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Delirium Epidemiology

Benjamin Jelley, Sara Long, John Butler, Jonathan Hewitt
PURPOSE: Medical trainees are required to undertake audit and quality improvement projects. They must also have an understanding of the principles of research and are encouraged to participate in research projects. However, the constraints of time, a lack of formal training and rotation between different training posts create barriers to audit cycle completion and pursuing research. This leads to trainees being reluctant to undertake research, facilitates poor quality research and risks incomplete audit...
February 14, 2017: BMJ Open
Walter Hewer, Christine Thomas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Psychiatric symptoms in dementia and delirium are associated with a substantially reduced quality of life of patients and their families and often challenging for professionals. Pharmacoepidemiological surveys have shown that, in particular, patients living in nursing homes receive prescriptions of psychotropic agents in significant higher frequency than recommended by current guidelines. This article focuses on a critical appraisal of this gap from the point of view of German healthcare services...
February 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
Daniel H J Davis, Graciela Muniz-Terrera, Hannah A D Keage, Blossom C M Stephan, Jane Fleming, Paul G Ince, Fiona E Matthews, Colm Cunningham, E Wesley Ely, Alasdair M J MacLullich, Carol Brayne
Importance: Delirium is associated with accelerated cognitive decline. The pathologic substrates of this association are not yet known, that is, whether they are the same as those associated with dementia, are independent, or are interrelated. Objective: To examine whether the accelerated cognitive decline observed after delirium is independent of the pathologic processes of classic dementia. Design, Setting, and Participants: Harmonized data from 987 individual brain donors from 3 observational cohort studies with population-based sampling (Vantaa 85+, Cambridge City Over-75s Cohort, Cognitive Function and Ageing Study) performed from January 1, 1985, through December 31, 2011, with a median follow-up of 5...
January 18, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
Alain Michaud
Restraint related death in individuals in excited delirium syndrome (ExDS) is a rare event that has been the subject of controversies for more than 3 decades. The purpose of this retrospective study was to retrieve data on all restraint related deaths (RRD) that occurred in Ontario during an 8-year period and compare them with an earlier study on RRD in ExDS covering the period 1988-1995 in Ontario. The Office of the Chief Coroner of Ontario website was consulted under verdicts and recommendations. The Canadian Legal Information Institute website was used to consult verdict explanations and coroner's summary of evidence...
July 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Simon Baldwin, Christine Hall, Craig Bennell, Brittany Blaskovits, Chris Lawrence
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The frequency with which the police encounter non-fatal cases of Excited Delirium Syndrome (ExDS) has not been well studied. To date only a single prospective, epidemiologic study has been completed to determine the prevalence of the features of ExDS in police use of force (UoF) encounters. We examined a cluster of previously published features associated with ExDS to establish if these features were consistently recognizable across policing populations, thus demonstrating reproducibility...
July 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Mascha M J Linszen, Rachel M Brouwer, Sophie M Heringa, Iris E Sommer
Several studies suggest hearing impairment as a risk factor for psychosis. Hearing impairment is highly prevalent and potentially reversible, as it can be easily diagnosed and sometimes improved. Insight in the association between hearing impairment and psychosis can therefore contribute to prevention of psychosis. This paper provides meta-analyses of all epidemiologic evidence on the association between hearing impairment and psychosis and summarizes mechanisms that potentially underlie this relationship. Meta-analyses showed an increased risk of hearing impairment on all psychosis outcomes, such as hallucinations (OR 1...
March 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Eric E Prommer
BACKGROUND: Advanced cancer produces multiple symptoms as patients progress through their disease trajectory. Identifying, measuring, and providing therapy for uncontrolled symptoms becomes important because disease-altering therapies may be no longer possible. Symptoms other than pain that cause distress in patients with cancer include delirium, dyspnea, anorexia, nausea, and fatigue. Precise management of these symptoms can lead to the best possible quality of life and lessen distress...
