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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231283/rapid-evolution-of-distinct-helicobacter-pylori-subpopulations-in-the-americas
#1
Kaisa Thorell, Koji Yahara, Elvire Berthenet, Daniel J Lawson, Jane Mikhail, Ikuko Kato, Alfonso Mendez, Cosmeri Rizzato, María Mercedes Bravo, Rumiko Suzuki, Yoshio Yamaoka, Javier Torres, Samuel K Sheppard, Daniel Falush
For the last 500 years, the Americas have been a melting pot both for genetically diverse humans and for the pathogenic and commensal organisms associated with them. One such organism is the stomach-dwelling bacterium Helicobacter pylori, which is highly prevalent in Latin America where it is a major current public health challenge because of its strong association with gastric cancer. By analyzing the genome sequence of H. pylori isolated in North, Central and South America, we found evidence for admixture between H...
February 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212632/exome-wide-association-study-identifies-genetic-polymorphisms-of-c12orf51-myl2-and-aldh2-associated-with-blood-lead-levels-in-the-general-korean-population
#2
Sang-Yong Eom, Myung Sil Hwang, Ji-Ae Lim, Byung-Sun Choi, Ho-Jang Kwon, Jung-Duck Park, Yong-Dae Kim, Heon Kim
BACKGROUND: Lead (Pb) is a ubiquitous toxic metal present in the environment that poses adverse health effects to humans. Inter-individual variation in blood Pb levels is affected by various factors, including genetic makeup. However, limited data are available on the association between genetic variation and blood Pb levels. The purpose of this study was to identify the genetic markers associated with blood Pb levels in the Korean population. METHODS: The study subjects consisted of 1,483 healthy adults with no history of occupational exposure to Pb...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208623/fluorescence-lectin-bar-coding-of-glycoconjugates-in-the-extracellular-matrix-of-biofilm-and-bioaggregate-forming-microorganisms
#3
Thomas R Neu, Ute Kuhlicke
Microbial biofilm systems are defined as interface-associated microorganisms embedded into a self-produced matrix. The extracellular matrix represents a continuous challenge in terms of characterization and analysis. The tools applied in more detailed studies comprise extraction/chemical analysis, molecular characterization, and visualisation using various techniques. Imaging by laser microscopy became a standard tool for biofilm analysis, and, in combination with fluorescently labelled lectins, the glycoconjugates of the matrix can be assessed...
February 10, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193244/h1n1-influenza-vaccination-in-hiv-infected-women-on-effective-antiretroviral-treatment-did-not-induce-measurable-antigen-driven-proliferation-of-the-hiv-1-proviral-reservoir
#4
Thor A Wagner, Hannah C Huang, Christen E Salyer, Kelly M Richardson, Adriana Weinberg, Sharon Nachman, Lisa M Frenkel
OBJECTIVES: Antigen-induced activation and proliferation of HIV-1-infected cells is hypothesized to be a mechanism of HIV persistence during antiretroviral therapy. The objective of this study was to determine if proliferation of H1N1-specific HIV-infected cells could be detected following H1N1 vaccination. METHODS: This study utilized cryopreserved PBMC from a previously conducted trial of H1N1 vaccination in HIV-infected pregnant women. HIV-1 DNA concentrations and 437 HIV-1 C2V5 env DNA sequences were analyzed from ten pregnant women on effective antiretroviral therapy, before and 21 days after H1N1 influenza vaccination...
February 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178700/genetic-profiling-of-cancers-of-the-digestive-system-biological-insights-and-clinical-implications
#5
Albrecht Stenzinger, Wilko Weichert
Massive parallel sequencing technologies (next-generation sequencing) have enabled us to draw a comprehensive landscape of the genomic aberrations underlying common cancers of the digestive system, and they have thus revolutionized our understanding of the genomic makeup and biology of these tumors. Apart from the commonly mutated founder genes, e.g., KRAS and TP53, we now have detailed information on additional and less frequent genomic events for every major digestive system cancer. However, many challenging issues remain when it comes to translating these findings into clinical applications...
February 9, 2017: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169113/parasites-and-their-social-hosts
#6
REVIEW
Paul Schmid-Hempel
The study of parasitism in socially living organisms shows that social group size correlates with the risk of infection, but group structure - and thus differences in contact networks - is generally more important. Also, genetic makeup or environmental conditions have effects. 'Social immunity' focuses on defence against parasites that are particular to social living. Recently, the role of socially transmitted microbiota for defence has become a focus, too. But whether and how parasites adapt to social organisms - beyond adaptation to solitary hosts - is poorly understood...
