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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934382/complete-genome-analysis-of-lactobacillus-fermentum-sk152-from-kimchi-reveals-genes-associated-with-its-antimicrobial-activity
#1
DongAhn Yoo, Bernadette B Bagon, Valerie Diane V Valeriano, Ju Kyoung Oh, Heebal Kim, Seoae Cho, Dae-Kyung Kang
Research findings on probiotics highlight their importance in repressing harmful bacteria, leading to more extensive research on their potential applications. We analysed the genome of Lactobacillus fermentum SK152, which was isolated from the Korean traditional fermented vegetable dish kimchi, to determine the genetic makeup and genetic factors responsible for the antimicrobial activity of L. fermentum SK152 and performed a comparative genome analysis with other L. fermentum strains. The genome of L. fermentum SK152 was found to comprise a complete circular chromosome of 2092 273 bp, with an estimated GC content of 51...
October 2, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933783/reverse-remodelling-and-myocardial-recovery-in-heart-failure
#2
REVIEW
Gene H Kim, Nir Uriel, Daniel Burkhoff
Advances in medical and device therapies have demonstrated the capacity of the heart to reverse the failing phenotype. The development of normative changes to ventricular size and function led to the concept of reverse remodelling. Among heart failure therapies, durable mechanical circulatory support is most consistently associated with the largest degree of reverse remodelling. Accordingly, research to analyse human tissue after a period of mechanical circulatory support continues to yield a wealth of information...
September 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930267/%C3%AE-selinene-rich-essential-oils-from-the-parts-of-callicarpa-macrophylla-and-their-antioxidant-and-pharmacological-activities
#3
Mahesh Chandra, Om Prakash, Ravendra Kumar, Rakesh Kumar Bachheti, Brij Bhushan, Mahesh Kumar, Anil Kumar Pant
Background:Callicarpa macrophylla (Varbenaceae) is a medicinal shrub and is traditionally used in India, China, and South Asia. Methods: The plant material was collected from lower Himalayan region of Uttarakhand in India. The essential oils from three different aerial parts were analyzed by GC-MS. Antioxidant activity, phenolic assay, and various pharmacological activities were determined by using existing methods which are generally practiced widely. Results: Over 51, 53, and 40 compounds were identified in C...
July 10, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928248/carbonic-anhydrase-iii-protects-osteocytes-from-oxidative-stress
#4
Chao Shi, Yuhei Uda, Christopher Dedic, Ehab Azab, Ningyuan Sun, Amira I Hussein, Christopher A Petty, Keertik Fulzele, Maria C Mitterberger-Vogt, Werner Zwerschke, Renata Pereira, Kunzheng Wang, Paola Divieti Pajevic
Osteocytes are master orchestrators of bone remodeling; they control osteoblast and osteoclast activities both directly via cell-to-cell communication and indirectly via secreted factors, and they are the main postnatal source of sclerostin and RANKL (receptor activator of NF-kB ligand), two regulators of osteoblast and osteoclast function. Despite progress in understanding osteocyte biology and function, much remains to be elucidated. Recently developed osteocytic cell lines-together with new genome editing tools-has allowed a closer look at the biology and molecular makeup of these cells...
September 19, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921693/liquid-cell-electron-microscopy-of-adsorbed-polymers
#5
Kandula Hima Nagamanasa, Huan Wang, Steve Granick
Individual macromolecules of polystyrene sulfonate and poly(ethylene oxide) are visualized with nanometer resolution using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging of aqueous solutions with and without added salt, trapped in liquid pockets between creased graphene sheets. Successful imaging with 0.3 s per frame is enabled by the sluggish mobility of the adsorbed molecules. This study finds, validating others, that an advantage of this graphene liquid-cell approach is apparently to retard sample degradation from incident electrons, in addition to minimizing background scattering because graphene windows are atomically thin...
September 18, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913652/differences-in-bone-structure-and-unloading-induced-bone-loss-between-c57bl-6n-and-c57bl-6j-mice
#6
Jeyantt S Sankaran, Manasvi Varshney, Stefan Judex
The C57BL/6 mouse, the most frequently utilized animal model in biomedical research, is in use as several substrains, all of which differ by a small array of genomic differences. Two of these substrains, C57BL/6J (B6J) and C57BL/6N (B6N), are commonly used but it is unclear how phenotypically similar or different they are. Here, we tested whether adolescent B6N mice have a bone phenotype and respond to the loss of weightbearing differently than B6J. At 9 weeks of age, normally ambulating B6N had lower trabecular bone volume fraction but greater bone formation rates and osteoblast surfaces than corresponding B6J...
September 14, 2017: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913534/shell-isolated-nanoparticles-for-enhanced-raman-spectroscopy-studies-in-lithium-oxygen-cells
#7
Thomas A Galloway, Laura Cabo-Fernandez, Iain M Aldous, Filipe Braga, Laurence J Hardwick
A critical and detailed assessment of using Shell Isolated Nanoparticles for Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SHINERS) on different electrode substrates was carried out, providing relative enhancement factors, as well as an evaluation of the distribution of shell-isolated nanoparticles upon the electrode surfaces. The chemical makeup of surface layers formed upon lithium metal electrodes and the mechanism of the oxygen reduction reaction on carbon substrates relevant to lithium-oxygen cells are studied with the employment of the SHINERS technique...
