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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913891/biotransformation-of-2-4-dinitroanisole-by-a-fungal-penicillium-sp
#1
Hunter W Schroer, Kathryn L Langenfeld, Xueshu Li, Hans-Joachim Lehmler, Craig L Just
Insensitive munitions explosives are new formulations that are less prone to unintended detonation compared to traditional explosives. While these formulations have safety benefits, the individual constituents, such as 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN), have an unknown ecosystem fate with potentially toxic impacts to flora and fauna exposed to DNAN and/or its metabolites. Fungi may be useful in remediation and have been shown to degrade traditional nitroaromatic explosives, such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and 2,4-dinitrotoluene, that are structurally similar to DNAN...
December 2, 2016: Biodegradation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913676/translational-control-by-mtor-independent-routes-how-eif6-organizes-metabolism
#2
REVIEW
Annarita Miluzio, Sara Ricciardi, Nicola Manfrini, Roberta Alfieri, Stefania Oliveto, Daniela Brina, Stefano Biffo
Over the past few years, there has been a growing interest in the interconnection between translation and metabolism. Important oncogenic pathways, like those elicited by c-Myc transcription factor and mTOR kinase, couple the activation of the translational machinery with glycolysis and fatty acid synthesis. Eukaryotic initiation factor 6 (eIF6) is a factor necessary for 60S ribosome maturation. eIF6 acts also as a cytoplasmic translation initiation factor, downstream of growth factor stimulation. eIF6 is up-regulated in several tumor types...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913417/development-of-an-improved-system-for-the-generation-of-knock-out-mutants-of-amycolatopsis-sp-atcc-39116
#3
Florian Meyer, Hilke Pupkes, Alexander Steinbüchel
The Gram-positive actinomycete Amycolatopsis sp. ATCC 39116 is used for the industrial production of natural vanillin. Previously, the only gene deletion performed in this strain targeted the gene vdh coding for a vanillin dehydrogenase. The generation of this mutant suffered from a high number of illegitimate recombinations and the low rate of homologous recombination. To alleviate this, we constructed an optimized deletion system based on a modified suicide vector. Thereby, we were able to enhance the rate of homologous integration from less than 1% of the analyzed clones to 20% or 50% depending on the targeted gene...
December 2, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913282/proteomics-provides-insights-into-biological-pathways-altered-by-plant-growth-promoting-bacteria-and-arbuscular-mycorrhiza-in-sorghum-grown-in-marginal-soil
#4
Faten Dhawi, Rupali Datta, Wusirika Ramakrishna
Sorghum is an economically important crop, a model system for gene discovery and a biofuel source. Sorghum seedlings were subjected to three microbial treatments, plant growth promoting bacteria (B), arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi mix with two Glomus species (G. aggregatum and G. etunicatum), Funelliformis mosseae and Rhizophagus irregularis (My), and B and My combined (My+B). Proteomic analysis was conducted followed by integration with metabolite, plant biomass and nutrient data. Out of 366 differentially expressed proteins in sorghum roots, 44 upregulated proteins overlapping among three treatment groups showed positive correlation with sorghum biomass or element uptake or both...
November 29, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913250/identification-of-non-coding-and-coding-rnas-in-porcine-endometrium
#5
Yueying Wang, Tao Hu, Lihang Wu, Xiaoran Liu, Songyi Xue, Minggang Lei
One of the most critical periods of embryonic loss in pig is day 12 of pregnancy, when implantation begins. Here, we analyzed the gene expression on day 12 of pregnancy and non-pregnancy in the porcine endometrium using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). 237 mRNAs, 34 lncRNAs and 1 miRNA were significantly differentially expressed between the two groups. Further functional analyses were conducted to identify these differentially expressed transcripts. The results demonstrated that they participate in various biological processes, such as cell adhesion, binding, nucleic and metabolic processes...
