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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342369/added-sugar-consumption-and-chronic-oral-disease-burden-among-adolescents-in-brazil
#1
C D S Carmo, M R C Ribeiro, J X P Teixeira, C M C Alves, M M Franco, A K T C França, B B Benatti, J Cunha-Cruz, C C C Ribeiro
Chronic oral diseases are rarely studied together, especially with an emphasis on their common risk factors. This study examined the association of added sugar consumption on "chronic oral disease burden" among adolescents, with consideration of obesity and systemic inflammation pathways through structural equation modeling. A cross-sectional study was conducted of a complex random sample of adolescent students enrolled at public schools in São Luís, Brazil ( n = 405). The outcome was chronic oral disease burden, a latent variable based on the presence of probing depth ≥4 mm, bleeding on probing, caries, and clinical consequences of untreated caries...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342353/synthesis-and-computational-studies-demonstrate-the-utility-of-an-intramolecular-styryl-diels-alder-reaction-and-bht-assisted-1-3-shift-to-construct-anticancer-dl-deoxypodophyllotoxin
#2
Diana I Saavedra, Benjamin D Rencher, Doo-Hyun Kwon, Stacey J Smith, Daniel H Ess, Merritt B Andrus
Deoxypodophyllotoxin is a secondary metabolite lignan possessing potent anticancer activity with potential as a precursor for known anticancer drugs, but its use is limited by scarcity from natural sources. We here report the total synthesis of racemic deoxypodophyllotoxin (DPT) in seven steps using an intramolecular styryl Diels-Alder reaction (ISDA) strategy uniquely suited to assemble the deoxypodophyllotoxin core. Computational studies are also reported for this reaction that demonstrate the ability to overcome the limitations of slow reactivity and electronic mismatch of the diene and dieneophile...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342317/osteoblast-like-mc3t3-e1-cells-prefer-glycolysis-for-atp-production-but-adipocyte-like-3t3-l1-cells-prefer-oxidative-phosphorylation
#3
Anyonya R Guntur, Akos A Gerencser, Phuong T Le, Victoria E DeMambro, Sheila A Bornstein, Shona A Mookerjee, David E Maridas, David E Clemmons, Martin D Brand, Clifford J Rosen
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are early progenitors that can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. We hypothesized that osteoblasts and adipocytes utilize distinct bioenergetic pathways during MSC differentiation. To test this hypothesis, we compared the bioenergetic profiles of pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells and calvarial osteoblasts with pre-adipocyte 3T3L1 cells, before and after differentiation. Differentiated MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts met ATP demand mainly by glycolysis with minimal reserve glycolytic capacity, whereas non-differentiated cells generated ATP through oxidative phosphorylation...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342309/prognostic-power-of-a-tumor-differentiation-gene-signature-for-bladder-urothelial-carcinomas
#4
Qianxing Mo, Fotis Nikolos, Fengju Chen, Zoe Tramel, Yu-Cheng Lee, Kazukuni Hayashi, Jing Xiao, Jianjun Shen, Keith Syson Chan
Background: Muscle-invasive bladder cancers (MIBCs) cause approximately 150 000 deaths per year worldwide. Survival for MIBC patients is heterogeneous, with no clinically validated molecular markers that predict clinical outcome. Non-MIBCs (NMIBCs) generally have favorable outcome; however, a portion progress to MIBC. Hence, development of a prognostic tool that can guide decision-making is crucial for improving clinical management of bladder urothelial carcinomas. Methods: Tumor grade is defined by pathologic evaluation of tumor cell differentiation, and it often associates with clinical outcome...
