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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434145/mtorc1-signaling-in-hepatic-lipid-metabolism
#1
REVIEW
Jinbo Han, Yiguo Wang
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway regulates many metabolic and physiological processes in different organs or tissues. Dysregulation of mTOR signaling has been implicated in many human diseases including obesity, diabetes, cancer, fatty liver diseases, and neuronal disorders. Here we review recent progress in understanding how mTORC1 (mTOR complex 1) signaling regulates lipid metabolism in the liver.
April 22, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434116/activation-of-the-serotonin-pathway-is-associated-with-poor-outcome-in-copd-exacerbation-results-of-a-long-term-cohort-study
#2
Marc A Meier, Manuel Ottiger, Alaadin Vögeli, Christian Steuer, Luca Bernasconi, Robert Thomann, Mirjam Christ-Crain, Christoph Henzen, Claus Hoess, Werner Zimmerli, Andreas Huber, Beat Mueller, Philipp Schuetz
BACKGROUND/INTRODUCTION: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) metabolizes tryptophan to kynurenine. An increase of its activity is associated with severity in patients with pneumonia. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, an elevation of serotonin has been reported. Experimental models showed that cigarette smoke inhibits monoamine oxidase (MAO) leading to higher levels of serotonin. We investigated the prognostic ability of tryptophan, serotonin, kynurenine, IDO, and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) to predict short- and long-term outcomes in patients with a COPD exacerbation...
April 22, 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433925/low-dose-pollutant-mixture-triggers-metabolic-disturbances-in-female-mice-leading-to-common-and-specific-features-as-compared-to-a-high-fat-diet
#3
Emmanuel Labaronne, Claudie Pinteur, Nathalie Vega, Sandra Pesenti, Benoit Julien, Emmanuelle Meugnier-Fouilloux, Hubert Vidal, Danielle Naville, Brigitte Le Magueresse-Battistoni
Environmental pollutants are potential etiologic factors of obesity and diabetes that reach epidemic proportions worldwide. However, it is important to determine if pollutants could exert metabolic defects without directly inducing obesity. The metabolic disturbances triggered in nonobese mice lifelong exposed to a mixture of low-dose pollutants (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxine, polychlorinated biphenyl 153, diethylhexyl-phthalate, and bisphenol A) were compared with changes provoked by a high-fat high-sucrose (HFHS) diet not containing the pollutant mixture...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433914/accumulation-of-sugar-from-pulp-and-xylitol-from-xylose-by-pyruvate-decarboxylase-negative-white-rot-fungus-phlebia-sp-mg-60
#4
Taku Tsuyama, Megumi Yamaguchi, Ichiro Kamei
Phlebia sp. MG-60 is a white-rot fungus that produces ethanol with high efficiency from lignocellulosic biomass without additional enzymes. Through engineering of this powerful metabolic pathway for fermentation in Phlebia sp. MG-60, chemical compounds other than ethanol could be produced. Here, we demonstrate sugar accumulation from unbleached hardwood kraft pulp and conversion of xylose to xylitol by pyruvate decarboxylase (pdc)-negative Phlebia sp. MG-60. We isolated Phlebia sp. strain MG-60-P2 from protoplasts to unify the protoplast phenotypes of the regenerated strains...
