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Delirium in elderly Emergency Room

Stacie Deiner, Xiaodong Luo, Hung-Mo Lin, Daniel I Sessler, Leif Saager, Frederick E Sieber, Hochang B Lee, Mary Sano, Christopher Jankowski, Sergio D Bergese, Keith Candiotti, Joseph H Flaherty, Harendra Arora, Aryeh Shander, Peter Rock
Importance: Postoperative delirium occurs in 10% to 60% of elderly patients having major surgery and is associated with longer hospital stays, increased hospital costs, and 1-year mortality. Emerging literature suggests that dexmedetomidine sedation in critical care units is associated with reduced incidence of delirium. However, intraoperative use of dexmedetomidine for prevention of delirium has not been well studied. Objective: To evaluate whether an intraoperative infusion of dexmedetomidine reduces postoperative delirium...
August 16, 2017: JAMA Surgery
Pedro Tanaka, Stuart Goodman, Barbara R Sommer, William Maloney, James Huddleston, Hendrikus J Lemmens
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to investigate the incidence of delirium, wake-up times and early post-operative cognitive decline in one hundred obese elderly patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. DESIGN: Prospective randomized trial. SETTINGS: Operating room, postoperative recovery area, hospital wards. PATIENTS: 100 obese patients (ASA II and III) undergoing primary total knee replacement under general anesthesia with a femoral nerve block catheter...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Tianjing Li, L Susan Wieland, Esther Oh, Karin J Neufeld, Nae-Yuh Wang, Kay Dickersin, Frederick E Sieber
Background Delirium is an acute change in mental status characterized by sudden onset, fluctuating course, inattention, disorganized thinking, and abnormal level of consciousness. The objective of the randomized controlled trial "A STrategy to Reduce the Incidence of Postoperative Delirium in Elderly Patients" (STRIDE) is to assess the effectiveness of light versus heavy sedation on delirium and other outcomes in elderly patients undergoing hip fracture repair surgery. Our goal is to describe the design considerations and lessons learned in planning and implementing the STRIDE trial...
June 2017: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
Paola R Fuentes, Javier Webar, Carla Matus, Cristián Vergara, Michelle Herrera, Elizabeth M Barthel, Jorge S Vega
Illness presentation in the elderly may be entirely non-specific, with fatigue, loss of function or the presence of geriatric syndromes. We report a 90 years old male consulting in the emergency room for delirium that persisted throughout hospitalization without finding a cause. During the course of hospitalization mild fever appeared and a left knee swelling became apparent. A synovial fluid aspiration showed a leukocyte count of 360 per field with 60% polymorphonuclear cells. The culture was negative. With a presumptive diagnosis of pseudogout, cochicine and celecoxib were started with remission of the confusional state...
April 2015: Revista Médica de Chile
Albert Diefenbacher
In German speaking countries, during the last decades, we can see a growing, though albeit small, integration of psychiatry and psychosomatics into (somatic) medicine. This article outlines the importance of the growing number of elderly patients in medical care as a vantage point for c-l-psychiatrists to play a pro-active role in implementing adequate structures and processes for diagnostics and treatment of this patient group. It is argued that delirium (in dementia) can and should be regarded as a paradigm for a biopsychosocial disorder sui generis...
2015: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
Gilles Naeije, Chantal Depondt, Claire Meeus, Keziah Korpak, Thierry Pepersack, Benjamin Legros
INTRODUCTION: Delirium is a leading cause of hospitalization and morbidity in elderly persons. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) and delirium share many risk factors. We tested the hypothesis that NCSE plays an important role in delirium by performing continuous EEG (cEEG) monitoring in elderly patients with delirium of any cause. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients over 65 years old presenting with delirium in the emergency room were prospectively included and underwent either routine 20-minute EEG or cEEG within 24h after admission...
July 2014: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Sherry Tang, Priyanka Patel, Jagdish Khubchandani, George T Grossberg
Background. The growing geriatric population in the United States (US) has prompted better understanding of treatment of the elderly in the hospital and emergency room (ER) settings. This study examines factors influencing the disposition of psychogeriatric patients after their initial presentation in the ER. Methods. Data was collected on patients 65 years of age or older arriving at the ER of a large urban hospital in the USA (January 2009-December 2010). Results. Of the total subjects (n = 95) included in the study, majority were females (66...
2014: ISRN Psychiatry
Shoji Kikui, Takao Takeshima
A 68-year-old woman presented with a sudden severe headache, vomiting, and disturbed consciousness. She was admitted to the emergency room. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a hemorrhage in the right temporal lobe. Angiography demonstrated a ruptured aneurysm in the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) and an unruptured aneurysm in the left MCA. The subarachnoid hemorrhage was grade 3 (Hunt and Kosnik classification). Emergency craniotomy, clipping of the ruptured aneurysm and removal of the hematoma were performed...
2013: Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Geriatrics
Gilles Naeije, Imane Bachir, Nicolas Gaspard, Benjamin Legros, Thierry Pepersack
AIM: Delirium is responsible for up to 56% of hospital admissions in the elderly. Epilepsy and delirium share most risk factors and are both associated with confusion. The aim of this work was to study whether a link between epileptic activity (EA) and delirium existed, and if this link was relevant. METHODS: Charts of patients aged over 65 years admitted for delirium at the emergency room in 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Risk factors for delirium, past medical history, medications, biological and iconographic work-up were analyzed...