January 12, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342271/melodi-mining-enriched-literature-objects-to-derive-intermediates
#5
Benjamin Elsworth, Karen Dawe, Emma E Vincent, Ryan Langdon, Brigid M Lynch, Richard M Martin, Caroline Relton, Julian P T Higgins, Tom R Gaunt
Background: The scientific literature contains a wealth of information from different fields on potential disease mechanisms. However, identifying and prioritizing mechanisms for further analytical evaluation presents enormous challenges in terms of the quantity and diversity of published research. The application of data mining approaches to the literature offers the potential to identify and prioritize mechanisms for more focused and detailed analysis. Methods: Here we present MELODI, a literature mining platform that can identify mechanistic pathways between any two biomedical concepts...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342268/reduced-expression-of-mismatch-repair-genes-msh6-msh2-directly-promotes-pituitary-tumor-growth-via-the-atr-chk1-pathway
#6
Shinsuke Uraki, Hiroyuki Ariyasu, Asako Doi, Shintaro Kawai, Ken Takeshima, Shuhei Morita, Junya Fukai, Koji Fujita, Hiroto Furuta, Masahiro Nishi, Kokichi Sugano, Naoko Inoshita, Naoyuki Nakao, Shozo Yamada, Takashi Akamizu
Context: The mechanisms of pituitary adenoma (PA) pathogenesis and proliferation remain largely unknown. Objectives: To evaluate the direct association between PA proliferation and expression of mismatch repair (MMR) genes and proteins, and to clarify the role of MMR genes in the molecular mechanism of PA proliferation. Experimental Design: We performed quantitative analyses by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry to detect MMR gene and protein expression in human PAs (n = 47)...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342258/insulin-and-estrogen-independently-and-differentially-reduce-macronutrient-intake-in-healthy-men
#7
Rosemarie Krug, Linda Mohwinkel, Bernhard Drotleff, Jan Born, Manfred Hallschmid
Context: Insulin administration to the central nervous system inhibits food intake, but this effect has been found to be less pronounced in female compared to male organisms. This sex-specific pattern has been suggested to arise from a modulating influence of estrogen signaling on the insulin effect. Objective: We assessed in healthy young men whether pre-treatment with transdermal estradiol interacts with the hypophagic effect of central nervous insulin administration via the intranasal pathway...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342245/structure-function-relationships-of-olfactory-and-taste-receptors
#8
Maik Behrens, Loïc Briand, Claire A de March, Hiroaki Matsunami, Atsuko Yamashita, Wolfgang Meyerhof, Simone Weyand
The field of chemical senses has made major progress in understanding the cellular mechanisms of olfaction and taste in the past two decades. However, the molecular understanding of odour and taste recognition is still lagging far behind and will require solving multiple structures of the relevant full-length receptors in complex with native ligands to achieve this goal. However, the development of multiple complimentary strategies for the structure determination of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) makes this goal realistic...
January 12, 2018: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342244/gli2-rescues-delays-in-brain-development-induced-by-kif3a-dysfunction
#9
Jia-Long Chen, Chia-Hsiang Chang, Jin-Wu Tsai
The primary cilium in neural stem cells plays distinct roles in different stages during cortical development. Ciliary dysfunctions in human (i.e., ciliopathy) cause developmental defects in multiple organs, including brain developmental delays, which lead to intellectual disabilities and cognitive deficits. However, effective treatment to this devastating developmental disorder is still lacking. Here, we first investigated the effects of ciliopathy on neural stem cells by knocking down Kif3a, a kinesin II motor required for ciliogenesis, in the neurogenic stage of cortical development by in utero electroporation of mouse embryos...
January 12, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342242/meiotic-spindle-formation-in-mammalian-oocytes-implications-for-human-infertility
#10
Suk Namgoong, Nam-Hyung Kim
In the final stage of oogenesis, mammalian oocytes generate a meiotic spindle and undergo chromosome segregation to yield an egg that is ready for fertilization. Herein, we describe the recent advances in understanding the mechanisms controlling formation of the meiotic spindle in metaphase I (MI) and metaphase II (MII) in mammalian oocytes, and focus on the differences between mouse and human oocytes. Unlike mitotic cells, mammalian oocytes lack typical centrosomes that consist of two centrioles and the surrounding pericentriolar matrix proteins (PCM), which serve as microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs) in most somatic cells...