November 29, 2016: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912756/mechanisms-of-inflammatory-responses-and-development-of-insulin-resistance-how-are-they-interlinked
#6
Kanwal Rehman, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance (IR) is one of the major hallmark for pathogenesis and etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). IR is directly interlinked with various inflammatory responses which play crucial role in the development of IR. Inflammatory responses play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and development of IR which is one of the main causative factor for the etiology of T2DM. METHODS: A comprehensive online English literature was searched using various electronic search databases...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912206/irisin-lowers-blood-pressure-by-improvement-of-endothelial-dysfunction-via-ampk-akt-enos-no-pathway-in-the-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat
#7
Jinjuan Fu, Yu Han, Jialiang Wang, Yukai Liu, Shuo Zheng, Lin Zhou, Pedro A Jose, Chunyu Zeng
BACKGROUND: Exercise is a major nonpharmacological treatment for hypertension, but its underlying mechanisms are still not completely elucidated. Irisin, a polypeptide containing 112 amino acids, which is secreted mainly by skeletal muscle cells during exercise, exerts a protective role in metabolic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus and obesity. Because of the close relationship between irisin and metabolic diseases, we hypothesized that irisin may play a role in the regulation of blood pressure...
October 26, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912165/biomarker-analysis-of-american-toad-anaxyrus-americanus-and-grey-tree-frog-hyla-versicolor-tadpoles-following-exposure-to-atrazine
#8
Marcía N Snyder, W Matthew Henderson, Donna A Glinski, S Thomas Purucker
The objective of the current study was to use a biomarker-based approach to investigate the influence of atrazine exposure on American toad (Anaxyrus americanus) and grey tree frog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles. Atrazine is one of the most frequently detected herbicides in environmental matrices throughout the United States. In surface waters, it has been found at concentrations from 0.04-2859μg/L and thus presents a likely exposure scenario for non-target species such as amphibians. Studies have examined the effect of atrazine on the metamorphic parameters of amphibians, however, the data are often contradictory...
November 21, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912109/characterization-and-fine-mapping-of-a-novel-premature-leaf-senescence-mutant-yellow-leaf-and-dwarf-1-in-rice
#9
Luchang Deng, Peng Qin, Zhi Liu, Geling Wang, Weilan Chen, Jianhua Tong, Langtao Xiao, Bin Tu, Yuantao Sun, Wei Yan, Hang He, Jun Tan, Xuewei Chen, Yuping Wang, Shigui Li, Bingtian Ma
Leaves are the main organs in which photosynthates are produced. Leaf senescence facilitates the translocation of photosynthates and nutrients from source to sink, which is important for plant development and especially for crop yield. However, the molecular mechanism of leaf senescence is unknown. Here, we identified a mutant, yellow leaf and dwarf 1 (yld1), which exhibited decreased plant height and premature leaf senescence. Nitroblue tetrazolium and diamiobenzidine staining analyses revealed that the concentrations of reactive oxygen species were higher in yld1 leaves than in wild type leaves...