October 2015: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
Neera Chaudhry, Ashish Kumar Duggal
Sepsis associated encephalopathy (SAE) is a common but poorly understood neurological complication of sepsis. It is characterized by diffuse brain dysfunction secondary to infection elsewhere in the body without overt CNS infection. The pathophysiology of SAE is complex and multifactorial including a number of intertwined mechanisms such as vascular damage, endothelial activation, breakdown of the blood brain barrier, altered brain signaling, brain inflammation, and apoptosis. Clinical presentation of SAE may range from mild symptoms such as malaise and concentration deficits to deep coma...
2014: Advances in Medicine
Lara Dhingra, Ebtesam Ahmed, Jae Shin, Elyssa Scharaga, Maximilian Magun
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive effects and sedation (CES) are prevalent in chronic nonmalignant pain populations receiving long-term opioid therapy and are among the most common reasons patients discontinue opioid use. In this narrative review, we describe the phenomenology, epidemiology, mechanisms, assessment, and management of opioid-related CES. DESIGN: We reviewed the empirical and theoretical literature on CES in opioid-treated populations with chronic pain. Data on long-term opioid therapy (≥ 3 months in duration) in chronic nonmalignant pain patients were sought...
October 2015: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Gorazd B Stokin, Janina Krell-Roesch, Ronald C Petersen, Yonas E Geda
The American Psychiatric Association has recently published the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The DSM-IV category "Dementia, Delirium, Amnestic, and Other Cognitive Disorders" has undergone extensive revision. DSM-5 has renamed this category as "Neurocognitive Disorders" (NCD), which now covers three entities: delirium, major NCD, and mild NCD. The DSM-IV version of mild NCD resembles the DSM-5 version in name only. DSM-IV defined mild NCD based on a single criterion, whereas DSM-5 defines mild NCD by using several cognitive and related criteria...
September 2015: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
Miguel Alberto Rizzi, Olga Herminia Torres Bonafonte, Aitor Alquezar, Sergio Herrera Mateo, Pascual Piñera, Mireia Puig, Salvador Benito, Domingo Ruiz
OBJECTIVE: Patients with heart failure (HF) seen at the emergency department (ED) are increasingly older and more likely to present delirium. Little is known, however, about the impact of this syndrome on outcome in these patients. We aimed to investigate the prognostic value and risk factors of delirium at admission (prevalent delirium) in ED patients with decompensated HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a prospective, observational study, analyzing the presence of prevalent delirium in decompensated HF patients attended at the ED in 2 hospitals in Spain in the context of the Epidemiology Acute Heart Failure Emergency project...
September 1, 2015: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Tamara G Fong, Daniel Davis, Matthew E Growdon, Asha Albuquerque, Sharon K Inouye
Delirium and dementia are two of the most common causes of cognitive impairment in older populations, yet their interrelation remains poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that dementia is the leading risk factor for delirium and that delirium is an independent risk factor for subsequent development of dementia. However, a major area of controversy is whether delirium is simply a marker of vulnerability to dementia, whether the effect of delirium is solely related to its precipitating factors, or whether delirium itself can cause permanent neuronal damage and lead to dementia...
August 2015: Lancet Neurology
Peter Jackson, Akram Khan
Delirium in the intensive care unit (ICU) is a common diagnosis, with an incidence ranging between 45% and 87%. Delirium represents a significant burden both to the patient and to the health care system, with a 3.2-fold increase in 6-month mortality and annual US health care costs up to $16 billion. In this review, the diagnosis, epidemiology, and risk factors for delirium in the ICU are discussed. The pathophysiology of delirium and evolving prevention and treatment modalities are outlined.
