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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817735/association-of-gene-expression-with-biomass-content-and-composition-in-sugarcane
#1
Nam V Hoang, Agnelo Furtado, Angela J O'Keeffe, Frederik C Botha, Robert J Henry
About 64% of the total aboveground biomass in sugarcane production is from the culm, of which ~90% is present in fiber and sugars. Understanding the transcriptome in the sugarcane culm, and the transcripts that are associated with the accumulation of the sugar and fiber components would facilitate the modification of biomass composition for enhanced biofuel and biomaterial production. The Sugarcane Iso-Seq Transcriptome (SUGIT) database was used as a reference for RNA-Seq analysis of variation in gene expression between young and mature tissues, and between 10 genotypes with varying fiber content...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817706/hiv-infection-antiretroviral-therapy-and-measures-of-endothelial-function-inflammation-metabolism-and-oxidative-stress
#2
Andrew Dysangco, Ziyue Liu, James H Stein, Michael P Dubé, Samir K Gupta
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected patients have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Impaired endothelial function is an early risk factor for CVD in the general population. It is presumed that HIV infection is associated with impaired endothelial function, but results have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to determine the relationships between HIV infection, virologic suppression with antiretroviral therapy (ART), in vivo measures of conduit artery and microvascular endothelial function, and circulating biomarkers of pathways associated with CVD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817702/global-gene-expression-analysis-of-the-response-of-physic-nut-jatropha-curcas-l-to-medium-and-long-term-nitrogen-deficiency
#3
Qi Kuang, Sheng Zhang, Pingzhi Wu, Yaping Chen, Meiru Li, Huawu Jiang, Guojiang Wu
Jatropha curcas L. is an important biofuel plant with excellent tolerance of barren environments. However, studies on the regulatory mechanisms that operate in this plant in response to nitrogen (N) shortage are scarce. In this study, genome-wide transcriptional profiles of the roots and leaves of 8-week old physic nut seedlings were analyzed after 2 and 16 days of N starvation. Enrichment results showed that genes associated with N metabolism, processing and regulation of RNA, and transport predominated among those showing alterations in expression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817690/resveratrol-and-caloric-restriction-prevent-hepatic-steatosis-by-regulating-sirt1-autophagy-pathway-and-alleviating-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#4
Shibin Ding, Jinjin Jiang, Guofu Zhang, Yongjun Bu, Guanghui Zhang, Xiangmei Zhao
BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated that resveratrol (a natural polyphenol) and caloric restriction activate Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) and induce autophagy. Furthermore, autophagy is induced by the SIRT1-FoxO signaling pathway and was recently shown to be a critical protective mechanism against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development. We aimed to compare the effects of resveratrol and caloric restriction on hepatic lipid metabolism and elucidate the mechanism by which resveratrol supplementation and caloric restriction alleviate hepatosteatosis by examining the molecular interplay between SIRT1 and autophagy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817667/glycoprotein-ib-activation-by-thrombin-stimulates-the-energy-metabolism-in-human-platelets
#5
Norma Corona de la Peña, Manuel Gutiérrez-Aguilar, Ileana Hernández-Reséndiz, Álvaro Marín-Hernández, Sara Rodríguez-Enríquez
Thrombin-induced platelet activation requires substantial amounts of ATP. However, the specific contribution of each ATP-generating pathway i.e., oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) versus glycolysis and the biochemical mechanisms involved in the thrombin-induced activation of energy metabolism remain unclear. Here we report an integral analysis on the role of both energy pathways in human platelets activated by several agonists, and the signal transducing mechanisms associated with such activation. We found that thrombin, Trap-6, arachidonic acid, collagen, A23187, epinephrine and ADP significantly increased glycolytic flux (3-38 times vs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817657/metaproteomics-analysis-of-the-functional-insights-into-microbial-communities-of-combined-hydrogen-and-methane-production-by-anaerobic-fermentation-from-reed-straw
#6
Xuan Jia, Bei-Dou Xi, Ming-Xiao Li, Yang Yang, Yong Wang
A metaproteomic approach was used to analyse the proteins expressed and provide functional evidence of key metabolic pathways in the combined production of hydrogen and methane by anaerobic fermentation (CHMP-AF) for reed straw utilisation. The functions and structures of bacteria and archaea populations show significant succession in the CHMP-AF process. There are many kinds of bacterial functional proteins, mainly belonging to phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes, that are involved in carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817652/metabolomics-reveals-an-entanglement-of-fasting-leptin-concentrations-with-fatty-acid-oxidation-and-gluconeogenesis-in-healthy-children
#7
Franca Fabiana Kirchberg, Stephanie Brandt, Anja Moß, Wolfgang Peissner, Wolfgang Koenig, Dietrich Rothenbacher, Hermann Brenner, Berthold Koletzko, Christian Hellmuth, Martin Wabitsch
