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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542457/genet-specific-dna-methylation-probabilities-detected-in-a-spatial-epigenetic-analysis-of-a-clonal-plant-population
#1
Kiwako S Araki, Takuya Kubo, Hiroshi Kudoh
In sessile organisms such as plants, spatial genetic structures of populations show long-lasting patterns. These structures have been analyzed across diverse taxa to understand the processes that determine the genetic makeup of organismal populations. For many sessile organisms that mainly propagate via clonal spread, epigenetic status can vary between clonal individuals in the absence of genetic changes. However, fewer previous studies have explored the epigenetic properties in comparison to the genetic properties of natural plant populations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533949/worldwide-exploration-of-the-microbiome-harbored-by-the-cnidarian-model-exaiptasia-pallida-agassiz-in-verrill-1864-indicates-a-lack-of-bacterial-association-specificity-at-a-lower-taxonomic-rank
#2
Tanya Brown, Christopher Otero, Alejandro Grajales, Estefania Rodriguez, Mauricio Rodriguez-Lanetty
Examination of host-microbe interactions in early diverging metazoans, such as cnidarians, is of great interest from an evolutionary perspective to understand how host-microbial consortia have evolved. To address this problem, we analyzed whether the bacterial community associated with the cosmopolitan and model sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida shows specific patterns across worldwide populations ranging from the Caribbean Sea, and the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. By comparing sequences of the V1-V3 hypervariable regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, we revealed that anemones host a complex and diverse microbial community...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526150/pharmacogenomics-in-pain-management
#3
REVIEW
Ramsey Saba, Alan D Kaye, Richard D Urman
There is interpatient variability to analgesic administration. Much can be traced to pharmacogenomics variations between individuals. Certain ethnicities are more prone to reduced function of CYP2D6. Weak opioids are subject to interpatient variation based on their CYP2D6 type. Strong opioids have variations based on their transport and individual metabolism. Several cytochrome enzymes have been found to be involved with ketamine but there is no strong evidence of individual polymorphisms manifesting in clinical outcomes...
June 2017: Anesthesiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526149/pharmacogenomics-in-anesthesia
#4
REVIEW
Ramsey Saba, Alan D Kaye, Richard D Urman
A significant number of commonly administered medications in anesthesia show wide clinical interpatient variability. Some of these include neuromuscular blockers, opioids, local anesthetics, and inhalation anesthetics. Individual genetic makeup may account for and predict cardiovascular outcomes after cardiac surgery. These interactions can manifest at any point in the perioperative period and may also only affect a specific system. A better understanding of pharmacogenomics will allow for more individually tailored anesthetics and may ultimately lead to better outcomes, decreased hospital stays, and improved patient satisfaction...
June 2017: Anesthesiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525353/molecular-genetics-of-growth-hormone-deficient-children-correlation-with-auxology-and-response-to-first-year-of-growth-hormone-therapy
#5
Vaman Khadilkar, Nikhil Phadke, Kavita Khatod, Veena Ekbote, Supriya Phanse Gupte, Ruchi Nadar, Anuradha Khadilkar
BACKGROUND: With the paucity of available literature correlating genetic mutation and response to treatment, we aimed to study the genetic makeup of children with growth hormone (GH) deficiency in Western India and correlate the mutation with auxology and response to GH treatment at end of 1 year. METHODS: Fifty-three (31 boys and 22 girls) children with severe short stature (height for age z-score <-3) and failed GH stimulation test were studied. Those having concomitant thyroid hormone or cortisol deficiencies were appropriately replaced prior to starting GH treatment...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524737/utilizing-next-generation-sequencing-in-the-management-of-multiple-myeloma
#6
Marta Lionetti, Antonino Neri
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a bone marrow plasma cell malignancy characterized by wide clinical presentation and heterogeneous genetic background. Despite the recent advances in patient outcome, new markers are needed for improving risk prediction and choice of a more appropriate therapy. In this perspective, the genetic makeup of MM cells is being better characterized by means of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. Areas covered: The authors discuss how the application of NGS has improved our knowledge of MM biology by discovering its mutational landscape, identifying the operating mutational processes, and revealing the clonal composition of tumors and the dynamics of its evolution; and how this can have important clinical implications in terms of prognostication, therapeutic choices, and response assessment...
May 26, 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494430/novel-cosmetic-formulations-containing-a-biosurfactant-from-lactobacillus-paracasei
#7
A Ferreira, X Vecino, D Ferreira, J M Cruz, A B Moldes, L R Rodrigues
Cosmetic and personal care products including toothpaste, shampoo, creams, makeup, among others, are usually formulated with petroleum-based surfactants, although in the last years the consume trend for "green" products is inducing the replacement of surface-active agents in these formulations by natural surfactants, so-called biosurfactants. In addition to their surfactant capacity, many biosurfactants can act as good emulsifiers, which is an extra advantage in the preparation of green cosmetic products. In this work, a biosurfactant obtained from Lactobacillus paracasei was used as a stabilizing agent in oil-in-water emulsions containing essential oils and natural antioxidant extract...
