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equine anatomy

Judith A Findley, Emanuele E Ricci, Ellen E Singer
OBJECTIVES: The main aim was to describe the gross and histological appearance of the equine manica flexoria and to identify any differences between the forelimbs and hindlimbs. An additional aim was to relate the findings to diagnostic and surgical anatomy of the manica flexoria. METHODS: Measurements of the manica flexoria were made on cadaveric limbs from horses free from pathology within the digital flexor tendon sheath. Histological sections, stained with haematoxylin and eosin and alcian- periodic acid schiff, were evaluated based on three micro-anatomical zones from dorsal to palmar or plantar...
January 27, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
A Ehrle, L Ressel, E Ricci, E R Singer
Pain related to the osseous thoracolumbar spine is common in the equine athlete, with minimal information available regarding soft tissue pathology. The aims of this study were to describe the anatomy of the equine SSL and ISL (supraspinous and interspinous ligaments) in detail and to assess the innervation of the ligaments and their myofascial attachments including the thoracolumbar fascia. Ten equine thoracolumbar spines (T15-L1) were dissected to define structure and anatomy of the SSL, ISL and adjacent myofascial attachments...
January 25, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Sina Frei, Hans Geyer, Seamus Hoey, Anton E Fuerst, Andrea S Bischofberger
OBJECTIVES: To determine scapular cortex thickness, distal scapular bone density and describe the exact suprascapular nerve course to evaluate the best plate position for the fixation of supraglenoid tubercle fractures in horses. METHODS: Twelve equine cadaveric shoulders were examined with computed tomography. Computed tomography morphometry and density measurements (Hounsfield units [HU]) of the scapula were recorded. Statistical comparisons were made between the cranial and caudal aspects of the scapula...
January 17, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
Franck Forterre, Michael H Stoffel, Christoph Koch, Christina Precht, Maja Waschk, Alexander Bürki
OBJECTIVES: Atlantoaxial instability has been reported in humans, dogs, equids and ruminants. The functional role of the atlantoaxial ligaments has only been described rudimentarily in equids and ruminants. The goal of the present cadaveric study was to compare the anatomy between the different species and to comparatively assess the role of the stabilizing ligaments of the atlantoaxial joint under sagittal shear loading in canine, equine, and bovine cervical spines. METHODS: Three equine, bovine, and canine cadaveric specimens were investigated...
January 17, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
Santiago S Diab, Susan M Stover, Francisco Carvallo, Akinyi C Nyaoke, Janet Moore, Ashley Hill, Rick Arthur, Francisco A Uzal
Catastrophic musculoskeletal injuries are the most common cause of euthanasia or spontaneous death in racehorses, and the most common cause of jockey falls with potential for serious human injury. Horses are predisposed to the vast majority of these injuries by preexisting lesions that can be prevented by early diagnosis and adequate bone injury management. A thorough examination of the musculoskeletal system in racehorses often determines the cause of these injuries and generates data to develop injury prevention strategies...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
K Adams, E Schulz-Kornas, B Arzi, K Failing, J Vogelsberg, C Staszyk
In the last decade, the equine masticatory apparatus has received much attention. Numerous studies have emphasized the importance of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in the functional process of mastication. However, ultrastructural and histological data providing a basis for biomechanical and histopathological considerations are not available. The aim of the present study was to analyze the architecture of the collagen fiber apparatus in the articular surfaces of the equine TMJ to reveal typical morphological features indicating biomechanical adaptions...
November 2016: Veterinary Journal
E D Aldrich, L R Goodrich, M K Monahan, J D Conway, A Valdés-Martínez
REASON FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Injury to the tendons and ligaments of the equine stifle is a common cause of lameness in horses. Individual radiographic localisation of each tendon and ligament of the stifle has not been previously reported or demonstrated in multiple radiographic projections. OBJECTIVE: To create a series of radiographs identifying the origins and/or insertions of the tendons and ligaments of the equine stifle. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive study of radiographic anatomy...
July 10, 2016: Equine Veterinary Journal
Arjun Ballal, H Ravindranath Rai, Siddharth M Shetty, Lawrence John Mathias, Vikram Shetty, Ashwin Shetty
INTRODUCTION: Managing pilon fractures is still a great challenge for surgeons in terms of reduction and fixation. The soft tissue anatomy and the bony configuration, results in angular and rotational instability and other bony and soft tissue complications. AIM: To evaluate the results of minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis using locking plates in management of fractures of tibial pilon in terms of radiological fracture union, restoration of ankle function and complications...
January 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
A N Fadden, K P Poulsen, J Vanegas, J Mecham, R Bildfell, S M Stieger-Vanegas
Healthy teeth are important in the first stages of digestion for dairy cattle, yet little is known about bovine dental disease. This study aimed to investigate dental pathology of dairy cattle in two parts. First dairy cattle cadaver heads (n=11) were examined at the time of culling. Second, the authors performed oral exams in cattle fed a total mixed ration (TMR) (n=200) and pasture-based (n=71) grazing cattle. Cadaver heads were imaged using radiography and computed tomography before gross dissection to study dental anatomy and pathology...
January 2, 2016: Veterinary Record
Vicky Simons
After her final year studying veterinary medicine at the Royal Veterinary College (RVC) and before starting an internship, Vicky Simons took on the job of creating a life-size equine anatomical model 'anatohorse' (also known as Geoff).