BACKGROUND: Leptin and adiponectin communicate with organ systems in order to regulate energetic and metabolic homeostasis. Their different points of action have been well characterized; however, no study has investigated their interrelationship with the metabolism at the molecular level in vivo. OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations of leptin and adiponectin with the metabolic profile reflecting the intercellular and interorgan communication as well as activated metabolic pathways...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817612/expression-and-functional-implications-of-the-renal-apelinergic-system-in-rodents
#8
Anne-Marie O'Carroll, Sabrine Salih, Philip R Griffiths, Aarifah Bijabhai, Mark A Knepper, Stephen J Lolait
Apelin binds to the G protein-coupled apelin receptor (APJ; gene name aplnr) to modulate diverse physiological systems including cardiovascular function, and hydromineral and metabolic balance. Recently a second endogenous ligand for APJ, named apela, has been discovered. We confirm that apela activates signal transduction pathways (ERK activation) in cells expressing the cloned rat APJ. Previous studies suggest that exogenous apela is diuretic, attributable wholly or in part to an action on renal APJ. Thus far the cellular distribution of apela in the kidney has not been reported...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817230/recent-findings-on-fulminant-type-1-diabetes
#9
REVIEW
Lan Liu, Ling Zeng, Dan Sang, Zeyuan Lu, Jie Shen
Fulminant type 1 diabetes (fT1D) is a new subtype of type 1 diabetes proposed by Imagawa in 2000. It is a clinical syndrome characterized by a markedly rapid and almost complete destruction of pancreatic β cells. Metabolic derangement is more severe in this subtype than in autoimmune type 1 diabetes. The incidence of fT1D is associated with HLA DRB1*04:05DQB1*04:01, both innate and acquired immune disorders might contribute to the development of fT1D. The presence of specific innate immune responses to enterovirus infection connected with enhanced adoptive immune pathways responsible for aggressive β cell toxicity in fT1D...
August 17, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816105/thiazolidinedione-drugs-in-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-past-present-and-future
#10
Melissa A Davidson, Donald R Mattison, Laurent Azoulay, Daniel Krewski
Thiazolidinedione (TZD) drugs used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have proven effective in improving insulin sensitivity, hyperglycemia, and lipid metabolism. Though well tolerated by some patients, their mechanism of action as ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) results in the activation of several pathways in addition to those responsible for glycemic control and lipid homeostasis. These pathways, which include those related to inflammation, bone formation, and cell proliferation, may lead to adverse health outcomes...
August 17, 2017: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815615/trans-methylation-reactions-in-plants-focus-on-the-activated-methyl-cycle
#11
Moona Rahikainen, Sara Alegre, Andrea Trotta, Jesús Pascual, Saijaliisa Kangasjärvi
Trans-methylation reactions are vital in basic metabolism, epigenetic regulation, RNA metabolism, and post-translational control of protein function, and therefore fundamental in determining physiological processes in all living organisms. The plant kingdom is additionally characterized by production of secondary metabolites that undergo specific hydroxylation, oxidation and methylation reactions to obtain a wide array of different chemical structures. Increasing research efforts have started to reveal the enzymatic pathways underlying the biosynthesis of complex metabolites in plants...
August 16, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815532/hepatitis-c-virus-replication
#12
Tetsuro Suzuki
Viruses use synthetic mechanism and organelles of the host cells to facilitate their replication and make new viruses. Host's ATP provides necessary energy. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease. Like other positive-strand RNA viruses, the HCV genome is thought to be synthesized by the replication complex, which consists of viral- and host cell-derived factors, in tight association with structurally rearranged vesicle-like cytoplasmic membranes. The virus-induced remodeling of subcellular membranes, which protect the viral RNA from nucleases in the cytoplasm, promotes efficient replication of HCV genome...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815530/role-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-mitochondria-communication-in-type-2-diabetes
#13
Jennifer Rieusset
Although mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and disrupted lipid and calcium (Ca(2+)) homeostasis are classically associated with both insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the interplay between these metabolic stresses is less known. Both organelles interact through contact points known as mitochondria-associated membranes (MAM), in order to exchange both lipids and Ca(2+) and regulate cellular homeostasis. Recent evidences suggest that MAM could be an important hub for hormonal and nutrient signaling in the liver and that ER-mitochondria miscommunication could participate to hepatic insulin resistance, highlighting the importance of MAM in the control of glucose homeostasis...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815513/an-update-on-p2y13-receptor-signalling-and-function
#14
Raquel Pérez-Sen, Rosa Gómez-Villafuertes, Felipe Ortega, Javier Gualix, Esmerilda G Delicado, María Teresa Miras-Portugal
The distribution of nucleotide P2Y receptors across different tissues suggests that they fulfil key roles in a number of physiological and pathological conditions. P2Y13 is one of the latest P2Y receptors identified, a novel member of the Gi-coupled P2Y receptor subfamily that responds to ADP, together with P2Y12 and P2Y14. Pharmacological studies drew attention to this new ADP receptor, with a pharmacology that overlaps that of P2Y12 receptors but with unique features and roles. The P2RY12-14 genes all reside on human chromosome 3 at 3q25...
