Read by QxMD icon Read

physiology of pleural space

Hideo Saka, Masahide Oki, Chiyoe Kitagawa, Yoshihito Kogure, Yuki Kojima, Akiko M Saito, Atsuko Ishida, Teruomi Miyazawa, Koji Takeda, Kazuhiko Nakagawa, Shinji Sasada, Shunichi Negoro
Background: Malignant pleural effusion is a commonly seen complication of malignancies such as lung and breast cancers. In Western countries, talc is frequently used as a standard therapeutic agent (pleurodesis agent) with the aim of alleviating symptoms including dyspnea and chest pain. Talc is not recognized as a pleurodesis agent in Japan. The aim of this study was to verify the efficacy and safety of sterilized talc (NPC-05) for the introduction of talc in Japan. Methods: The study was a single-arm, open-label, investigator-initiated trial conducted jointly at six institutions...
March 8, 2018: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
Ralph Llewel Sabang, Deepthi Gandhiraj, Michael Fanucchi, Oleg Epelbaum
Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is a feature of metastatic cancer associated with significant morbidity and cost. The typical management of MPE is systemic chemotherapy and mechanical intervention. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an inducer of vascular permeability, has been shown to mediate fluid formation. Therefore, bevacizumab, an inhibitor of VEGF, offers theoretical promise for abolishing fluid formation in MPE. Areas covered: This review begins with a summary of VEGF physiology and evidence of its role in MPE pathogenesis...
February 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Domenico Luca Grieco, Lu Chen, Laurent Brochard
Transpulmonary pressure (P L ) is computed as the difference between airway pressure and pleural pressure and separates the pressure delivered to the lung from the one acting on chest wall and abdomen. Pleural pressure is measured as esophageal pressure (P ES ) through dedicated catheters provided with esophageal balloons. We discuss the role of P L in assessing the effects of mechanical ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In the supine position, directly measured P L represents the pressure acting on the alveoli and airways...
July 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
Duneesha de Fonseka, Anthony Edey, Louise Stadon, Jason Viner, Michael Darby, Nick A Maskell
OBJECTIVE: Diffuse pleural thickening (DPT) refers to extensive visceral pleural fibrosis with adhesion formation to the parietal pleura obliterating the pleural space. The radiological definition of DPT remains controversial with most of the literature requiring the presence of an obliterated costophrenic angle (CPA) for defining DPT. We conducted a study to investigate the variable distributions of DPT and associated lung function deficit. METHODS: 85 patients referred to a pleural clinic with suspected pleural thickening were screened for our study...
August 2017: British Journal of Radiology
R Ananda Raja, R Sridhar, C Balachandran, A Palanisammi, S Ramesh, K Nagarajan
A pathobiological study was conducted using Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VP ) strain isolated from vibriosis affected shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) farms in Kancheepuram and Thiruvallur districts of Tamil Nadu during August 2014 to February 2015. The isolate was identified based on the morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular characters. LD50 value with intramuscular injection was determined as 2.6 × 104  cfu/shrimp and sequential pathology was studied giving 6.1 × 103  cfu/shrimp (LD25 ). Total plate count (TPC) and total Vibrio count (TVC) in water, pond sediment, haemolymph, muscle, HP and gut were found significantly (P < 0...
August 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Yuanlin Song, Linlin Wang, Jian Wang, Chunxue Bai
Aquaporins (AQPs ) are water channel proteins supposed to facilitating fluid transport in alveolar space, airway humidification, pleural fluid absorption, and submucosal gland secretion . In this chapter, we mainly focus on the expression of 4 AQPs in the lungs which include AQP1, AQP2 , AQP4 and AQP5 in normal and disease status, and the experience of AQPs function from various model and transgenic mice were summarized in detail to improve our understanding of the role of AQPs in fluid balance of respiratory system...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Stephen H Loring, George P Topulos, Rolf D Hubmayr
Recent studies applying the principles of respiratory mechanics to respiratory disease have used inconsistent and mutually exclusive definitions of the term "transpulmonary pressure." By the traditional definition, transpulmonary pressure is the pressure across the whole lung, including the intrapulmonary airways, (i.e., the pressure difference between the opening to the pulmonary airway and the pleural surface). However, more recently transpulmonary pressure has also been defined as the pressure across only the lung tissue (i...
