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physiology of pleura

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811252/expression-of-alcam-cd166-and-pd-l1-cd274-independently-predicts-shorter-survival-in-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma
#1
Shingo Inaguma, Jerzy Lasota, Zengfeng Wang, Piotr Czapiewski, Renata Langfort, Janusz Rys, Joanna Szpor, Piotr Waloszczyk, Krzysztof Okoń, Wojciech Biernat, Hiroshi Ikeda, David S Schrump, Raffit Hassan, Markku Miettinen
Diffuse malignant mesothelioma of the pleura is a highly aggressive tumor typically associated with short survival. ALCAM (CD166), a type I transmembrane protein, is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. In normal cells, ALCAM regulates physiological processes such as angiogenesis and immune response. In cancer, it is associated with neoplastic progression, including invasion, migration, and metastasis. Furthermore, ALCAM is considered one of the cancer stem cell markers such as ALDH1 (ALDH1A1) and SALL4...
August 12, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707542/the-physiological-consequences-of-different-distributions-of-diffuse-pleural-thickening-on-ct-imaging
#2
Duneesha de Fonseka, Anthony Edey, Louise Stadon, Jason Viner, Michael Darby, Nick A Maskell
OBJECTIVE: Diffuse pleural thickening (DPT) refers to extensive visceral pleural fibrosis with adhesion formation to the parietal pleura obliterating the pleural space. The radiological definition of DPT remains controversial with most of the literature requiring the presence of an obliterated costophrenic angle (CPA) for defining DPT. We conducted a study to investigate the variable distributions of DPT and associated lung function deficit. METHODS: 85 patients referred to a pleural clinic with suspected pleural thickening were screened for our study...
August 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648052/anticancer-therapeutic-alginate-based-tissue-sealants-for-lung-repair
#3
Spencer L Fenn, Patrick N Charron, Rachael A Oldinski
Injury to the connective tissue that lines the lung, the pleura, or the lung itself can occur from many causes including trauma or surgery, as well as lung diseases or cancers. To address current limitations for patching lung injuries, to stop air or fluid leaks, an adherent hydrogel sealant patch system was developed, based on methacrylated alginate (AMA) and AMA dialdehyde (AMA-DA) blends, which is capable of sealing damaged tissues and sustaining physiological pressures. Methacrylation of alginate hydroxyl groups rendered the polysaccharide capable of photo-cross-linking when mixed with an eosin Y-based photoinitiator system and exposed to visible green light...
July 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559943/unusual-contiguous-soft-tissue-spread-of-advanced-malignant-mesothelioma-detected-by-fdg-pet-ct
#4
Yuyang Zhang, Jamie Edwards, Hadyn Williams, Zhonglin Hao, Samir Khleif, Darko Pucar
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a tumor of mesodermal origin that arises from the serosa of the pleura, peritoneum, pericardium or tunica vaginalis. MPM is well known to have a poor prognosis with a median survival time of 12 months. Accurate diagnosis, staging and restaging of MPM are crucial with [18F] flurodeoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET/CT) playing an increasingly important role. Here we report a case of MPM with unusual contiguous soft tissue spread of the tumor along the dermal and fascial planes characterized by PET/CT...
June 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987139/signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-1-stat1-knock-down-induces-apoptosis-in-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma
#5
Lisa Arzt, Iris Halbwedl, Margit Gogg-Kamerer, Helmut H Popper
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is the most common primary tumor of the pleura. Its incidence is still increasing in Europe and the prognosis remains poor. We investigated the oncogenic function of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) in MPM in more detail. A miRNA profiling was performed on 52 MPM tissue samples. Upregulated miRNAs (targeting SOCS1/3) were knocked-down using miRNA inhibitors. mRNA expression levels of STAT1/3, SOCS1/3 were detected in MPM cell lines. STAT1 has been knocked-down using siRNA and qPCR was used to detect mRNA expression levels of all JAK/STAT family members and genes that regulate them...