January 12, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342233/quantumclone-clonal-assessment-of-functional-mutations-in-cancer-based-on-a-genotype-aware-method-for-clonal-reconstruction
#11
Paul Deveau, Leo Colmet Daage, Derek Oldridge, Virginie Bernard, Angela Bellini, Mathieu Chicard, Nathalie Clement, Eve Lapouble, Valerie Combaret, Anne Boland, Vincent Meyer, Jean-Francois Deleuze, Isabelle Janoueix-Lerosey, Emmanuel Barillot, Olivier Delattre, John Maris, Gudrun Schleiermacher, Valentina Boeva
Motivation: In cancer, clonal evolution is assessed based on information coming from single nucleotide variants and copy number alterations. Nonetheless, existing methods often fail to accurately combine information from both sources to truthfully reconstruct clonal populations in a given tumor sample or in a set of tumor samples coming from the same patient. Moreover, previously published methods detect clones from a single set of variants. As a result, compromises have to be done between stringent variant filtering (reducing dispersion in variant allele frequency estimates, VAFs) and using all biologically relevant variants...
January 12, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342230/metformin-as-an-anti-cancer-agent-actions-and-mechanisms-targeting-cancer-stem-cells
#12
Nipun Saini, Xiaohe Yang
Metformin, a first line medication for type II diabetes, initially entered the spotlight as a promising anti-cancer agent due to epidemiologic reports that found reduced cancer risk and improved clinical outcomes in diabetic patients taking metformin. To uncover the anti-cancer mechanisms of metformin, preclinical studies determined that metformin impairs cellular metabolism and suppresses oncogenic signaling pathways, including receptor tyrosine kinase, PI3K/Akt, and mTOR pathways. Recently, the anti-cancer potential of metformin has gained increasing interest due to its inhibitory effects on cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are associated with tumor metastasis, drug resistance, and relapse...
October 7, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342213/circulating-neutrophil-transcriptome-may-reveal-intracranial-aneurysm-signature
#13
Vincent M Tutino, Kerry E Poppenberg, Kaiyu Jiang, James N Jarvis, Yijun Sun, Ashish Sonig, Adnan H Siddiqui, Kenneth V Snyder, Elad I Levy, John Kolega, Hui Meng
BACKGROUND: Unruptured intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are typically asymptomatic and undetected except for incidental discovery on imaging. Blood-based diagnostic biomarkers could lead to improvements in IA management. This exploratory study examined circulating neutrophils to determine whether they carry RNA expression signatures of IAs. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from patients receiving cerebral angiography. Eleven samples were collected from patients with IAs and 11 from patients without IAs as controls...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342206/silymarin-prevents-acetaminophen-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-mice
#14
Zuzana Papackova, Marie Heczkova, Helena Dankova, Eva Sticova, Alena Lodererova, Lenka Bartonova, Martin Poruba, Monika Cahova
Acetaminophen or paracetamol (APAP) overdose is a common cause of liver injury. Silymarin (SLM) is a hepatoprotective agent widely used for treating liver injury of different origin. In order to evaluate the possible beneficial effects of SLM, Balb/c mice were pretreated with SLM (100 mg/kg b.wt. per os) once daily for three days. Two hours after the last SLM dose, the mice were administered APAP (300 mg/kg b.wt. i.p.) and killed 6 (T6), 12 (T12) and 24 (T24) hours later. SLM-treated mice exhibited a significant reduction in APAP-induced liver injury, assessed according to AST and ALT release and histological examination...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342203/biological-pathways-underlying-the-association-of-red-cell-distribution-width-and-adverse-clinical-outcome-results-of-a-prospective-cohort-study
#15
Giedre Zurauskaite, Marc Meier, Alaadin Voegeli, Daniel Koch, Sebastian Haubitz, Alexander Kutz, Luca Bernasconi, Andreas Huber, Mario Bargetzi, Beat Mueller, Philipp Schuetz