September 15, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912796/a-low-cost-imaging-method-for-the-temporal-and-spatial-colorimetric-detection-of-free-amines-on-maize-root-surfaces
#8
Truc H Doan, Tu A Doan, Michael J Kangas, AdreAnna E Ernest, Danny Tran, Christina L Wilson, Andrea E Holmes, Erin L Doyle, Tessa L Durham Brooks
Plant root exudates are important mediators in the interactions that occur between plants and microorganisms in the soil, yet much remains to be learned about spatial and temporal variation in their production. This work outlines a method utilizing a novel colorimetric paper to detect spatial and temporal changes in the production of nitrogen-containing compounds on the root surface. While existing methods have made it possible to conduct detailed analysis of root exudate composition, relatively less is known about where in the root system exudates are produced and how this localization changes as the root grows...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893505/inactivation-and-adaptation-of-ammonia-oxidizing-bacteria-and-nitrite-oxidizing-bacteria-when-exposed-to-free-nitrous-acid
#9
Bin Ma, Lan Yang, Qilin Wang, Zhiguo Yuan, Yayi Wang, Yongzhen Peng
Inactivation and adaptation of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) to free nitrous acid (FNA) was investigated. Batch test results showed that AOB and NOB were inactivated when treated with FNA. After an 85-day operating period, AOB in a continuous pre-denitrification reactor did not adapt to the FNA that was applied to treat some of the return activated sludge. In contrast, NOB did adapt to FNA. NOB activity in the seed sludge was only 11% of the original activity after FNA batch treatment, at 0...
August 15, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875548/bacterial-contamination-of-platelet-components-not-detected-by-bact-alert%C3%A2
#10
M A Abela, S Fenning, K A Maguire, K G Morris
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the possible causes for false negative results in BacT/ALERT® 3D Signature System despite bacterial contamination of platelet units. BACKGROUND: The Northern Ireland Blood Transfusion Service (NIBTS) routinely extends platelet component shelf life to 7 days. Components are sampled and screened for bacterial contamination using an automated microbial detection system, the BacT/ALERT® 3D Signature System. We report on three platelet components with confirmed bacterial contamination, which represent false negative BacT/ALERT® results and near-miss serious adverse events...
September 5, 2017: Transfusion Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864187/quantum-dot-nanoprobes-and-aotf-based-cross-talk-eliminated-six-color-imaging-of-biomolecules-in-cellular-system
#11
Solji Park, Parthasarathy Arumugam, Baskaran Purushothaman, Sung-Yon Kim, Dal-Hee Min, Noo Li Jeon, Joon Myong Song
Primary cell cultures mimic the physiology and genetic makeup of in-vivo tissue of origin, nonetheless, a complication in the derivation and propagation of primary cell culture limits its use in biological research. However, in-vitro models using primary cells might be a complement model to mimic in vivo response. But, conventional techniques such as western blot and PCR employed to study the expression and activation of proteins requires a large number of cells, hence repeated establishment and maintenance of primary culture are unavoidable...
September 8, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863139/gut-microbiome-in-adhd-and-its-relation-to-neural-reward-anticipation
#12
Esther Aarts, Thomas H A Ederveen, Jilly Naaijen, Marcel P Zwiers, Jos Boekhorst, Harro M Timmerman, Sanne P Smeekens, Mihai G Netea, Jan K Buitelaar, Barbara Franke, Sacha A F T van Hijum, Alejandro Arias Vasquez
BACKGROUND: Microorganisms in the human intestine (i.e. the gut microbiome) have an increasingly recognized impact on human health, including brain functioning. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with abnormalities in dopamine neurotransmission and deficits in reward processing and its underlying neuro-circuitry including the ventral striatum. The microbiome might contribute to ADHD etiology via the gut-brain axis. In this pilot study, we investigated potential differences in the microbiome between ADHD cases and undiagnosed controls, as well as its relation to neural reward processing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859572/the-genetic-diversity-of-the-americas
#13
Kaustubh Adhikari, Juan Camilo Chacón-Duque, Javier Mendoza-Revilla, Macarena Fuentes-Guajardo, Andrés Ruiz-Linares
The history of the Americas involved the encounter of millions of Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans. A variable admixture of these three continental groups has taken place throughout the continent, influenced by demography and a range of social factors. This variable admixture has had a major influence on the genetic makeup of populations across the continent. Here, we summarize the demographic history of the region, highlight some social factors that affected historical admixture, and review major patterns of ancestry across the Western Hemisphere based on genetic data...