July 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649878/mechanisms-for-induction-of-pulmonary-capillary-hemorrhage-by-diagnostic-ultrasound-review-and-consideration-of-acoustical-radiation-surface-pressure
#6
REVIEW
Douglas L Miller
Diagnostic ultrasound can induce pulmonary capillary hemorrhage (PCH) in rats and other mammals. This phenomenon represents the only clearly demonstrated biological effect of (non-contrast enhanced) diagnostic ultrasound and thus presents a uniquely important safety issue. However, the physical mechanism responsible for PCH remains uncertain more than 25 y after its discovery. Experimental research has indicated that neither heating nor acoustic cavitation, the predominant mechanisms for bioeffects of ultrasound, is responsible for PCH...
December 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27271877/organizing-empyema-induced-in-mice-by-streptococcus-pneumoniae-effects-of-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-deficiency
#7
Torry A Tucker, Ann Jeffers, Jake Boren, Brandon Quaid, Shuzi Owens, Kathleen B Koenig, Yoshikazu Tsukasaki, Galina Florova, Andrey A Komissarov, Mitsuo Ikebe, Steven Idell
BACKGROUND: Pleural infection affects about 65,000 patients annually in the US and UK. In this and other forms of pleural injury, mesothelial cells (PMCs) undergo a process called mesothelial (Meso) mesenchymal transition (MT), by which PMCs acquire a profibrogenic phenotype with increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and matrix proteins. MesoMT thereby contributes to pleural organization with fibrosis and lung restriction. Current murine empyema models are characterized by early mortality, limiting analysis of the pathogenesis of pleural organization and mechanisms that promote MesoMT after infection...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27100907/demystifying-the-persistent-pneumothorax-role-of-imaging
#8
REVIEW
Apeksha Chaturvedi, Steven Lee, Nina Klionsky, Abhishek Chaturvedi
Evaluation for pneumothorax is an important indication for obtaining chest radiographs in patients who have had trauma, recent cardiothoracic surgery or are on ventilator support. By definition, a persistent pneumothorax constitutes ongoing bubbling of air from an in situ chest drain, 48 h after its insertion. Persistent pneumothorax remains a diagnostic dilemma and identification of potentially treatable aetiologies is important. These may be chest tube related (kinks or malposition), lung parenchymal disease, bronchopleural fistula, or rarely, oesophageal-pleural fistula...
June 2016: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27088061/biomimetic-culture-reactor-for-whole-lung-engineering
#9
Micha Sam Brickman Raredon, Kevin A Rocco, Ciprian P Gheorghe, Amogh Sivarapatna, Mahboobe Ghaedi, Jenna L Balestrini, Thomas L Raredon, Elizabeth A Calle, Laura E Niklason
Decellularized organs are now established as promising scaffolds for whole-organ regeneration. For this work to reach therapeutic practice, techniques and apparatus are necessary for doing human-scale clinically applicable organ cultures. We have designed and constructed a bioreactor system capable of accommodating whole human or porcine lungs, and we describe in this study relevant technical details, means of assembly and operation, and validation. The reactor has an artificial diaphragm that mimics the conditions found in the chest cavity in vivo, driving hydraulically regulated negative pressure ventilation and custom-built pulsatile perfusion apparatus capable of driving pressure-regulated or volume-regulated vascular flow...
2016: BioResearch Open Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27060783/telocytes-in-female-reproductive-system-human-and-animal
#10
REVIEW
Veronika Aleksandrovych, Jerzy A Walocha, Krzysztof Gil
Telocytes (TCs) are a newly discovered type of cell with numerous functions. They have been found in a large variety of organs: heart (endo-, myo-, epi- and pericardium, myocardial sleeves, heart valves); digestive tract and annex glands (oesophagus, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, liver, gallbladder, salivary gland, exocrine pancreas); respiratory system (trachea and lungs); urinary system (kidney, renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, urethra); female reproductive system (uterus, Fallopian tube, placenta, mammary gland); vasculature (blood vessels, thoracic duct); serous membranes (mesentery and pleura); and other organs (skeletal muscle, meninges and choroid plexus, neuromuscular spindles, fascia lata, skin, eye, prostate, bone marrow)...