December 15, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Helen Williams
It is proposed that negative central nervous system (CNS) pressure is one of the filling mechanisms of the fluid spaces of the CNS. Negative CNS pressure is caused by the combination of gravitational force and body movement. The venous system imposes pressure fluctuations on the CNS due to changes in posture and body cavity pressure. It is proposed here that filling of veins, arteries and cerebrospinal (CSF) spaces are all assisted by negative CNS pressure. Hyperemia in the CNS in response to pressure changes with movement was described in the first part of this hypothesis...
September 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Giancarlo Gargano, Anna Lucia Paltrinieri, Claudio Gallo, Luciana Di Pancrazio, Maria Federica Roversi, Fabrizio Ferrari
BACKGROUND: Thymic enlargement is a common and physiological finding in children and neonates' X-rays, but it is usually asymptomatic. Occasionally it can cause respiratory distress. In most cases the aetiology of this expansion remains unclear and it is diagnosed as a thymic hyperplasia. True thymic hyperplasia is defined as a gland expansion, both in size and weight, while maintaining normal microscopic architecture. Often it is a diagnosis of exclusion and prognosis is good. Thymic haemorrhage is an unusual condition related to high foetal and neonatal mortality...
2015: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Jonathan Strutt, Anupam Kharbanda
Pediatric thoracostomy procedures are used in the emergency department to treat diseases of the pleural space. As children have unique thoracic anatomy and physiology, they may present with management challenges that the emergency clinician must consider. This issue reviews the use of chest tubes and pigtail catheters in pediatric patients, techniques and indications for placement, and possible complications. Diagnostic and treatment options for diseases of the pleural space, such as spontaneous pneumothorax, traumatic injury, and parapneumonic effusions/empyema, are examined...
November 2015: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
Georg F Weber
BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases of the airways are a major health care problem world wide. New treatment strategies focus on employing the body's immune system to enhance its protective capacities during airway disease. One source for immune-competent cells is the pleural space, however, its immune-physiological function remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to develop an experimental technique in rodents that allows for an in vivo analysis of pleural space immune cells participating in the host defense during airway disease...
2015: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Georg F Weber
BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases of the airways are a major health care problem world wide. New treatment strategies focus on employing the body's immune system to enhance its protective capacities during airway disease. One source for immune-competent cells is the pleural space, however, its immune-physiological function remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to develop an experimental technique in rodents that allows for an in vivo analysis of pleural space immune cells participating in the host defense during airway disease...
December 2015: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Charalampos Charalampidis, Andrianna Youroukou, George Lazaridis, Sofia Baka, Ioannis Mpoukovinas, Vasilis Karavasilis, Ioannis Kioumis, Georgia Pitsiou, Antonis Papaiwannou, Anastasia Karavergou, Kosmas Tsakiridis, Nikolaos Katsikogiannis, Eirini Sarika, Konstantinos Kapanidis, Leonidas Sakkas, Ipokratis Korantzis, Sofia Lampaki, Konstantinos Zarogoulidis, Paul Zarogoulidis
The pleural cavity is created between the 4(th) and 7(th) week of embryologic development. These embryonic components of visceral and parietal pleurae develop different anatomic characteristics with regard to vascular, lymphatic, and nervous supply. There are two layers: a superficial mesothelial cell layer facing the pleural space and an underlying connective tissue layer. The pleura might present inflammatory response and maintenance of the pleural fluid is observed. The latter function is especially important in the mechanical coupling of the lung and chest wall...