February 3, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156603/benefits-of-cover-makeup-for-survivors
#7
Yuji Heike
: 259 Background: Cancer therapy causes various appearance changes, such as chemotherapy-induced alopecia and skin pigmentation. These events decrease cancer survivors' QoL (quality of life), and sometimes deprive them of social life and work opportunities. Even though wigs are commonly accessible to care hair loss, the way has not been established to care visual changes in skin. Our previous interview survey revealed that visual changes in skin depressed cancer survivors and their daily life were also interrupted, e...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134072/lessons-on-dietary-biomarkers-from-twin-studies
#8
Cristina Menni
Metabolomic and microbiome profiling are promising tools to identify biomarkers of food intake and health status. The individual's genetic makeup plays a significant role on health, metabolism, gut microbes and diet and twin studies provide unique opportunities to untangle gene-environment effects on complex phenotypes. This brief review discusses the value of twin studies in nutrition research with a particular focus on metabolomics and the gut microbiome. Although, the twin model is a powerful tool to segregate the genetic component, to date, very few studies combine the twin design and metabolomics/microbiome in nutritional sciences...
January 30, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121987/genetic-variation-in-the-social-environment-contributes-to-health-and-disease
#9
Amelie Baud, Megan K Mulligan, Francesco Paolo Casale, Jesse F Ingels, Casey J Bohl, Jacques Callebert, Jean-Marie Launay, Jon Krohn, Andres Legarra, Robert W Williams, Oliver Stegle
Assessing the impact of the social environment on health and disease is challenging. As social effects are in part determined by the genetic makeup of social partners, they can be studied from associations between genotypes of one individual and phenotype of another (social genetic effects, SGE, also called indirect genetic effects). For the first time we quantified the contribution of SGE to more than 100 organismal phenotypes and genome-wide gene expression measured in laboratory mice. We find that genetic variation in cage mates (i...
January 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114568/conjunctival-microbiome-changes-associated-with-soft-contact-lens-and-orthokeratology-lens-wearing
#10
Haikun Zhang, Fuxin Zhao, Diane S Hutchinson, Wenfeng Sun, Nadim J Ajami, Shujuan Lai, Matthew C Wong, Joseph F Petrosino, Jianhuo Fang, Jun Jiang, Wei Chen, Peter S Reinach, Jia Qu, Changqing Zeng, Dake Zhang, Xiangtian Zhou
Purpose: Usage of different types of contact lenses is associated with increased risk of sight-threatening complications. Changes in the ocular microbiome caused by contact lens wear are suggested to affect infection development in those individuals. To address this question, this study compares conjunctival microbial communities in contact lens wearers with those in noncontact lens wearers. Methods: Paired-end sequencing of the V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene was used to characterize the bacterial communities on the conjunctival surfaces of contact lens wearers and nonwearers...
January 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111862/the-selectivity-of-protein-imprinted-gels-and-its-relation-to-protein-properties-a-computer-simulation-study
#11
Rami Yankelov, Irena Yungerman, Simcha Srebnik
Polymer-based protein recognition systems have enormous potential within clinical and diagnostic fields due to their reusability, biocompatibility, ease of manufacturing, and potential specificity. Imprinted polymer matrices have been extensively studied and applied as a simple technique for creating artificial polymer-based recognition gels for a target molecule. Although this technique has been proven effective when targeting small molecules (such as drugs), imprinting of proteins have so far resulted in materials with limited selectivity due to the large molecular size of the protein and aqueous environment...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109405/challenges-and-methodology-in-the-incorporation-of-biomarkers-in-cancer-clinical-trials
#12
REVIEW
Charlotte S Wilhelm-Benartzi, Shahrul Mt-Isa, Francesca Fiorentino, Robert Brown, Deborah Ashby
Biomarkers can be used to establish more homogeneous groups using the genetic makeup of the tumour to inform the selection of treatment for each individual patient. However, proper preclinical work and stringent validation are needed before taking forward biomarkers into confirmatory studies. Despite the challenges, incorporation of biomarkers into clinical trials could better target appropriate patients, and potentially be lifesaving. The authors conducted a systematic review to describe marker-based and adaptive design methodology for their integration in clinical trials, and to further describe the associated practical challenges...
February 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103755/what-makes-a-better-smeller
#13
Asifa Majid, Laura Speed, Ilja Croijmans, Artin Arshamian
Olfaction is often viewed as difficult, yet the empirical evidence suggests a different picture. A closer look shows people around the world differ in their ability to detect, discriminate, and name odors. This gives rise to the question of what influences our ability to smell. Instead of focusing on olfactory deficiencies, this review presents a positive perspective by focusing on factors that make someone a better smeller. We consider three driving forces in improving olfactory ability: one's biological makeup, one's experience, and the environment...