April 7, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433874/systematically-characterize-the-absorbed-effective-substances-of-wutou-decoction-and-their-metabolic-pathways-in-rat-plasma-using-uhplc-q-tof-ms-combined-with-a-target-network-pharmacological-analysis
#5
Tengfei Xu, Shizhe Li, Yufei Sun, Zifeng Pi, Shu Liu, Fengrui Song, Zhiqiang Liu
Wu-tou Decoction (WTD) is a famous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula which is applied to treat arthritis and pain of joints. In this study, a sensitive and rapid method was developed for the separation and identification of the absorbed constituents and metabolites of WTD in the rats plasma by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS). A total of 22 absorbed prototype constituents and 49 metabolites were identified or tentatively characterized in dosed plasma...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433809/biocorona-formation-on-gold-nanoparticles-modulates-human-proximal-tubule-kidney-cell-uptake-cytotoxicity-and-gene-expression
#6
M T Ortega, J E Riviere, K Choi, N A Monteiro-Riviere
Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) adsorb macromolecules to form a protein corona (PC) after systemic delivery, to which the kidney as the primary excretory organ is constantly exposed. The role of the PC on AuNP cell uptake and toxicity was investigated in vitro in human proximal tubule cells (HPTC) using 40 and 80nm branched polyethylenimine (BPEI), lipoic acid (LA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated AuNP with or without (bare) PCs composed of human plasma (HP) or human serum albumin (HSA) for 0.25 to 24h. Time-dependent intracellular uptake, assessed by ICP-MS showed PC modulated cell uptake and cytotoxicity; with bare 40nm BPEI-AuNP showing the greatest responses...
April 19, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433737/exploring-biochemical-pathways-for-mono-ethylene-glycol-meg-synthesis-from-synthesis-gas
#7
M Ahsanul Islam, Noushin Hadadi, Meric Ataman, Vassily Hatzimanikatis, Gregory Stephanopoulos
Mono-ethylene glycol (MEG) is an important petrochemical with widespread use in numerous consumer products. The current industrial MEG-production process relies on non-renewable fossil fuel-based feedstocks, such as petroleum, natural gas, and naphtha; hence, it is useful to explore alternative routes of MEG-synthesis from gases as they might provide a greener and more sustainable alternative to the current production methods. Technologies of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering of microorganisms can be deployed for the expression of new biochemical pathways for MEG-synthesis from gases, provided that such promising alternative routes are first identified...
April 19, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433710/down-regulation-of-islet-amyloid-polypeptide-expression-induces-death-of-human-annulus-fibrosus-cells-via-mitochondrial-and-death-receptor-pathways
#8
Xinghuo Wu, Kun Wang, Wenbin Hua, Shuai Li, Xianzhe Liu, Wei Liu, Yu Song, Yukun Zhang, Zengwu Shao, Cao Yang
Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) exerts its biological effects by participating in the regulation of glucose metabolism and cell apoptosis. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the expression of IAPP in degenerated intervertebral disc tissue and IAPP's modulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) catabolic and anabolic genes in human AF cells. We found that the expression of IAPP, the calcitonin receptor, and receptor activity modifying protein decreased considerably in AF cells during the progression of intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD)...
April 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433686/mitochatting-if-only-we-could-be-a-fly-on-the-cell-wall
#9
REVIEW
Michal Eisenberg-Bord, Maya Schuldiner
Mitochondria, cellular metabolic hubs, perform many essential processes and are required for the production of metabolites such as ATP, iron-sulfur clusters, heme, amino acids and nucleotides. To fulfill their multiple roles, mitochondria must communicate with all other organelles to exchange small molecules, ions and lipids. Since mitochondria are largely excluded from vesicular trafficking routes, they heavily rely on membrane contact sites. Contact sites are areas of close proximity between organelles that allow efficient transfer of molecules, saving the need for slow and untargeted diffusion through the cytosol...
