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C M Reynolds, M A Short, M Gradisar
Higher sleep spindle activity generally relates to better cognitive performance in adults, while studies in children often show the opposite. As children become young adults, there is rapid brain maturation and development of higher-order cognitive functions, and therefore investigations within this age group may elucidate the relationship between spindles and cognition in this developmental period. Twelve studies published between 2009 and 2016 were identified. Meta-analyses revealed a positive relationship between spindles and cognition overall (r = 0...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
Zaihua He, Hong Lin, Jiewei Hao, Xiangshi Kong, Kai Tian, Zhanlin Bei, Xingjun Tian
This study investigated the effects of adding vermiculite to the food waste composting process. Four treatments with varying vermiculite percent compositions, 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% (w/w, wet weight of food waste basis) mixed with initial food waste were designed and then composted for 42 days. Results show that adding vermiculite prolongs the thermophilic phase, speeds up the organic matter loss, reduces the NH3 emissions and electrical conductivity values. Compared to the control, the amount of nitrogen loss through NH3 emissions in the treatments of 5%, 10% and 15% vermiculite decreased by 9...
May 9, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Nawal Shaikh, Karan Dixit, Jeffrey Raizer
Meningiomas are the most common adult primary intracranial tumor. Despite their higher incidence, there have not-until recently-been as many advances in understanding and managing meningiomas. Thus far, two broad classes of meningiomas have emerged on the basis of their mutational profile: those driven by neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) inactivation and those with non-NF2 driver gene alterations, such as mammalian target of rapamycin and Hedgehog, Wingless/b-catenin, Notch, transforming growth factor-b receptor, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and phospholipase C pathway alterations...
2018: F1000Research
James C Salamanca, Jiries Meehan-Atrash, Shawna Vreeke, Jorge O Escobedo, David H Peyton, Robert M Strongin
E-cigarette aerosol emission studies typically focus on benchmarking toxicant levels versus those of cigarettes. However, such studies do not fully account for the distinct chemical makeup of e-liquids and their unique properties. These approaches often conclude that there are fewer and lower levels of toxins produced by e-cigarettes than by cigarettes. In 2015, we reported the discovery of new hemiacetals derived from the reaction of formaldehyde and the e-liquid solvents. The main finding was that they constituted a significant proportion of potentially undetected formaldehyde...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Michael Gapinske, Nathan Tague, Jackson Winter, Gregory H Underhill, Pablo Perez-Pinera
Gene editing technologies are revolutionizing fields such as biomedicine and biotechnology by providing a simple means to manipulate the genetic makeup of essentially any organism. Gene editing tools function by introducing double-stranded breaks at targeted sites within the genome, which the host cells repair preferentially by Non-Homologous End Joining. While the technologies to introduce double-stranded breaks have been extensively optimized, this progress has not been matched by the development of methods to integrate heterologous DNA at the target sites or techniques to detect and isolate cells that harbor the desired modification...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Shilpi Gupta, Alexander Lemenze, Robert J Donnelly, Nancy D Connell, Daniel E Kadouri
The use of predatory bacteria as a potential live therapeutic to control human infection is gaining increased attention. Earlier work with Micavibrio spp. and Bdellovibrio spp. has demonstrated the ability of these predators to control drug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens, Tier-1 select agents and biofilms. Additional studies also confirmed that introducing high doses of the predators into animals does not negatively impact animal well-being and might assist in reducing bacterial burden in vivo. The survival of predators requires extreme proximity to the prey cell, which might bring about horizontal transfer of genetic material, such as genes encoding for pathogenic genetic islands that would indirectly facilitate the spread of genetic material to other organisms...
May 8, 2018: Research in Microbiology
Lamis Galal, Neveen A Abdel Aziz, Walaa M Hassan
Fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides offer effective therapy for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing enterobacterial infections, but their usefulness is threatened by increasing resistant strains. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to demonstrate the phenotypic outcomes of the coexistence of genetic determinants mediating resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and quinolones in enterobacterial isolates collected from patients with health-care-associated infections in Egypt...