January 1, 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099533/tinea-capitis-caused-by-trichophyton-rubrum-mimicking-favus
#14
Alan S Boyd
Favus is an uncommon form of tinea capitis (TC) currently seen in geographic areas with poor sanitation and limited access to health care such as emerging nations. Several variants of this condition have been described including one exhibiting a plaque composed of parchmentlike material. The makeup of this plaque has not been described. Tinea capitis is rare in adults, particularly when the infectious agent is Trichophyton rubrum, and affected patients often exhibit comorbidities associated with diminished immune surveillance...
December 2016: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090406/leaf-disc-grafting-for-the-transmission-of-candidatus-liberibacter-asiaticus-in-citrus-citrus-sinensis-rutaceae-seedlings
#15
Flavia Tabay Zambon, Karen Plant, Ed Etxeberria
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The search for resistance/tolerance to the devastating citrus huanglongbing disease (syn. HLB or citrus greening) is generating an increasing number of new plants of diverse genetic makeup. As the increasing number of new plants require more space, resources, and time, the need for faster and more efficient HLB screening tests becomes crucial. METHODS AND RESULTS: The leaf-disc grafting system described here consists in replacing a disc of leaf tissue with a similar disc from an infected plant...
January 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079712/a-comprehensive-review-of-genomics-and-noncoding-rna-in-gliomas
#16
Ahmed Hassan, Jennifer Mosley, Sanjay Singh, Pascal Olivier Zinn
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant primary adult brain tumor. In spite of our greater understanding of the biology of GBMs, clinical outcome of GBM patients remains poor, as their median survival with best available treatment is 12 to 18 months. Recent efforts of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) have subgrouped patients into 4 molecular/transcriptional subgroups: proneural, neural, classical, and mesenchymal. Continuing efforts are underway to provide a comprehensive map of the heterogeneous makeup of GBM to include noncoding transcripts, genetic mutations, and their associations to clinical outcome...
February 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074050/enhanced-dereplication-of-fungal-cultures-via-use-of-mass-defect-filtering
#17
Noemi D Paguigan, Tamam El-Elimat, Diana Kao, Huzefa A Raja, Cedric J Pearce, Nicholas H Oberlies
Effective and rapid dereplication is a hallmark of present-day drug discovery from natural sources. This project strove to both decrease the time and expand the structural diversity associated with dereplication methodologies. A 5 min liquid chromatographic run time employing heated electrospray ionization (HESI) was evaluated to determine whether it could be used as a faster alternative over the 10 min ESI method we reported previously. Results revealed that the 5 min method was as sensitive as the 10 min method and, obviously, was twice as fast...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069833/clasp2-ensures-mitotic-fidelity-and-prevents-differentiation-of-epidermal-keratinocytes
#18
Marta N Shahbazi, Daniel Peña-Jimenez, Francesca Antonucci, Matthias Drosten, Mirna Perez-Moreno
Epidermal homeostasis is tightly controlled by a balancing act of self-renewal or terminal differentiation of proliferating basal keratinocytes. An increase in DNA content as a consequence of a mitotic block is a recognized mechanism underlying keratinocyte differentiation, but the molecular mechanisms involved in this process are not yet fully understood. Using cultured primary keratinocytes, here we report that the expression of the mammalian Microtubule and Kinetochore-associated protein Clasp2 is intimately associated to the basal proliferative makeup of keratinocytes, and its deficiency leads to premature differentiation...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068894/strain-differences-in-a-murine-model-of-air-pollutant-induced-nonatopic-asthma-and-rhinitis
#19
Jack R Harkema, Lucas A Hotchkiss, Nicholas A Vetter, Daven N Jackson-Humbles, Ryan P Lewandowski, James G Wagner
Ozone is an irritating gas found in photochemical smog. Epidemiological associations have been made between the onset of asthma and childhood exposures to increasing levels of ambient ozone (i.e., air pollutant-induced nonatopic asthma). Individuals, however, vary in their susceptibility to this outdoor air pollutant, which may be due, in part, to their genetic makeup. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that there are murine strain-dependent differences in pulmonary and nasal pathologic responses to repeated ozone exposures...
January 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068891/immunological-variation-due-to-genetics-of-inflammatory-snps-and-age-and-impact-on-disease-manifestation
#20
Gary R Burleson
The immune system is a critical component in defense against viral, bacterial, parasitic, and fungal diseases. Immunological mechanisms, including immunological mediators, innate immunity, cell-mediated immunity, and humoral-mediated immunity, serve to maintain homeostasis and protect the host from disease. Immunological variation can impact defense mechanisms, however. Two factors in particular that can influence immune function are the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and aging. SNPs affecting inflammatory cytokines are an important modifier involved in a number of diseases such as asthma, periodontal disease, atherosclerosis, diabetic retinopathy, psoriasis, and osteoporosis...
January 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
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