BACKGROUND: Red cell distribution width (RDW) predicts disease outcome in several patient populations, but its prognostic value in addition to other disease parameters in unselected medical inpatients remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate the association of admission RDW levels and mortality adjusted for several disease pathways in unselected medical patients from a previous multicenter study. METHODS: We included consecutive adult, medical patients at the time point of hospital admission through the emergency department into this observational, cohort study...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342194/tolerance-to-mild-salinity-stress-in-japonica-rice-a-genome-wide-association-mapping-study-highlights-calcium-signaling-and-metabolism-genes
#16
Julien Frouin, Antoine Languillaume, Justine Mas, Delphine Mieulet, Arnaud Boisnard, Axel Labeyrie, Mathilde Bettembourg, Charlotte Bureau, Eve Lorenzini, Muriel Portefaix, Patricia Turquay, Aurore Vernet, Christophe Périn, Nourollah Ahmadi, Brigitte Courtois
Salinity tolerance is an important quality for European rice grown in river deltas. We evaluated the salinity tolerance of a panel of 235 temperate japonica rice accessions genotyped with 30,000 SNP markers. The panel was exposed to mild salt stress (50 mM NaCl; conductivity of 6 dS m-1) at the seedling stage. Eight different root and shoot growth parameters were measured for both the control and stressed treatments. The Na+ and K+ mass fractions of the stressed plants were measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342192/white-matter-tract-specific-quantitative-analysis-in-multiple-sclerosis-comparison-of-optic-radiation-reconstruction-techniques
#17
Chenyu Wang, Alexander Klistorner, Linda Ly, Michael H Barnett
The posterior visual pathway is commonly affected by multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology that results in measurable clinical and electrophysiological impairment. Due to its highly structured retinotopic mapping, the visual pathway represents an ideal substrate for investigating patho-mechanisms in MS. Therefore, a reliable and robust imaging segmentation method for in-vivo delineation of the optic radiations (OR) is needed. However, diffusion-based tractography approaches, which are typically used for OR segmentation are confounded by the presence of focal white matter lesions...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342182/light-alcohol-consumption-has-the-potential-to-suppress-hepatocellular-injury-and-liver-fibrosis-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#18
Kazutoshi Yamada, Eishiro Mizukoshi, Takuya Seike, Rika Horii, Masaaki Kitahara, Hajime Sunagozaka, Kuniaki Arai, Tatsuya Yamashita, Masao Honda, Shuichi Kaneko
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The modest consumption of alcohol has been reported to decrease the incidence of fatty liver or prevalence of steatohepatitis. In this study, we investigated the effect of light alcohol consumption on liver function and gene expression in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: The study group was formed of 178 patients diagnosed with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, subclassified into two groups for analysis based on the daily alcohol consumption: non-alcohol group and light alcohol consumer group (≤20 g of ethanol/day)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342173/hormone-induced-differential-transcriptome-analysis-of-sertoli-cells-during-postnatal-maturation-of-rat-testes
#19
Mukesh Gautam, Indrashis Bhattacharya, Umesh Rai, Subeer S Majumdar
Sertoli cells (Sc) are unique somatic cells of testis that are the target of both FSH and testosterone (T) and regulate spermatogenesis. Although Sc of neonatal rat testes are exposed to high levels of FSH and T, robust differentiation of spermatogonial cells becomes conspicuous only after 11-days of postnatal age. We have demonstrated earlier that a developmental switch in terms of hormonal responsiveness occurs in rat Sc at around 12 days of postnatal age during the rapid transition of spermatogonia A to B...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342168/reduction-in-musca-domestica-fecundity-by-dsrna-mediated-gene-knockdown
#20
Neil D Sanscrainte, Hanayo Arimoto, Christy M Waits, Lucy Y Li, Dana Johnson, Chris Geden, James J Becnel, Alden S Estep
House flies (Musca domestica) are worldwide agricultural pests with estimated control costs at $375 million annually in the U.S. Non-target effects and widespread resistance challenge the efficacy of traditional chemical control. Double stranded RNA (dsRNA) has been suggested as a biopesticide for M. domestica but a phenotypic response due to the induction of the RNAi pathway has not been demonstrated in adults. In this study female house flies were injected with dsRNA targeting actin-5C or ribosomal protein (RP) transcripts RPL26 and RPS6...
2018: PloS One
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