July 2015: Critical Care Clinics
Jorge I F Salluh, Han Wang, Eric B Schneider, Neeraja Nagaraja, Gayane Yenokyan, Abdulla Damluji, Rodrigo B Serafim, Robert D Stevens
OBJECTIVES: To determine the relation between delirium in critically ill patients and their outcomes in the short term (in the intensive care unit and in hospital) and after discharge from hospital. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and PsychINFO, with no language restrictions, up to 1 January 2015. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTION STUDIES: Reports were eligible for inclusion if they were prospective observational cohorts or clinical trials of adults in intensive care units who were assessed with a validated delirium screening or rating system, and if the association was measured between delirium and at least one of four clinical endpoints (death during admission, length of stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, and any outcome after hospital discharge)...
June 3, 2015: BMJ: British Medical Journal
C P Engelhard, G Touquet, A Tansens, J De Fruyt
BACKGROUND: From the second half of the 19th century eminent psychiatrists began referring to alcohol-induced psychotic disorder (AIPD) as a specific alcoholic psychosis. Over the last decades interest in AIPD seems to have declined: the last review dates form 1989. AIM: To review the recent literature on AIPD, revive interest in the disorder, evaluate the current scientific evidence and assess its clinical value. METHOD: We performed a Medline search based on the following terms: 'Psychoses, Alcoholic' [Mesh] OR 'alcohol induced psychotic disorder' OR 'alcoholic hallucinosis' OR 'alcohol hallucinosis'...
2015: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Takeshi Sawaguchi, Kenji Shigemoto
Multidisciplinary approach for proximal femoral fracture was organized in the hospital. Inter and intra division obstacles were discussed. After general consensus of the team was obtained, manuals and guidelines of the each division were prepared. In addition to this, the electrical chart specific for the proximal femoral fracture was made which enables to eliminate in-hospital reference letters. As the results, all patients were examined by internal medicine doctors at the time of admission. Average interval from the time of admission to surgery became 1...
April 2015: Clinical Calcium
Kevin B Gerold, Mark E Gibbons, Richard E Fisette, Donald Alves
Excited delirium syndrome (ExDS) is a term used to describe patients experiencing a clinical condition characterized by bizarre and aggressive behavior, often in association with the use of chronic sympathomimetic drug abuse. The agitated and disruptive behavior of persons with ExDS often results in a call to police resulting in an arrest for disorderly conduct. The suspect's inability to comply with police commands during the arrest frequently results in a struggle and the use of physical or chemical control measures, including the use of conductive energy weapons (CEWs)...
2015: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Nathan E Brummel, Michele C Balas, Alessandro Morandi, Lauren E Ferrante, Thomas M Gill, E Wesley Ely
OBJECTIVE: To review how disability can develop in older adults with critical illness and to explore ways to reduce long-term disability following critical illness. DATA SOURCES: We searched PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science and Google Scholar for studies reporting disability outcomes (i.e., activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, and mobility activities) and/or cognitive outcomes among patients treated in an ICU who were 65 years or older...
June 2015: Critical Care Medicine
Linda M Schnitker, Melinda Martin-Khan, Ellen Burkett, Caroline A Brand, Elizabeth R A Beattie, Richard N Jones, Len C Gray
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to identify the structural quality of care domains and to establish a set of structural quality indicators (SQIs) for the assessment of care of older people with cognitive impairment in emergency departments (EDs). METHODS: A structured approach to SQI development was undertaken including: 1) a comprehensive search of peer-reviewed and gray literature focusing on identification of evidence-based interventions targeting structure of care of older patients with cognitive impairment and existing SQIs; 2) a consultative process engaging experts in the care of older people and epidemiologic methods (i...
March 2015: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Cathy A Maxwell, Lorraine C Mion, Kaushik Mukherjee, Mary S Dietrich, Ann Minnick, Addison May, Richard S Miller
BACKGROUND: Frailty assessment of injured older adults (IOAs) is important for clinical management; however, the feasibility of screening for preinjury frailty has not been established in a Level I trauma center. The aims of our study were to assess enrollment rates of IOAs and their surrogates as well as completion rates of selected brief frailty screening instruments. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study on patients, age 65 years and older with a primary injury diagnosis...
April 2015: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
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