August 31, 2017: Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854748/pattern-recognition-receptor-genes-expression-profiling-in-indigenous-chickens-of-india-and-white-leghorn
#14
S Haunshi, Arun Kumar Burramsetty, T R Kannaki, K S Raja Ravindra, R N Chatterjee
Pattern recognition receptors (PRR) such as Toll-like receptors, NOD-like receptors, RIG-I helicase receptors, and C-type lectin receptors play a critical role in innate immunity as a first line of defense against invading pathogens through recognition of pathogen and/or damage-associated molecular patterns. Genetic makeup of birds is known to play a role in resistance or susceptibility to various infectious diseases. Therefore, the present study was carried out to elucidate the differential expression of PRR and some of the cytokine genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of indigenous chicken breeds such as Ghagus and Nicobari and an exotic chicken breed, White Leghorn (WLH)...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838744/mitochondrial-dna-analysis-of-tunisians-reveals-a-mosaic-genetic-structure-with-recent-population-expansion
#15
S Frigi, L Mota-Vieira, L Cherni, M van Oven, R Pires, S Boussetta, A Ben Ammar El-Gaaied
Tunisia is a country of great interest for human population genetics due to its strategic geographic position and rich human settlement history. These factors significantly contributed to the genetic makeup of present-day Tunisians harbouring components of diverse geographic origins. Here, we investigated the genetic structure of Tunisians by performing a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) comparison of 15 Tunisian population groups, in order to explore their complex genetic landscape. All Tunisian data were also analysed against 40 worldwide populations...
May 19, 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836271/roadmap-for-investigating-epigenome-deregulation-and-environmental-origins-of-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Zdenko Herceg, Akram Ghantous, Christopher P Wild, Athena Sklias, Lavinia Casati, Susan J Duthie, Rebecca Fry, Jean-Pierre Issa, Richard Kellermayer, Igor Koturbash, Yukata Kondo, Johanna Lepeule, Sheila C S Lima, Carmen J Marsit, Vardhman Rakyan, Richard Saffery, Jack A Taylor, Andrew E Teschendorff, Toshikazu Ushijima, Paolo Vineis, Cheryl Lyn Walker, Robert A Waterland, Joe Wiemels, Srikant Ambatipudi, Davide Degli Esposti, Hector Hernandez-Vargas
The interaction between the (epi)genetic makeup of an individual and his/her environmental exposure record (exposome) is accepted as a determinant factor for a significant proportion of human malignancies. Recent evidence has highlighted the key role of epigenetic mechanisms in mediating gene-environment interactions and translating exposures into tumorigenesis. There is also growing evidence that epigenetic changes may be risk factor-specific ("fingerprints") that should prove instrumental in the discovery of new biomarkers in cancer...
August 24, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835809/effects-of-lip-color-on-perceived-lightness-of-human-facial-skin
#17
Yuki Kobayashi, Soyogu Matsushita, Kazunori Morikawa
Whereas geometric illusions in human faces have been reported by several studies, illusions of color or lightness in faces have seldom been explored. Here, we psychophysically investigated whether lip color influences facial skin's perceived lightness. Results of Experiment 1 demonstrated that redder lips lightened and darker lips darkened the perceived complexion. These lightness or darkness inducing effects differ from the classical illusion of lightness contrast in nonface objects for two reasons. First, illusory effects are more assimilative than contrastive...
July 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831923/the-food-and-drug-addiction-epidemic-targeting-dopamine-homeostasis
#18
Kenneth Blum, Panayotis K Thanos, Gene-Jack Wang, Marcelo Febo, Zsolt Demetrovics, Edward Justin Modestino, Eric R Braverman, David Baron, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Mark S Gold
Obesity is damaging the lives of more than 300 million people worldwide and maintaining a healthy weight using popular weight loss tactics remains a very difficult undertaking. Managing the obesity problem seems within reach, as better understanding develops, of the function of our genome in drug/nutrient responses. Strategies indicated by this understanding of nutriepigenomics and neurogenetics in the treatment and prevention of metabolic syndrome and obesity include moderation of mRNA expression by DNA methylation, and inhibition of histone deacetylation...
August 22, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831087/differential-response-of-rat-strains-to-obesogenic-diets-underlines-the-importance-of-genetic-makeup-of-an-individual-towards-obesity
#19
Muralidhar Mn, Prasad Smvk, Kiran Kumar Battula, Giridharan Nv, Rajender Rao Kalashikam
Obesity, a multifactorial disorder, results from a chronic imbalance of energy intake vs. expenditure. Apart from excessive consumption of high calorie diet, genetic predisposition also seems to be equally important for the development of obesity. However, the role of genetic predisposition in the etiology of obesity has not been clearly delineated. The present study addresses this problem by selecting three rat strains (WNIN, F-344, SD) with different genetic backgrounds and exposing them to high calorie diets...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830910/redefining-thymus-medulla-specialization-for-central-tolerance
#20
Emilie J Cosway, Beth Lucas, Kieran D James, Sonia M Parnell, Manuela Carvalho-Gaspar, Andrea J White, Alexei V Tumanov, William E Jenkinson, Graham Anderson
During αβT cell development, the thymus medulla represents an essential microenvironment for T cell tolerance. This functional specialization is attributed to its typical organized topology consisting of a branching structure that contains medullary thymic epithelial cell (mTEC) networks to support negative selection and Foxp3(+) T-regulatory cell (T-reg) development. Here, by performing TEC-specific deletion of the thymus medulla regulator lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR), we show that thymic tolerance mechanisms operate independently of LTβR-mediated mTEC development and organization...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
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