May 11, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Nara Yoon, Robert Vander Velde, Andriy Marusyk, Jacob G Scott
Despite major strides in the treatment of cancer, the development of drug resistance remains a major hurdle. One strategy which has been proposed to address this is the sequential application of drug therapies where resistance to one drug induces sensitivity to another drug, a concept called collateral sensitivity. The optimal timing of drug switching in these situations, however, remains unknown. To study this, we developed a dynamical model of sequential therapy on heterogeneous tumors comprised of resistant and sensitive cells...
May 7, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Cinnamon S Bloss, Justin Stoler, Cynthia E Schairer, Sara B Rosenthal, Cynthia Cheung, Holly M Rus, Jessica L Block, Jiue-An Jay Yang, Doug Morton, Helen Bixenman, David Wellis
A goal of the Precision Medicine Initiative All of Us Research Program (AoURP) is recruitment of participants who reflect the diversity of the US. Recruitment from among blood bank donors, which may better reflect the demographic makeup of local communities, is one proposed strategy. We evaluated this strategy by analyzing the results of a survey of San Diego Blood Bank donors conducted in November 2015. Whites were more likely than nonwhites to respond to the survey (7.1 percent versus 3.9 percent). However, race was not a significant predictor of interest in participating in precision medicine research...
May 2018: Health Affairs
Susanne B Haga, Ariel Kantor
Pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing involves the analysis of genes known to affect response to medications. The field has been projected as a leading application of personalized or precision medicine, but the use of PGx tests has been stymied, in part, by the lack of clinical evidence of utility and reported low provider awareness. Another factor is the availability of testing. The range and types of PGx tests available have not been assessed to date. In the period September 2017-January 2018 we analyzed the numbers and types of PGx tests offered by clinical testing laboratories in the US...
May 2018: Health Affairs
Yong Joo Cho, Hany Aziz
Although organic electroluminescent materials have long promised the prospect of making Organic Light Emitting Devices (OLEDs) via low-cost solution-coating techniques, the electroluminescence stability of devices made by such techniques continues to be rather limited making them unsuitable for commercialization. The root causes of the lower stability of OLEDs made by solution-coating versus the more conventional vacuum-deposition remain unknown. In this work, we investigate and compare between solution-coated and vacuum-deposited materials under prolonged excitation, using the archetypical host material 4,4'-bis(N-carbazolyl)-1,1'-biphenyl (CBP) as a model OLED material...
May 7, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Abbas Norouzian Baghani, Roohollah Rostami, Hossein Arfaeinia, Sadegh Hazrati, Mehdi Fazlzadeh, Mahdieh Delikhoon
Concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) were investigated in indoor air quality of 50 beauty salons in Ardabil, Iran (2017). Ten liters of air samples were collected from each salons regarding the recommended method and analyzed by GC-FID for BTEX concentration. Also, structural and operational conditions of the salons were studied with a self-designed questioner. The results of this study show that the mean concentration of benzene (32.40 ± 26.38) higher than the recommended levels by Health Canada, ANSES and HKSAR...
May 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Amanda R Lawter, Whitney L Garcia, Ravi K Kukkadapu, Odeta Qafoku, Mark E Bowden, Sarah A Saslow, Nikolla P Qafoku
At the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington, discharge of radionuclide laden liquid wastes resulted in vadose zone contamination, providing a continuous source of these contaminants to groundwater. The presence of multiple contaminants (i.e., 99 Tc and 129 I) increases the complexity of finding viable remediation technologies to sequester contaminants in situ and protect groundwater. Although previous studies have shown the efficiency of zero valent iron (ZVI) and sulfur modified iron (SMI) in reducing mobile Tc(VII) to immobile Tc(IV) and iodate incorporation into calcite, the coupled effects from simultaneously using these remedial technologies have not been previously studied...
