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equine foot

Kirsty Leśniak, Jane Williams, Kerry Kuznik, Peter Douglas
Variation in equine hoof conformation between farriery interventions lacks research, despite associations with distal limb injuries. This study aimed to determine linear and angular hoof variations pre- and post-farriery within a four to six week shoeing/trimming interval. Seventeen hoof and distal limb measurements were drawn from lateral and anterior digital photographs from 26 horses pre- and post-farriery. Most lateral view variables changed significantly. Reductions of the dorsal wall, and weight bearing and coronary band lengths resulted in an increased vertical orientation of the hoof...
March 29, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Mehmet Mesut Sonmez, Raffi Armagan, Meric Ugurlar, Tugrul Eren
Displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures are difficult to treat. We determined the functional results and complications of using allografts or equine xenografts in treating these fractures. We reviewed patients seen at our center from May 2011 to December 2014 with Sanders type III or IV unilateral calcaneal fractures treated with locking plates and an additional bone allograft or equine xenograft. A minimum of 1 year after surgery, a history of infection and functional outcomes were assessed using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society clinical rating system...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Elisabetta Groppelli, Hazel C Levy, Eileen Sun, Mike Strauss, Clare Nicol, Sarah Gold, Xiaowei Zhuang, Tobias J Tuthill, James M Hogle, David J Rowlands
Picornaviruses are non-enveloped RNA viruses that enter cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis. Because they lack an envelope, picornaviruses face the challenge of delivering their RNA genomes across the membrane of the endocytic vesicle into the cytoplasm to initiate infection. Currently, the mechanism of genome release and translocation across membranes remains poorly understood. Within the enterovirus genus, poliovirus, rhinovirus 2, and rhinovirus 16 have been proposed to release their genomes across intact endosomal membranes through virally induced pores, whereas one study has proposed that rhinovirus 14 releases its RNA following disruption of endosomal membranes...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
Hugues Beaufrère, Delphine Laniesse, Paul Stickings, Robert Tierney, Thea Sesardic, Durda Slavic, Nicole Compo, Dale A Smith
A 2-yr-old male gyrfalcon ( Falco rusticolus ) was presented for severe and generalized muscle spasticity and pododermatitis. The falcon had been treated for pododermatitis over the previous 4 mo. Muscle rigidity and spasms involved the entire bird but were more severe on the right leg. The bird was also tachypneic and hyperthermic at 45 C. While the plantar pododermatitis lesions had healed, there was still a small abscess on the lateral aspect of the right foot. Clinical signs were consistent with tetanus...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
Flavia Caridi, Rodrigo Cañas-Arranz, Angela Vázquez-Calvo, Francisco Sobrino, Miguel A Martín-Acebes
Equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV) is a picornavirus associated with respiratory disease in horses and is genetically closely related to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), the prototype aphthovirus. ERAV has recently gained interest as an FMDV alternative for the study of aphthovirus biology, including cell entry and uncoating or antiviral testing. As described for FMDV, current data support that acidic pH inside cellular endosomes triggers ERAV uncoating. In order to provide further insights into aphthovirus uncoating mechanism, we have isolated a panel of ERAV mutants with altered acid sensitivity and that differed on their degree of sensitivity to the inhibition of endosome acidification...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
Emanuela Dalla Costa, Diana Stucke, Francesca Dai, Michela Minero, Matthew C Leach, Dirk Lebelt
Acute laminitis is a common equine disease characterized by intense foot pain, both acutely and chronically. The Obel grading system is the most widely accepted method for describing the severity of laminitis by equine practitioners, however this method requires movement (walk and trot) of the horse, causing further intense pain. The recently developed Horse Grimace Scale (HGS), a facial-expression-based pain coding system, may offer a more effective means of assessing the pain associated with acute laminitis...
August 3, 2016: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
L A Reperant, I H Brown, O L Haenen, M D de Jong, A D M E Osterhaus, A Papa, E Rimstad, J-F Valarcher, T Kuiken
Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viruses and viruses of food production animals, and prioritized these viruses in terms of human health and economic importance...