November 22, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912044/mutations-in-prosc-disrupt-cellular-pyridoxal-phosphate-homeostasis-and-cause-vitamin-b6-dependent-epilepsy
#10
Niklas Darin, Emma Reid, Laurence Prunetti, Lena Samuelsson, Ralf A Husain, Matthew Wilson, Basma El Yacoubi, Emma Footitt, W K Chong, Louise C Wilson, Helen Prunty, Simon Pope, Simon Heales, Karine Lascelles, Mike Champion, Evangeline Wassmer, Pierangelo Veggiotti, Valérie de Crécy-Lagard, Philippa B Mills, Peter T Clayton
Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the active form of vitamin B6, functions as a cofactor in humans for more than 140 enzymes, many of which are involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and degradation. A deficiency of PLP can present, therefore, as seizures and other symptoms that are treatable with PLP and/or pyridoxine. Deficiency of PLP in the brain can be caused by inborn errors affecting B6 vitamer metabolism or by inactivation of PLP, which can occur when compounds accumulate as a result of inborn errors of other pathways or when small molecules are ingested...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911943/enhanced-in-planta-fitness-through-adaptive-mutations-in-efpr-a-dual-regulator-of-virulence-and-metabolic-functions-in-the-plant-pathogen-ralstonia-solanacearum
#11
Anthony Perrier, Rémi Peyraud, David Rengel, Xavier Barlet, Emmanuel Lucasson, Jérôme Gouzy, Nemo Peeters, Stéphane Genin, Alice Guidot
Experimental evolution of the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum, where bacteria were maintained on plant lineages for more than 300 generations, revealed that several independent single mutations in the efpR gene from populations propagated on beans were associated with fitness gain on bean. In the present work, novel allelic efpR variants were isolated from populations propagated on other plant species, thus suggesting that mutations in efpR were not solely associated to a fitness gain on bean, but also on additional hosts...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911843/impact-of-the-gut-microbiota-on-enhancer-accessibility-in-gut-intraepithelial-lymphocytes
#12
Nicholas P Semenkovich, Joseph D Planer, Philip P Ahern, Nicholas W Griffin, Charles Y Lin, Jeffrey I Gordon
The gut microbiota impacts many aspects of host biology including immune function. One hypothesis is that microbial communities induce epigenetic changes with accompanying alterations in chromatin accessibility, providing a mechanism that allows a community to have sustained host effects even in the face of its structural or functional variation. We used Assay for Transposase-Accessible Chromatin with high-throughput sequencing (ATAC-seq) to define chromatin accessibility in predicted enhancer regions of intestinal αβ(+) and γδ(+) intraepithelial lymphocytes purified from germ-free mice, their conventionally raised (CONV-R) counterparts, and mice reared germ free and then colonized with CONV-R gut microbiota at the end of the suckling-weaning transition...
December 1, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911809/unique-attributes-of-cyanobacterial-metabolism-revealed-by-improved-genome-scale-metabolic-modeling-and-essential-gene-analysis
#13
Jared T Broddrick, Benjamin E Rubin, David G Welkie, Niu Du, Nathan Mih, Spencer Diamond, Jenny J Lee, Susan S Golden, Bernhard O Palsson
The model cyanobacterium, Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, is a genetically tractable obligate phototroph that is being developed for the bioproduction of high-value chemicals. Genome-scale models (GEMs) have been successfully used to assess and engineer cellular metabolism; however, GEMs of phototrophic metabolism have been limited by the lack of experimental datasets for model validation and the challenges of incorporating photon uptake. Here, we develop a GEM of metabolism in S. elongatus using random barcode transposon site sequencing (RB-TnSeq) essential gene and physiological data specific to photoautotrophic metabolism...
December 1, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911807/enhanced-limonene-production-in-cyanobacteria-reveals-photosynthesis-limitations
#14
Xin Wang, Wei Liu, Changpeng Xin, Yi Zheng, Yanbing Cheng, Su Sun, Runze Li, Xin-Guang Zhu, Susie Y Dai, Peter M Rentzepis, Joshua S Yuan
Terpenes are the major secondary metabolites produced by plants, and have diverse industrial applications as pharmaceuticals, fragrance, solvents, and biofuels. Cyanobacteria are equipped with efficient carbon fixation mechanism, and are ideal cell factories to produce various fuel and chemical products. Past efforts to produce terpenes in photosynthetic organisms have gained only limited success. Here we engineered the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 to efficiently produce limonene through modeling guided study...
November 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911769/reductive-carboxylation-is-a-major-metabolic-pathway-in-the-retinal-pigment-epithelium
#15
Jianhai Du, Aya Yanagida, Kaitlen Knight, Abbi L Engel, Anh Huan Vo, Connor Jankowski, Martin Sadilek, Van Thi Bao Tran, Megan A Manson, Aravind Ramakrishnan, James B Hurley, Jennifer R Chao
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a monolayer of pigmented cells that requires an active metabolism to maintain outer retinal homeostasis and compensate for oxidative stress. Using (13)C metabolic flux analysis in human RPE cells, we found that RPE has an exceptionally high capacity for reductive carboxylation, a metabolic pathway that has recently garnered significant interest because of its role in cancer cell survival. The capacity for reductive carboxylation in RPE exceeds that of all other cells tested, including retina, neural tissue, glial cells, and a cancer cell line...