April 2014: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
Karen T Snider, Eric J Snider, Jane C Johnson, Celia Hagan, Conrad Schoenwald
CONTEXT: Elderly nursing home residents are generally in poor health. Many residents report pain on a daily basis, few are independent in their activities of daily living, and most take a large number of medications. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the benefits elderly nursing home residents may receive from preventative osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) designed to optimize structure and function and enhance their bodies' homeostatic mechanisms. METHODS: Volunteer nursing home residents were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: (1) OMT, (2) light touch (LT), or (3) treatment as usual (TAU)...
August 2012: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
Seung-Han Suk, Yong-Tae Kwak
An altered mentality, or delirium, is a common medical condition of the elderly in emergency medicine or neurology clinics. Among causes of this, toxic etiology due to an anticholinergic agent is not rare. The authors present two elderly women who were brought to an emergency room because of anticholinergic syndrome. The patients displayed agitative behavior, confusion, urinary retention, dry mouth and dilated pupils within 3 h of ingesting the dried seeds of Datura stramonium which has been used as a herbal medicine or as a traditional folk remedy for relieving coughing and asthma in Korea...
September 2009: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
Amy Heritage Miller, Kathleen Kline Mangione
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This case report describes the clinical decision making process of a physical therapist whose examination of a home bound elderly woman led to a referral for hospitalization. We illustrate how the use of a comprehensive systems screen and thorough examination identified a patient with treatable conditions that required medical care. CASE DESCRIPTION: The patient was a frail 93-year-old woman. She was referred for home-care physical therapy with multiple medical comorbidities and functional decline following a short hospitalization for fall-related injuries...
2006: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy
J M Flacker, J Y Wei
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine if serum anticholinergic activity (SACA) arises from endogenous substances produced during illness. METHODS: Elderly medical inpatients (N = 612) were screened for anticholinergic medication use in the week prior to the study by interviews of subjects and proxies and review of emergency room, hospital, and nursing home medication administration records. Of 24 subjects without a recent anticholinergic medication history, 15 were recruited and 10 completed the study...
June 2001: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
K Milisen, M D Foreman, I L Abraham, S De Geest, J Godderis, E Vandermeulen, B Fischler, H H Delooz, B Spiessens, P L Broos
OBJECTIVES: To develop and test the effect of a nurse-led interdisciplinary intervention program for delirium on the incidence and course (severity and duration) of delirium, cognitive functioning, functional rehabilitation, mortality, and length of stay in older hip-fracture patients. DESIGN: Longitudinal prospective before/after design (sequential design). SETTING: The emergency room and two traumatological units of an academic medical center located in an urban area in Belgium...
May 2001: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
J Monette, G Galbaud du Fort, S H Fung, F Massoud, Y Moride, L Arsenault, M Afilalo
The objective of this study was to compare the results of the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) obtained by a trained non-physician interviewer to those obtained by a geriatrician, among a sample of elderly patients seen in an emergency room. A group of 110 elderly patients (> or =66 years) were evaluated in the emergency room by a lay interviewer. The geriatrician conducted an interview in the presence of the lay interviewer. Subsequently, the geriatrician and the lay interviewer completed a CAM checklist independently...
January 2001: General Hospital Psychiatry
M Elie, F Rousseau, M Cole, F Primeau, J McCusker, F Bellavance
BACKGROUND: Delirium is a complex medical disorder associated with high morbidity and mortality among elderly patients. The goals of our study were to determine the prevalence of delirium in emergency department (ED) patients aged 65 years and over and to determine the sensitivity and specificity of a conventional clinical assessment by an ED physician for the detection of delirium in the same population. METHODS: All elderly patients presenting to the ED in a primary acute care, university-affiliated hospital who were triaged to the observation room on a stretcher because of the severity of their illness were screened for delirium by a research psychiatrist using the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Confusion Assessment Method...
October 17, 2000: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
S S Patel, K L Goa
Desflurane is a halogenated ether inhalation general anaesthetic agent with low solubility in blood and body tissues, and approximately one-fifth the potency of isoflurane. The pharmacodynamic properties of desflurane generally resemble those of isoflurane; thus, it produces dose-dependent depression of the central nervous and cardiorespiratory systems, and tetanic fade at the neuromuscular junction. The alveolar equilibration of desflurane is rapid (90% complete at 30 minutes compared with 73% for isoflurane)...
October 1995: Drugs
E L Pérez, J Blouin
The authors compared the demographic and clinical characteristics and treatment recommendations for elderly (greater than or equal to 60 years) and younger patients (17 to 59 years) seen for an emergency psychiatric consultation in a teaching general hospital. Findings revealed 11 distinctive characteristics that differentiated elderly from younger patients. Most notably, the elderly experienced their chief complaint for a longer time before referral to the emergency room by their primary care physician and had higher prevalence of affective disorders and psychologic factors affecting physical condition...
February 1986: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
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