April 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433665/advancing-the-science-of-myocardial-recovery-with-mechanical-circulatory-support-a-working-group-of-the-national-heart-lung-and-blood-institute
#10
Stavros G Drakos, Francis D Pagani, Martha S Lundberg, J Timothy Baldwin
The medical burden of heart failure (HF) has spurred interest in clinicians and scientists to develop therapies to restore the function of a failing heart. To advance this agenda, the National Heart Lung Blood Institute (NHLBI) convened a Working Group of experts on June 2-3, 2016 in Bethesda Maryland to develop recommendations for the NHLBI aimed at advancing the science of cardiac recovery in the setting of mechanical circulatory support (MCS). MSC devices effectively reduce volume and pressure overload that drives the cycle of progressive myocardial dysfunction, thereby triggering structural and functional reverse remodeling...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433649/chronic-nicotine-attenuates-behavioral-and-synaptic-plasticity-impairments-in-a-streptozotocin-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Esteves Im, Lopes-Aguiar C, Rossignoli Mt, Ruggiero Rn, Broggini Acs, Bueno-Junior Ls, Kandratavicius L, Monteiro Mr, Romcy-Pereira Rn, Leite Jp
Brain glucose metabolism is altered in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (sAD), whose pathologies are reproduced in rodents by intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of streptozotocin (STZ) in subdiabetogenic doses. The icv-STZ model also culminates in central cholinergic dysfunctions, which in turn are known to underlie both the sAD cognitive decline, and synaptic plasticity impairments. Considering the cognitive-enhancing potential of chronic nicotine (Nic), we investigated whether it attenuates icv-STZ-induced impairments in recognition memory and synaptic plasticity in a cognition-relevant substrate: the hippocampal CA1-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) pathway...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433632/role-of-microrna-130b-in-placental-pgc-1%C3%AE-tfam-mitochondrial-biogenesis-pathway
#12
Shaoning Jiang, April M Teague, Jeanie B Tryggestad, Steven D Chernausek
Diabetes during pregnancy is associated with abnormal placenta mitochondrial function and increased oxidative stress, which affect fetal development and offspring long-term health. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) is a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism. The molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of PGC-1α in placenta in the context of diabetes remain unclear. The present study examined the role of microRNA 130b (miR-130b-3p) in regulating PGC-1α expression and oxidative stress in a placental trophoblastic cell line (BeWo)...
April 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433631/detection-of-camp-and-of-pka-activity-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-single-cells-using-fluorescence-resonance-energy-transfer-fret-probes
#13
Sonia Colombo, Serena Broggi, Maddalena Collini, Laura D'Alfonso, Giuseppe Chirico, Enzo Martegani
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and protein kinase A (PKA) play a central role in metabolism regulation, stress resistance and cell cycle progression. To monitor cAMP levels and PKA activity in vivo in single S. cerevisiae cells, we expressed an Epac-based FRET probe and a FRET-based A-kinase activity reporter, which were proven to be useful live-cell biosensors for cAMP levels and PKA activity in mammalian cells. Regarding detection of cAMP in single yeast cells, we show that in wild type strains the CFP/YFP fluorescence ratio increased immediately after glucose addition to derepressed cells, while no changes were observed when glucose was added to a strain that is not able to produce cAMP...
April 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433594/favouring-no-over-h2o2-production-will-increase-pb-tolerance-in-prosopis-farcta-via-altered-primary-metabolism
#14
Somaieh Zafari, Mohsen Sharifi, Luis A J Mur, Najmeh Ahmadian Chashmi
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) are known in triggering defense functions to detoxify heavy metal stresses. To investigate the relevance of ROS production, Pb treatment (400µM) alone and in combination with 400µM sodium ascorbate (Asc: as H2O2 scavenger) were given to hydroponically grown Prosopis farcta seedlings over a time course of 72h. Data presented here indicate that, the low extent of H2O2 due to scavenging by ascorbate, together with high level of NO improved Pb+Asc- treated Prosopis growth...
April 20, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433593/tissue-distribution-and-metabolism-of-triadimefon-and-triadimenol-enantiomers-in-chinese-lizards-eremias-argus
#15
Jitong Li, Yinghuan Wang, Wei Li, Peng Xu, Baoyuan Guo, Jianzhong Li, Huili Wang
Triadimefon (TF, S-(+)-TF, R-(-)-TF) and its metabolite triadimenol (TN, TN-A1, A2 and TN-B1, B2) are two systemic fungicides and both of them are chiral pharmaceuticals which are widely used in agricultural industry. Many researches focused on the toxicity effects of triadimefon on mammals, while the ecotoxicological data of tiradimefon on reptiles is limited. In order to understand the toxicity mechanism of triadimefon in reptiles, the current study administrated S-(+)-TF or R-(-)-TF traidimefon (50mg/kg(bw)) to Chinese lizards (Eremias argus) respectively, the absorption, distribution of triadimefon and the formation of triadimenol were analysed at different sampling times...
