potter
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Post operative imaging in subjects with orthopaedic implants is challenging across all modalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is preferred to assess human post operative musculoskeletal complications, as soft tissue and bones are evaluated without using ionising radiation. However, with conventional MRI pulse sequences, metal creates susceptibility artefact that distorts anatomy. Assessment of the post operative equine patient is arguably more challenging due to the volume of metal present, and MRI is often not performed in horses with implants...
May 2016: Equine Veterinary Journal
C D'Août, J F Nisolle, M Navez, R Perrin, T Launois, L Brogniez, P Clegg, F Hontoir, J M Vandeweerd
Traumatic and infectious diseases of the eye and orbit can occur in horses. For diagnosis and monitoring of such diseases, medical imaging is useful including computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of the current study was to describe CT and MRI anatomy of the equine orbit and ocular globe. The heads from four adult horses were scanned with a 6-slice Emotion 6 CT (Siemens, Erlangen), and a 3.0 Tesla Siemens Verio 6 MRI using T1 and T2-weighted sequences. To validate CT and MR reference images, these were compared with anatomical models and gross anatomical sections...
October 2015: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Ji H Park, Timothy Shurtleff, Jack Engsberg, Sandy Rafferty, Joshua Y You, Isaac Y You, Sung H You
While the novel robotic hippotherapy system has gradually gained clinical application for therapeutic intervention on postural and locomotor control in individuals with neurological or musculoskeletal impairments, the system's validity and reliability for the robotic hippotherapy system has not been well established. The objective of the current study was to investigate the validity and test-retest reliability of the robotic hippotherapy system by comparing with real horse movements. The 3-axis accelerometer sensors attached on the robotic and real horse saddles were used to collect 3-dimensional acceleration data at a preferred walking velocity...
2014: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
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