December 19, 2015: Veterinary Record
R Senos, M S Ribeiro, K de Souza Martins, L V Pereira, M F Mattos, J R Kfoury Júnior, M R Rodrigues
Although bodypainting has been reported as a great resource for teaching surface anatomy of humans, its use in veterinary anatomy has not been scientifically reported. In the present study, bodypainting was performed on 4 horses for anatomy teaching purposes of the equine locomotor apparatus. We aimed to use the bodypainting method as an additional tool to classic teaching and to test the relevance of our purpose. Twenty one Brazilian veterinary students were given a 90-min session, which included a presentation of painted horses, with opportunities for the students to ask questions and to palpate anatomic locations on the horses...
2015: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
C Staszyk
The routine inspection of the equine oral cavity allows a numerical assessment of the teeth and provides information about positional changes within the dentition. By use of appropriate dental equipment, the occlusal surfaces of all teeth can be inspected and diagnosed. However, neither the teeth nor their occlusal surfaces are constant structures. Instead, equine teeth and, in particular, their occlusal surfaces are subjected to continuous morphological and positional changes due to the effects of aging and the equine-specific high amount of occlusal wear...
2015: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
T J Froydenlund, P M Dixon, S H Smith, R J M Reardon
The morphology of the dorsal conchal bulla (DCB) and ventral conchal bulla (VCB) are poorly described. The recent recognition that these bullae can become infected, causing chronic unilateral nasal discharge, has stimulated interest in these structures. Fourteen cadaveric horse heads were transected sagittally midline and dissected to expose the nasal conchal bullae. The dimensions of each bulla, the number and orientation of drainage apertures, and cellulae septae were recorded. Randomly selected samples were examined histologically...
November 28, 2015: Veterinary Record
Katharina Thieme, Anna Ehrle, Christoph Lischer
Knowledge of the normal radiographic anatomy of the equine foot and the relationship between the distal phalanx and the hoof capsule is imperative for objective assessment of hoof health. Little information is available for the hooves of ponies. The aim of this study was to establish a database of reference values for normal ponies and to investigate the relationship between the height at the withers and radiographic measurements of the hooves. Radiographic examinations were performed on 81 ponies, ranging from 81...
December 2015: Veterinary Journal
Lisa S Lancaster, Robert M Bowker
Veterinary acupuncture charts were developed based on the concept of transpositional points whereby human acupuncture maps were adapted to animal anatomy. Transpositional acupuncture points have traditionally been placed in specific locations around the horse's coronet and distal limb believed to be the closest approximation to the human distal limb points. Because the horse has a single digit and lacks several structures analogous to the human hand and foot, precisely transposing all of the human digital points is not anatomically possible...
2012: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
T Liuti, R Reardon, S Smith, P M Dixon
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Infection of the dorsal nasal conchal bulla and ventral nasal conchal bulla has recently been shown to cause clinical disease in horses, but the anatomy of these 2 structures is poorly documented. OBJECTIVES: To describe the anatomical features, dimensions and relationships to adjacent structures of the dorsal conchal bulla and ventra conchal bulla in normal horses using computed tomography (CT). STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive imaging study using cadavers...
November 2016: Equine Veterinary Journal
R Pascalau, C C Aldea, V A Padurean, B Szabo
The spatial anatomy of the white matter tracts is a subject of growing interest not only for researchers but also for clinicians. Imagistic methods have some limitations so that they should be confronted with dissection studies. The aim of this paper was to provide a three-dimensional view of the major white matter tracts in equine, feline and canine brains by use of the fibre dissection technique. Twenty cerebral hemispheres (six equine, four feline and 10 canine brains) were prepared according to the Klingler method...
October 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
T J Froydenlund, P M Dixon, S H Smith, R J M Reardon
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: The morphology of the dorsal (DCB) and ventral (VCB) nasal conchal bullae, including their cellulae, drainage and histology, are poorly described. The recent recognition that these bullae can become infected, causing chronic unilateral nasal discharge has stimulated interest in these structures. A more complete understanding of their anatomy would be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of their disorders. OBJECTIVES: To document the structure, drainage and histology of the equine DCB and VCB...
September 2015: Equine Veterinary Journal
R Tucker, Z E Windley, A D Abernethy, T H Witte, A R Fiske-Jackson, S Turner, L J Smith, J D Perkins
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Knowledge of imaging anatomy, surgical anatomy and disorders affecting the sphenopalatine sinus are currently lacking. OBJECTIVES: To describe the computed tomographic (CT) and surgical anatomy of the sphenopalatine sinus and diagnosis, treatment and outcome in clinical cases with sphenopalatine sinus disease. STUDY DESIGN: Cadaver observational study and retrospective case series. METHODS: The sphenopalatine sinuses of 10 normal cadaver heads were examined with digital radiography, CT and sinoscopic examination prior to anatomical sectioning...
September 2016: Equine Veterinary Journal
Nurul H Khairuddin, Martin Sullivan, Patrick J Pollock
OBJECTIVES: To record the angiographic anatomy of the equine internal carotid artery (ICA) using angiography techniques. STUDY DESIGN: In vitro descriptive study. SAMPLE POPULATION: Equine cadaver specimens (n = 50). METHODS: Head and neck specimens from horses of mixed breed, age, sex, and use without a history of guttural pouch disease had carotid and cerebral angiography using conventional (n = 7) and rotational angiography (43)...
August 2015: Veterinary Surgery: VS
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