April 20, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484005/altered-interactions-between-unicellular-and-multicellular-genes-drive-hallmarks-of-transformation-in-a-diverse-range-of-solid-tumors
#8
Anna S Trigos, Richard B Pearson, Anthony T Papenfuss, David L Goode
Tumors of distinct tissues of origin and genetic makeup display common hallmark cellular phenotypes, including sustained proliferation, suppression of cell death, and altered metabolism. These phenotypic commonalities have been proposed to stem from disruption of conserved regulatory mechanisms evolved during the transition to multicellularity to control fundamental cellular processes such as growth and replication. Dating the evolutionary emergence of human genes through phylostratigraphy uncovered close association between gene age and expression level in RNA sequencing data from The Cancer Genome Atlas for seven solid cancers...
May 8, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482800/the-impact-of-drought-on-wheat-leaf-cuticle-properties
#9
Huihui Bi, Nataliya Kovalchuk, Peter Langridge, Penny J Tricker, Sergiy Lopato, Nikolai Borisjuk
BACKGROUND: The plant cuticle is the outermost layer covering aerial tissues and is composed of cutin and waxes. The cuticle plays an important role in protection from environmental stresses and glaucousness, the bluish-white colouration of plant surfaces associated with cuticular waxes, has been suggested as a contributing factor in crop drought tolerance. However, the cuticle structure and composition is complex and it is not clear which aspects are important in determining a role in drought tolerance...
May 8, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482684/21st-century-diseases-commonly-rare-and-rarely-common
#10
Sylvia Daunert, Gurusingham Sitta Sittampalam, Pascal Joseph Goldschmidt-Clermont
Alzheimer's drugs are failing at a rate of 99.6%, and success rate for drugs designed to help patients with this form of dementia is 47 times less than for drugs designed to help patients with cancers (https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/why-alzheimer-s-drugs-keep-failing/ 2014.). How can it be so difficult to produce a valuable drug for Alzheimer's disease? Each human has a unique genetic and epigenetic makeup, thus endowing individuals with a highly unique complement of genes, polymorphisms, mutations, RNAs, proteins, lipids, and complex sugars, resulting in distinct genome, proteome, metabolome, and also microbiome identity...
May 8, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482159/cascading-effects-of-nanoparticle-coatings-surface-functionalization-dictates-the-assemblage-of-complexed-proteins-and-subsequent-interaction-with-model-cell-membranes
#11
Eric S Melby, Samuel E Lohse, Ji Eun Park, Ariane M Vartanian, Rebecca A Putans, Hannah B Abbott, Robert J Hamers, Catherine J Murphy, Joel A Pedersen
Interactions of functionalized nanomaterials with biological membranes are expected to be governed by not only nanoparticle physiochemical properties, but also coatings or "coronas" of biomacromolecules acquired after emersion in biological fluids. Here, we prepared a library of 4-5 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) coated with either ω-functionalized thiols or polyelectrolyte wrappings to examine the influence of surface functional groups on the assemblage of proteins complexing the nanoparticles and its subsequent impact on attachment to model biological membranes...
May 8, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475845/comparing-drivers-and-dynamics-of-tuberculosis-tb-in-california-florida-new-york-and-texas
#12
Sourya Shrestha, Andrew N Hill, Suzanne M Marks, David W Dowdy
RATIONALE: There is substantial state-to-state heterogeneity in tuberculosis (TB) in the United States (US); better understanding this heterogeneity can inform effective response to TB at the state level, the level at which most TB control efforts are coordinated. OBJECTIVE: To characterize drivers of state-level heterogeneity in TB epidemiology in the four US states that bear half the country's TB burden: California, Florida, New York and Texas. METHODS: We constructed an individual-based model of TB in the four US states, and calibrated the model to state-specific demographic, and age- and nativity- stratified TB incidence data...
May 5, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466011/blood-lead-levels-and-risk-factors-among-preschool-children-in-a-lead-polluted-area-in-taizhou-china
#13
Zhenyan Gao, Jia Cao, Jin Yan, Ju Wang, Shizhong Cai, Chonghuai Yan
Objective. To determine the blood lead levels and identify related risk factors among preschool children in a lead polluted area (Taizhou, China) and provide theoretical support for prevention of lead pollution. Methods. A stratified-clustered-random sampling method was used to determine the survey sample. Blood lead levels were determined by the tungsten atomizer absorption spectrophotometer. Results. A total of 2,018 subjects (average age of 59 months; 1,087 boys and 931 girls) were included. The arithmetic mean, geometric mean, and median blood lead levels of the preschool children were 56...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461730/genetic-and-phytochemical-diversity-analysis-in-bunium-persicum-populations-of-north-western-himalaya
#14
Rakesh Kumar Chahota, Vikas Sharma, Minerva Ghani, Tilak Raj Sharma, Jai Chand Rana, Shyam Kumar Sharma
The present study explores morphological, genetic and phytochemical composition of Bunium persicum populations belonging to high altitudinal areas of Indian Himalayan region. In total, 23 morphological traits (13 quantitative and 10 qualitative traits) and 32 Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA primers were employed to infer the population structure of the species. Of the fourteen populations, five genetically diverse populations were analyzed for phytochemical diversity. Among morphological traits, inflorescence, seed and branch traits were most significant in detecting variation...