June 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26376001/friction-and-morphology-of-pleural-mesothelia
#11
Matteo Pecchiari, Patrizia Sartori, Vincenzo Conte, Edgardo D'Angelo, Claudia Moscheni
To verify the hypothesis that by enmeshing lubricants, microvilli reduce the coefficient of kinetic friction (μ) of pleural mesothelium, μ was measured during reciprocating sliding of rabbit's visceral against parietal pleura before and after addition of hyaluronan, and related to the morphological features of the microvillar network. Because no relation was found between μ or μ changes after hyaluronan and microvillar characteristics, the latter are not determinants of the frictional forces which oppose sliding of normal mesothelial surfaces under physiological conditions, nor of the effects of hyaluronan...
January 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26101982/fascicular-phrenic-nerve-neurotization-for-restoring-physiological-motion-in-a-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia-reconstruction-with-a-reverse-innervated-latissimus-dorsi-muscle-flap
#12
Ricardo Horta, Tiago Henriques-Coelho, Joana Costa, José Estevão-Costa, Diana Monteiro, Mariana Dias, José Braga, Alvaro Silva, Inês Azevedo, José Manuel Amarante
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a severe developmental anomaly characterized by the malformation of the diaphragm. An innervated reversed latissimus dorsi flap reconstruction for recurrent congenital diaphragmatic hernia has been described as an alternative to prosthetic patch repair to achieve pleuroperitoneal separation. However, there is very little supporting scientific data; therefore, there is no real basic understanding of the condition of the phrenic nerve in the absence of diaphragmatic muscle or even the neurotization options for restoring neodiaphragmatic muscle motion...
August 2015: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26035313/htra1-its-future-potential-as-a-novel-biomarker-for-cancer
#13
Emma Altobelli, Daniela Marzioni, Amedeo Lattanzi, Paolo Matteo Angeletti
HtrA1 appears to be involved in several physiological processes as well as in the pathogenesis of conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and osteoarthritis. It has also been hypothesized to play a role as a tumor suppressor. This manuscript reviews the current cancer-related HtrA1 research from the methodological and clinical standpoints including studies regarding its potential role as a tumor marker and/or prognostic factor. PRISMA method was used for study selection. The articles thus collected were examined and selected by two independent reviewers; any disagreement was resolved by a methodologist...
August 2015: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25990598/franciscus-cornelis-donders-1818-1889
#14
P J Timoney, C S Breathnach
Franciscus Cornelis Donders was educated at Duizel and Boxmeer before entering the Military Medical School and the medical faculty at Utrecht University in 1835. In 1840, he received his MD from Leiden and spent 2 years in practice at Vlissingen before returning to Utrecht, where he was appointed as an extraordinary professor to lecture on forensic medicine, anthropology, general biology and ophthalmology. Refraction by the eye is complex, since the ray of light passes through many changes of refractive index in its path, and Donders simplified the account of the process by establishing an equivalent refractive system: the reduced eye...
September 2015: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25953244/sensory-input-to-the-central-nervous-system-from-the-lungs-and-airways-a-prominent-role-for-purinergic-signalling-via-p2x2-3-receptors
#15
REVIEW
Dirk Adriaensen, Inge Brouns, Jean-Pierre Timmermans
Specific subpopulations of lung-related primary afferent neurons in dorsal root and vagal sensory ganglia have been reported to express P2X2 and P2X3 receptors both in the neuronal cell bodies and in their peripheral terminals. The afferent innervation of airways and lungs is organised as sensory receptor structures, of which at least seven types with a vagal origin and two with a spinal origin have been reported. In view of the recently suggested therapeutic promise of ATP antagonism - specifically at P2X3 receptor expressing nociceptive fibres - in respiratory disorders, the present work focusses on four distinct populations of pulmonary sensory receptors that have so far been reported to express P2X2/3 receptors...