July 2016: Journal of Comparative Pathology
Olga Panagiotopoulou, Jeffery W Rankin, Stephen M Gatesy, John R Hutchinson
Horse racing is a multi-billion-dollar industry that has raised welfare concerns due to injured and euthanized animals. Whilst the cause of musculoskeletal injuries that lead to horse morbidity and mortality is multifactorial, pre-existing pathologies, increased speeds and substrate of the racecourse are likely contributors to foot disease. Horse hooves have the ability to naturally deform during locomotion and dissipate locomotor stresses, yet farriery approaches are utilised to increase performance and protect hooves from wear...
2016: PeerJ
Cristin A McCarty, Jeffrey J Thomason, Karen D Gordon, Timothy A Burkhart, Jaques S Milner, David W Holdsworth
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the transient stresses of foot impact with the ground are similar to those found during midstance loading and if the location of high stress correlate with the sites most commonly associated with mechanically induced osteoarthritis (OA). We compared impact stresses in subchondral bone between two subject-specific, three-dimensional, finite-element models of the equine metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint-one with advanced OA and one healthy, and with similar published data on the stresses that occur at midstance...
2016: PloS One
C F R Paz, J F Magalhães, H M F Mendes, SdS Rocha Junior, J K Belknap, G E S Alves, R R Faleiros
We examined the hypothesis that the palmar digital nerves (PDNs), but not the dorsal branches (DBs) of the digital nerves, innervate the sensitive dorsal laminae of the equine foot by evaluating the effects of perineural anaesthesia of the PDNs and DBs separately on pain sensation evoked via mechanical stimulation of the dorsal laminae and other regions of the equine foot. Six clinically normal mares were used in a crossover design. A portable dynamometer was used to evaluate mechanical nociceptive thresholds at different points on the dorsal laminae, bulbs of the heel, coronary band and sole before and after the horses underwent perineural injection of PDNs or DBs with a local anaesthetic solution (treated group) or an isotonic saline solution (control group)...
August 2016: Veterinary Journal
J Whitlock, J Dixon, C Sherlock, R Tucker, D M Bolt, R Weller
Since the 1950s, veterinary practitioners have included two separate dorsoproximal-palmarodistal oblique (DPr-PaDiO) radiographs as part of a standard series of the equine foot. One image is obtained to visualise the distal phalanx and the other to visualise the navicular bone. However, rapid development of computed radiography and digital radiography and their post-processing capabilities could mean that this practice is no longer required. The aim of this study was to determine differences in perceived image quality between DPr-PaDiO radiographs that were acquired with a computerised radiography system with exposures, centring and collimation recommended for the navicular bone versus images acquired for the distal phalanx but were subsequently manipulated post-acquisition to highlight the navicular bone...
May 21, 2016: Veterinary Record
Yanqin Wang, Qingfu Mao, Huiyun Chang, Yongyan Wu, Shaohui Pan, Yanhe Li, Yong Zhang
Integrins can function as receptors for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in epithelium. Horses are believed to be insusceptible to this disease, but the mechanism of resistance remains unclear. To detect whether FMDV can use integrin to attach to equine epithelial, we compared the utilities of αvβ3 and αvβ6 between bovine and equine kidney epithelial cells (KECs). Equine KECs showed almost equal efficiency to those of bovine. Further, the integrin αv, β3, and β6 subunits from bovine and equine were cloned and vectors were transfected into SW480 cells and COS-1 cells alone or together, and virus titers were used to determine the viral replication...
May 2016: Virology
Gi Jung Hyun, Tae-Woon Jung, Jeong Ha Park, Kyoung Doo Kang, Sun Mi Kim, Young Don Son, Jae Hoon Cheong, Bung-Nyun Kim, Doug Hyun Han
OBJECTIVES: Equine-assisted activity and training (EAAT) is thought to improve body balance and clinical symptoms in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study hypostheses were that EAAT would improve the clinical symptoms and gait balance in children with ADHD and that these improvements would be associated with increased brain connectivity within the balance circuit. METHODS: A total of 12 children with ADHD and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy control children were recruited...