April 2017: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453269/production-of-protein-concentrate-and-1-3-propanediol-by-wheat-based-thin-stillage-fermentation
#15
Kornsulee Ratanapariyanuch, Youn Young Shim, Shahram Emami, Martin J T Reaney
Fermentation of wheat with yeast produces thin stillage (W-TS) and distiller's wet grains. A subsequent fermentation of W-TS (two-stage fermentation, TSF) with endemic bacteria at 25 and 37 °C decreased glycerol and lactic acid concentrations, while 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) and acetic acid accumulated with greater 1,3-PD and acetic acid produced at 37 °C. During TSF, W-TS colloids coagulated and floated in the fermentation medium producing separable liquid and slurry fractions. The predominant endemic bacteria in W-TS were Lactobacillus panis, L...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423466/zonulin-transgenic-mice-show-altered-gut-permeability-and-increased-morbidity-mortality-in-the-dss-colitis-model
#16
Craig Sturgeon, Jinggang Lan, Alessio Fasano
Increased small intestinal permeability (IP) has been proposed to be an integral element, along with genetic makeup and environmental triggers, in the pathogenies of chronic inflammatory diseases (CIDs). We identified zonulin as a master regular of intercellular tight junctions linked to the development of several CIDs. We aim to study the role of zonulin-mediated IP in the pathogenesis of CIDs. Zonulin transgenic Hp2 mice (Ztm) were subjected to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) treatment for 7 days, followed by 4-7 days' recovery and compared to C57Bl/6 (wild-type (WT)) mice...
April 19, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421309/genetic-makeup-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-in-relation-to-clinical-symptoms-and-duration-of-shedding-a-microarray-analysis-of-isolates-from-swedish-children
#17
A Matussek, C Jernberg, I-M Einemo, S Monecke, R Ehricht, I Engelmann, S Löfgren, S Mernelius
Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STECs) cause non-bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome, and are the primary cause of acute renal failure in children worldwide. This study investigated the correlation of genetic makeup of STEC strains as revealed by DNA microarray to clinical symptoms and the duration of STEC shedding. All STEC isolated (n = 96) from patients <10 years of age in Jönköping County, Sweden from 2003 to 2015 were included. Isolates were characterized by DNA microarray, including almost 280 genes...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415986/detection-of-ctx-m-15-beta-lactamases-in-enterobacteriaceae-causing-hospital-and-community-acquired-urinary-tract-infections-as-early-as-2004-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#18
Joel Manyahi, Sabrina J Moyo, Marit Gjerde Tellevik, Faustine Ndugulile, Willy Urassa, Bjørn Blomberg, Nina Langeland
BACKGROUND: The spread of Extended Spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) among Enterobacteriaceae and other Gram-Negative pathogens in the community and hospitals represents a major challenge to combat infections. We conducted a study to assess the prevalence and genetic makeup of ESBL-type resistance in bacterial isolates causing community- and hospital-acquired urinary tract infections. METHODS: A total of 172 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae were collected in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, from patients who met criteria of community and hospital-acquired urinary tract infections...
April 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410388/tiger-on-the-prowl-invasion-history-and-spatio-temporal-genetic-structure-of-the-asian-tiger-mosquito-aedes-albopictus-skuse-1894-in-the-indo-pacific
#19
Andrew J Maynard, Luke Ambrose, Robert D Cooper, Weng K Chow, Joseph B Davis, Mutizwa O Muzari, Andrew F van den Hurk, Sonja Hall-Mendelin, Jeomhee M Hasty, Thomas R Burkot, Michael J Bangs, Lisa J Reimer, Charles Butafa, Neil F Lobo, Din Syafruddin, Yan Naung Maung Maung, Rohani Ahmad, Nigel W Beebe
BACKGROUND: Within the last century, increases in human movement and globalization of trade have facilitated the establishment of several highly invasive mosquito species in new geographic locations with concurrent major environmental, economic and health consequences. The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is an extremely invasive and aggressive daytime-biting mosquito that is a major public health threat throughout its expanding range. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used 13 nuclear microsatellite loci (on 911 individuals) and mitochondrial COI sequences to gain a better understanding of the historical and contemporary movements of Ae...
April 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409064/value-based-health-care-delivery-preventive-medicine-and-the-medicalization-of-public-health
#20
REVIEW
Andreas Vilhelmsson
The real paradigm shift for healthcare is often stated to include a transition from accentuating health care production and instead emphasize patient value by moving to a 'value-based health care delivery'. In this transition, personalized medicine is sometimes referred to as almost a panacea in solving the current and future health challenges. In theory, the progress of precision medicine sounds uncontroversial and most welcomed with its promise of a better healthcare for all, with real benefits for the individual patient provided a tailored and optimized treatment plan suitable for his or her genetic makeup...
March 1, 2017: Curēus
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