September 2015: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25890918/-basic-lung-ultrasound-part-1-normal-lung-ultrasound-and-diseases-of-the-chest-wall-and-the-pleura
#16
REVIEW
F B de la Quintana Gordon, B Nacarino Alcorta
Lung ultrasound has become part of the diagnostic armamentarium in Resuscitation and Recovery Units with an enormous potential due to its many advantages: capacity to diagnose more precisely than conventional radiology, earlier diagnosis, convenience due to being able to performed at the bedside, possibility of being performed by one person, absence of ionising radiation, and, due to its dynamic character, is capable of transforming into physiological processes that were once static images. However, lung ultrasound also has its limitations and has a learning curve...
June 2015: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25836638/determining-respiratory-impairment-in-connective-tissue-disease-associated-interstitial-lung-disease
#17
REVIEW
Deborah Assayag, Christopher J Ryerson
Connective tissue diseases (CTDs) can affect the lungs through diseases of the chest wall, pleura, vasculature, airways, and parenchyma. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common complication of CTD associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This article describes the evaluation of respiratory impairment in patients with CTD and summarizes the evidence that guides diagnosis and management of CTD-ILD. Patients with CTD with suspected ILD should undergo clinical, physiologic, and radiologic studies to evaluate for the presence of ILD, and these results should be integrated in a multidisciplinary setting to guide diagnosis and management...
May 2015: Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25774305/physiology-of-the-pleural-space
#18
REVIEW
Charalampos Charalampidis, Andrianna Youroukou, George Lazaridis, Sofia Baka, Ioannis Mpoukovinas, Vasilis Karavasilis, Ioannis Kioumis, Georgia Pitsiou, Antonis Papaiwannou, Anastasia Karavergou, Kosmas Tsakiridis, Nikolaos Katsikogiannis, Eirini Sarika, Konstantinos Kapanidis, Leonidas Sakkas, Ipokratis Korantzis, Sofia Lampaki, Konstantinos Zarogoulidis, Paul Zarogoulidis
The pleural cavity is created between the 4(th) and 7(th) week of embryologic development. These embryonic components of visceral and parietal pleurae develop different anatomic characteristics with regard to vascular, lymphatic, and nervous supply. There are two layers: a superficial mesothelial cell layer facing the pleural space and an underlying connective tissue layer. The pleura might present inflammatory response and maintenance of the pleural fluid is observed. The latter function is especially important in the mechanical coupling of the lung and chest wall...
February 2015: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25447684/pleural-liquid-and-kinetic-friction-coefficient-of-mesothelium-after-mechanical-ventilation
#19
Francesca Bodega, Chiara Sironi, Cristina Porta, Luciano Zocchi, Emilio Agostoni
Volume and protein concentration of pleural liquid in anesthetized rabbits after 1 or 3h of mechanical ventilation, with alveolar pressure equal to atmospheric at end expiration, were compared to those occurring after spontaneous breathing. Moreover, coefficient of kinetic friction between samples of visceral and parietal pleura, obtained after spontaneous or mechanical ventilation, sliding in vitro at physiological velocity under physiological load, was determined. Volume of pleural liquid after mechanical ventilation was similar to that previously found during spontaneous ventilation...
January 15, 2015: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25443007/staple-line-coverage-after-bullectomy-for-primary-spontaneous-pneumothorax-a-randomized-trial
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Sungsoo Lee, Hyeong Ryul Kim, Sukki Cho, Dong Myung Huh, Eung Bae Lee, Kyoung Min Ryu, Deug Gon Cho, Hyo Chae Paik, Dong Kwan Kim, Sung-Ho Lee, Jeong Su Cho, Jae Ik Lee, Ho Choi, Kwhanmien Kim, Sanghoon Jheon
BACKGROUND: Thoracoscopic wedge resection is generally accepted as a standard surgical procedure for primary spontaneous pneumothorax. Because of the relatively high recurrence rate after surgery, additional procedures such as mechanical pleurodesis or visceral pleural coverage are usually applied to minimize recurrence, although mechanical pleurodesis has some potential disadvantages. The aim of this study was to clarify whether an additional coverage procedure on the staple line after thoracoscopic bullectomy prevents postoperative recurrence compared with additional pleurodesis...
December 2014: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
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