April 2016: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
Cristina Kraemer Zimpel, Ana Laura Grazziotin, Ivan Roque de Barros Filho, Ana Marcia de Sa Guimaraes, Leonilda Correia dos Santos, Wanderlei de Moraes, Zalmir Silvino Cubas, Marcos Jose de Oliveira, Edviges Maristela Pituco, Maria do Carmo Custódio de Souza Hunold Lara, Eliana Monteforte Cassaro Villalobos, Lília Marcia Paulin Silva, Elenice Maria Sequetin Cunha, Vanessa Castro, Alexander Welker Biondo
A large number of Brazilian zoos keep many endangered species of deer, however, very few disease surveillance studies have been conducted among captive cervids. Blood samples from 32 Brazilian deer (Blastocerus dichotomus, Mazama nana and Mazama americana) kept in captivity at Bela Vista Biological Sanctuary (Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil) were investigated for 10 ruminant pathogens, with the aims of monitoring deer health status and evaluating any potential zoonotic risk. Deer serum samples were tested for Brucella abortus, Leptospira (23 serovars), Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, bovine viral diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, western equine encephalitis virus, eastern equine encephalitis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus...
October 2015: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
J B Mason, B L Gurda, A Van Wettere, J B Engiles, J M Wilson, D W Richardson
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Our long-term aim is to develop a gene therapy approach for the prevention of laminitis in the contralateral foot of horses with major musculoskeletal injuries and non-weightbearing lameness. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to develop a practical method to efficiently deliver therapeutic proteins deep within the equine foot. STUDY DESIGN: Randomised in vivo experiment. METHODS: We used recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (rAAVs) to deliver marker genes using regional limb perfusion through the palmar digital artery of the horse...
January 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
Wenling Gao, Yuki Chan, Meng You, Donnabella C Lacap-Bugler, W Keung Leung, Rory M Watt
This study explored the range of bacterial taxa present within healthy subgingival (below the gum-line) niches in the horse oral cavity using 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing. Pooled subgingival plaque samples were collected from approximately 200 sulcus sites from two horses (EQ1, EQ2) for analysis. A total of 14,260 quality-filtered pyrosequencing reads were obtained, which were assigned to 3875 operational taxonomic units (OTUs; 99% identity cut-off); 1907 OTUs for EQ1 and 2156 OTUs for EQ2. Diverse taxa from 12 phyla were identified, including Actinobacteria (3...
May 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Katharina Thieme, Anna Ehrle, Christoph Lischer
Knowledge of the normal radiographic anatomy of the equine foot and the relationship between the distal phalanx and the hoof capsule is imperative for objective assessment of hoof health. Little information is available for the hooves of ponies. The aim of this study was to establish a database of reference values for normal ponies and to investigate the relationship between the height at the withers and radiographic measurements of the hooves. Radiographic examinations were performed on 81 ponies, ranging from 81...
December 2015: Veterinary Journal
T Lühe, N Mielenz, J Schulz, C Dreyer-Rendelsmann, N Kemper
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Environmental factors contribute to respiratory diseases in horses and man. During exercise, equine ventilation is increased, potentially increasing exposure of the airways to inhaled particulates. Currently, there is very little information on the quality of air in riding arenas. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate air quality and dust particle concentrations in indoor riding arenas before and after use for riding. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal study...
January 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
C E Medina-Torres, C Underwood, C C Pollitt, E M Castro-Olivera, M P Hodson, D W Richardson, A W van Eps
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: A suitable method for evaluating lamellar perfusion changes and their metabolic consequences is currently lacking. OBJECTIVES: To examine perfusion changes in lamellar tissue using serial microdialysis measurements of urea clearance and energy metabolites. STUDY DESIGN: Randomised, controlled (within subject) experimental trial. METHODS: Nine Standardbred horses were instrumented with microdialysis probes in the foot lamellar tissue and skin (over the tail base)...
November 2016: Equine Veterinary Journal
Lisa S Lancaster, Robert M Bowker
Veterinary acupuncture charts were developed based on the concept of transpositional points whereby human acupuncture maps were adapted to animal anatomy. Transpositional acupuncture points have traditionally been placed in specific locations around the horse's coronet and distal limb believed to be the closest approximation to the human distal limb points. Because the horse has a single digit and lacks several structures analogous to the human hand and foot, precisely transposing all of the human digital points is not anatomically possible...
2012: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
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