April 20, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433052/metabolomics-strategies-to-define-the-role-of-metabolism-in-virus-infection-and-pathogenesis
#16
Marianne Manchester, Anisha Anand
Metabolomics is an analytical profiling technique for measuring and comparing large numbers of metabolites present in biological samples. Combining high-throughput analytical chemistry and multivariate data analysis, metabolomics offers a window on metabolic mechanisms. Because they intimately utilize and often rewire host metabolism, viruses are an excellent choice to study by metabolomics techniques. Studies of the effects of viruses on metabolism during replication in vitro and infection in animal models or human subjects have provided novel insights into these networks and provided new targets for therapy and biomarker development...
2017: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432876/effect-of-pistachio-consumption-on-the-modulation-of-urinary-gut-microbiota-related-metabolites-in-prediabetic-subjects
#17
Pablo Hernández-Alonso, Daniel Cañueto, Simona Giardina, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Nicolau Cañellas, Xavier Correig, Mònica Bulló
The specific nutritional composition of nuts could affect different metabolic pathways involved in a broad range of metabolic diseases. We therefore investigated whether chronic consumption of pistachio nuts modifies the urine metabolome in prediabetic subjects. We designed a randomized crossover clinical trial in 39 prediabetic subjects. They consumed a pistachio-supplemented diet (PD, 50% carbohydrates, 33% fat, including 57 g/d of pistachios daily) and a control diet (CD, 55% carbohydrates, 30% fat) for 4 months each, separated by a 2-week wash-out...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432816/rhodnius-prolixus-from-classical-physiology-to-modern-developmental-biology
#18
REVIEW
Rodrigo Nunes-da-Fonseca, Mateus Berni, Vitória Tobias-Dos-Santos, Attilio Pane, Helena Marcolla Araujo
The hemiptera Rhodnius prolixus is a blood-feeding insect and a primary vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of the Chagas disease. Over the past century, Rhodnius has been the subject of intense investigations, which have contributed to unveil important aspects of metabolism and physiology in insects. Recent technological innovations are helping dissect the genetic and molecular underpinnings of Rhodnius embryogenesis and organogenesis, thus fostering the use of this important species in the fields of developmental and evolutionary biology...
April 22, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432716/deciphering-tacrolimus-induced-toxicity-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#19
J Triñanes, A E Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Y Brito, A Wagner, A P J De Vries, G Cuesto, A Acebes, E Salido, A Torres, E Porrini
β-cell transcription factors like: FoxO1, MafA, PDX-1, NeuroD, are dysfunctional in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). PTDM resembles T2DM and reflects interaction between pre-transplant insulin resistance and immunosuppressants, mainly calcineurin inhibitors. We evaluated the effect of tacrolimus, cyclosporine-A and metabolic stressors (glucose+palmitate) on insulinoma β-cells (INS-1) in vitro and in pancreata of obese and lean Zucker rats. Cells were cultured for five days with 100μM palmitate and 22mM glucose; cyclosporin-A (250ng/mL) or tacrolimus (15ng/mL) were added the last 48h...
April 22, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432637/polluted-pathways-mechanisms-of-metabolic-disruption-by-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals
#20
REVIEW
Mizuho S Mimoto, Angel Nadal, Robert M Sargis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Environmental toxicants are increasingly implicated in the global decline in metabolic health. Focusing on diabetes, herein, the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which metabolism disrupting chemicals (MDCs) impair energy homeostasis are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Emerging data implicate MDC perturbations in a variety of pathways as contributors to metabolic disease pathogenesis, with effects in diverse tissues regulating fuel utilization...
April 21, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
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