February 2015: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Michael Klopp, Hans Hoffmann, Hendrik Dienemann
A chest tube is used to drain the contents of the pleural space to reconstitute the physiologic pressures within the pleural space and to allow the lungs to fully expand. Indications for chest tube placement include pneumothorax, hemothorax, pleural effusion, pleural empyema, and major thoracic surgery. The most appropriate site for chest tube placement is the 4th or 5th intercostal space in the mid- or anterior- axillary line. Attention to technique in placing the chest tube is vital to avoid complications from the procedure...
March 2015: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Alexander G Markov, Salah Amasheh
Pleura consists of visceral and parietal cell layers, producing a fluid, which is necessary for lubrication of the pleural space. Function of both mesothelial cell layers is necessary for the regulation of a constant pleural fluid volume and composition to facilitate lung movement during breathing. Recent studies have demonstrated that pleural mesothelial cells show a distinct expression pattern of tight junction proteins which are known to ubiquitously determine paracellular permeability. Most tight junction proteins provide a sealing function to epithelia, but some have been shown to have a paracellular channel function or ambiguous properties...
2014: Frontiers in Physiology
Muhammad Zaman Khan Assir, Malik M Faheem, Jorge A Brenes-Salazar, Tariq Waseem
We report a case of paradoxical respiratory sinus arrhythmia (PRSA) caused by a retro-cardiac empyema in an ambulatory patient. The case describes the dynamics and deleterious impact of PRSA on cardio-respiratory cycle, its electrocardiographic, radiologic and echocardiographic findings. Furthermore, it discusses a probable mechanism of paradoxical respiratory sinus arrhythmia in the setting of a retrocardiac mass and suggests a need for physicians to check for the changes in ventilation perfusion mismatch and rise in physiological dead space in such patients...
October 2014: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Chien-Wei Hsu, Shu-Fen Sun
Pneumothorax is a potentially lethal complication associated with mechanical ventilation. Most of the patients with pneumothorax from mechanical ventilation have underlying lung diseases; pneumothorax is rare in intubated patients with normal lungs. Tension pneumothorax is more common in ventilated patients with prompt recognition and treatment of pneumothorax being important to minimize morbidity and mortality. Underlying lung diseases are associated with ventilator-related pneumothorax with pneumothoraces occurring most commonly during the early phase of mechanical ventilation...
February 4, 2014: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
James D Tutor
Chylothorax, the accumulation of chyle in the pleural space, is a relatively rare cause of pleural effusion in children. It can cause significant respiratory morbidity, as well as lead to malnutrition and immunodeficiency. Thus, a chylothorax requires timely diagnosis and treatment. This review will first discuss the anatomy and physiology of the lymphatic system and discuss various causes that can lead to development of a chylothorax in infants and children. Then, methods of diagnosis and treatment will be reviewed...
April 2014: Pediatrics
Sundar Chidambaram, Venkatesan Sangareddi, Gnanavelu Ganesan, V E Dhandapani, M S Ravi, K Meenakshi, D Muthukumar, N Swaminathan, G Ravishankar
BACKGROUND: The close relationship between pleural space and pericardial space and the dependence of their pressure kinetics are well known. This study evaluates the effects of increased intra pleural pressure due to pleural effusion on cardiovascular system. METHODS: Forty patients above the age of 12 who had massive unilateral/bilateral pleural effusion due to non-cardiac etiology were included in the study. Therapeutic thoracocentesis was done for massive pleural effusion...
December 2013: Indian Heart Journal
K-U Schmitt, M Walti, O Schälli, E Styger, T Prud'homme
BACKGROUND: A simulator of the respiratory system which includes the pleural space is currently lacking. However, such mechanical models are essential to develop and test new medical devices regulating the pressure in the pleural space. OBJECTIVE: It was the aim of this study to develop a model which mimics the pleural space. The device should be able to represent biomechanical functions of the respiratory system and it is intended for applications in research and development to study pleural space mechanics...
2013: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"