August 17, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815507/using-purified-tyrosine-site-specific-recombinases-in-vitro-to-rapidly-construct-and-diversify-metabolic-pathways
#15
Wei Liu, Laura R Tuck, Jon Marles Wright, Yizhi Cai
The site-specific recombinase Cre was previously reported to have in vitro activity. Here, we describe the method of purifying two new tyrosine site-specific recombinases VCre and Dre along with Cre by nickel affinity chromatography. We proved the in vitro function of the VCre and Dre on their respective conditional recombination sites. We also developed a methodology to one-step construct and optimize the productivity of a biosynthetic pathway through the combinatorial integration of promoters into a plasmid-encoded pathway by simply incubating a DNA mixture with recombinase system at 37 °C in vitro...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815409/insulin-like-growth-factor-igf-pathway-targeting-in-cancer-role-of-the-igf-axis-and-opportunities-for-future-combination-studies
#16
Aaron Simpson, Wilfride Petnga, Valentine M Macaulay, Ulrike Weyer-Czernilofsky, Thomas Bogenrieder
Despite a strong preclinical rationale for targeting the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis in cancer, clinical studies of IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R)-targeted monotherapies have been largely disappointing, and any potential success has been limited by the lack of validated predictive biomarkers for patient enrichment. A large body of preclinical evidence suggests that the key role of the IGF axis in cancer is in driving treatment resistance, via general proliferative/survival mechanisms, interactions with other mitogenic signaling networks, and class-specific mechanisms such as DNA damage repair...
August 16, 2017: Targeted Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815394/shared-dysregulation-of-homeostatic-brain-body-pathways-in-depression-and-type-2-diabetes
#17
REVIEW
Claire J Hoogendoorn, Juan F Roy, Jeffrey S Gonzalez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of shared dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and brain-gut-microbiome (BGM) axes associated with depression and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Clinical implications and future research are also discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Both depression and T2D are associated with dysregulation of the HPA and BGM axes. These pathways regulate immune function, glucose metabolism, and sleep, which are altered in both illnesses...
August 16, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814986/2-deoxy-d-glucose-restore-glucocorticoid-sensitivity-in-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-via-modification-of-n-linked-glycosylation-in-an-oxygen-tension-independent-manner
#18
Zaira Leni, Paulina Ćwiek, Valeriya Dimitrova, Andrea S Dulcey, Nicola Zamboni, Cedric Simillion, Geetha Rossi, Kurt Leibundgut, Alexandre Arcaro
In childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, treatment failure is associated with resistance to glucocorticoid agents. Resistance to this class of drugs represents one of the strongest indicators of poor clinical outcome. We show that leukemic cells, which are resistant to the glucocorticoid drug methylprednisolone, display a higher demand of glucose associated with a deregulation of metabolic pathways, in comparison to sensitive cells. Interestingly, a combinatorial treatment of glucocorticoid and the glucose analog 2-deoxy-D-glucose displayed a synergistic effect in methylprednisolone-resistant cells, in an oxygen tension-independent manner...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814976/analysis-of-proteomes-released-from-in-vitro-cultured-eight-clostridium-difficile-pcr-ribotypes-revealed-specific-expression-in-pcr-ribotypes-027-and-176-confirming-their-genetic-relatedness-and-clinical-importance-at-the-proteomic-level
#19
Jiri Dresler, Marcela Krutova, Alena Fucikova, Jana Klimentova, Veronika Hruzova, Miloslava Duracova, Katerina Houdkova, Barbora Salovska, Jana Matejkova, Martin Hubalek, Petr Pajer, Libor Pisa, Otakar Nyc
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is the causative agent of C. difficile infection (CDI) that could be manifested by diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis or life-threatening toxic megacolon. The spread of certain strains represents a significant economic burden for health-care. The epidemic successful strains are also associated with severe clinical features of CDI. Therefore, a proteomic study has been conducted that comprises proteomes released from in vitro cultured panel of eight different PCR ribotypes (RTs) and employs the combination of shotgun proteomics and label-free quantification (LFQ) approach...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814974/time-resolved-transcriptome-analysis-and-lipid-pathway-reconstruction-of-the-oleaginous-green-microalga-monoraphidium-neglectum-reveal-a-model-for-triacylglycerol-and-lipid-hyperaccumulation
#20
Daniel Jaeger, Anika Winkler, Jan H Mussgnug, Jörn Kalinowski, Alexander Goesmann, Olaf Kruse
BACKGROUND: Oleaginous microalgae are promising production hosts for the sustainable generation of lipid-based bioproducts and as bioenergy carriers such as biodiesel. Transcriptomics of the lipid accumulation phase, triggered efficiently by nitrogen starvation, is a valuable approach for the identification of gene targets for metabolic engineering. RESULTS: An explorative analysis of the detailed transcriptional response to different stages of nitrogen availability was performed in the oleaginous green alga Monoraphidium neglectum...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
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