April 30, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Arielle J Medford, Riaz N Gillani, Ben Ho Park
Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer in women and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. There are many subtypes of breast cancer, which can be identified through the process of molecular and genetic profiling. While the current standard of care utilizes tumor tissue biopsy to subclassify breast cancer, plasma tumor DNA (ptDNA) can be detected through droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) of plasma obtained from a simple blood draw. Tissue biopsy is not only more invasive but because tumors exhibit heterogeneity it can be less accurate...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Sylvia A Metcalfe, Chriselle Hickerton, Jacqueline Savard, Bronwyn Terrill, Erin Turbitt, Clara Gaff, Kathleen Gray, Anna Middleton, Brenda Wilson, Ainsley J Newson
Personal genomic testing provides healthy individuals with access to information about their genetic makeup for purposes including ancestry, paternity, sporting ability and health. Such tests are available commercially and globally, with accessibility expected to continue to grow, including in Australia; yet little is known of the views/expectations of Australians. Focus groups were conducted within a multi-stage, cross-disciplinary project (Genioz) to explore this. In mid-2015, 56 members of the public participated in seven focus groups, allocated into three age groups: 18-24, 25-49, and ≥50 years...
April 30, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Diane Fatkin, Charles D Cox, Inken G Huttner, Boris Martinac
In endurance athletes, prolonged high intensity exercise participation can have deleterious effects on the myocardium with subsequent structural and electrical remodelling. In a subset of athletes, there is a predilection for atrial involvement and the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) is increased. The mechanisms underpinning exercise-induced atrial cardiomyopathy have yet to be fully elucidated and the contribution of an individual's genetic makeup is unknown. Some athletes may have rare genetic variants that are sufficient to cause AF irrespective of exercise exposure...
April 9, 2018: Heart, Lung & Circulation
Matthew M Ippolito, Joshua E Denny, Charles Langelier, Cynthia L Sears, Nathan W Schmidt
Background: The microbiome influences malaria parasite fitness and transmission efficiency in mosquitoes, and appears to affect malaria dynamics in mammalian hosts as well. Nascent research examining the interrelationship of malaria and the mammalian host microbiome has yielded interesting insights inviting further study. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the literature examining associations between the microbiome and malaria in mammalian hosts. An electronic search algorithm was adapted to PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science, and reference lists of relevant sources were manually searched...
April 26, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Williams Turpin, Ashleigh Goethel, Larbi Bedrani, Kenneth Croitoru Mdcm
Defining the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) continues to elude researchers, in part due to the possibility that there may be different triggers for a spectrum of disease phenotypes that are currently classified as either Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC). What is clear is that genetic susceptibility plays an important role in the development of IBD, and large genome-wide association studies using case-control approaches have identified more than 230 risk alleles. Many of these identified risk alleles are located in a variety of genes important in host-microbiome interactions...
April 26, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Breanna J McArdle, Genevieve L Buser, Katrina Hedberg, Sean Schafer
BACKGROUND: Due to high reinfection rates, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend retesting everyone diagnosed with chlamydia after treatment. However, retesting rates are often low, and research on retesting is limited. METHODS: Infertility Prevention Project (IPP) was a national chlamydia screening and treatment project in the United States. We completed a retrospective longitudinal analysis using IPP testing data from 8,266 women with at least 1 positive test result from 2010 to 2013...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Women's Health
Salina Y Saddick
The study had been conducted to evaluate the effects of nandrolone decanoate (abused repeated doses) on female rat's ovary and uterus during administration and withdrawal. The study included 18 rats that were divided into control group (n = 6) and treated group (n = 12). The treated group was injected intramuscular (IM) with nandrolone decanoate (7 mg/kg body weight) for three consecutive days, for two weeks. The study stated that nandrolone decanoate increases the weights of body, ovary, and uterus. Moreover, it has a tendency of bringing upon modifications in the biochemical, histopathological, and morphological makeup of the female reproductive aspects...
March 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
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