December 1, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911401/an-optimized-protocol-to-analyze-glycolysis-and-mitochondrial-respiration-in-lymphocytes
#16
Javier Traba, Pietro Miozzo, Billur Akkaya, Susan K Pierce, Munir Akkaya
Lymphocytes respond to a variety of stimuli by activating intracellular signaling pathways, which in turn leads to rapid cellular proliferation, migration and differentiation, and cytokine production. All of these events are tightly linked to the energy status of the cell, and therefore studying the energy-producing pathways may give clues about the overall functionality of these cells. The extracellular flux analyzer is a commonly used device for evaluating the performance of glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration in many cell types...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911093/dna-microarray-profiling-highlights-nrf2-mediated-chemoprevention-targeted-by-wasabi-derived-isothiocyanates-in-hepg2-cells
#17
Phoebe Zapanta Trio, Atsuyoshi Kawahara, Shunsuke Tanigawa, Kozue Sakao, De-Xing Hou
6-MSITC and 6-MTITC are sulforaphane (SFN) analogs found in Japanese Wasabi. As we reported previously, Wasabi isothiocyanates (ITCs) are activators of Nrf2-antioxidant response element pathway, and also inhibitors of pro-inflammatory cyclooxygenase-2. This study is the first to assess the global changes in transcript levels by Wasabi ITCs, comparing with SFN, in HepG2 cells. We performed comparative gene expression profiling by treating HepG2 cells with ITCs, followed by DNA microarray analyses using HG-U133 plus 2...
December 2, 2016: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910928/high-throughput-chinmedomics-based-prediction-of-effective-components-and-targets-from-herbal-medicine-as1350
#18
Qi Liu, Aihua Zhang, Liang Wang, Guangli Yan, Hongwei Zhao, Hui Sun, Shiyu Zou, Jinwei Han, Chung Wah Ma, Ling Kong, Xiaohang Zhou, Yang Nan, Xijun Wang
This work was designed to explore the effective components and targets of herbal medicine AS1350 and its effect on "Kidney-Yang Deficiency Syndrome" (KYDS) based on a chinmedomics strategy which is capable of directly discovering and predicting the effective components, and potential targets, of herbal medicine. Serum samples were analysed by UPLC-MS combined with pattern recognition analysis to identify the biomarkers related to the therapeutic effects. Interestingly, the effectiveness of AS1350 against KYDS was proved by the chinmedomics method and regulated the biomarkers and targeting of metabolic disorders...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910906/analysis-of-the-serum-lipid-profile-in-polypoidal-choroidal-vasculopathy
#19
Miaoling Li, Xiongze Zhang, Nanying Liao, Baikang Ye, Yuting Peng, Yuying Ji, Feng Wen
Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), the predominant subtype of neovascular age-related macular degeneration in the Asian population, is associated with genetic polymorphism of lipid metabolism. In this study, we performed the untargeted lipidomics approach of ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) to reveal the potential discriminating lipid profile of PCV patients in serum (21 PCV patients and 19 age-matched controls). Unsupervised principal component, supervised orthogonal partial least squares analysis, correlation analysis, and heatmap analysis were performed with the data obtained by UPLC-MS...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910764/metabolic-regulation-of-natural-killer-cell-ifn-%C3%AE-production
#20
Annelise Y Mah, Megan A Cooper
Metabolism is critical for a host of cellular functions and provides a source of intracellular energy. It has been recognized recently that metabolism also regulates differentiation and effector functions of immune cells. Although initial work in this field has focused largely on T lymphocytes, recent studies have demonstrated metabolic control of innate immune cells, including natural killer (NK) cells. Here, we review what is known regarding the metabolic requirements for NK cell activation, focusing on NK cell production of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
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