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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920557/effect-of-smoking-on-the-genetic-makeup-of-toll-like-receptors-2-and-6
#1
Muhammad Kohailan, Mohammad Alanazi, Mahmoud Rouabhia, Abdullah Alamri, Narasimha Reddy Parine, Abdullah Alhadheq, Santhosh Basavarajappa, Abdul Aziz Abdullah Al-Kheraif, Abdelhabib Semlali
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for lung cancer, asthma, and oral cancer, and is central to the altered innate immune responsiveness to infection. Many hypotheses have provided evidence that cigarette smoking induces more genetic changes in genes involved in the development of many cigarette-related diseases. This alteration may be from single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in innate immunity genes, especially the toll-like receptors (TLRs). OBJECTIVE: In this study, the genotype frequencies of TLR2 and TLR6 in smoking and nonsmoking population were examined...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915083/pharmacodynamic-and-cytogenetic-evaluation-in-cyp2c19-2-and-cyp2c19-3-allelomorphism-in-south-indian-population-with-clopidogrel-therapy
#2
Javeed Ahmad Tantray, K Pratap Reddy, Kaiser Jamil, Y Shiva Kumar
BACKGROUND: Genetic factors play a significant role in pathogenesis of most diseases of heart. The present study was undertaken to correlate coronary artery disease with demographical, biochemical alterations, SNPs, gene expression and chromosomal abnormalities and for further enlightening the investigation in this field. METHODS: 150 patients taking clopidogrel drug were selected and single nucleotide polymorphism was done by PCR-RFLP techniques. With the same patients cytogenetic analysis was carried out on leukocyte cultures by karyotyping...
November 11, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911383/parallel-measurement-of-circadian-clock-gene-expression-and-hormone-secretion-in-human-primary-cell-cultures
#3
Volodymyr Petrenko, Camille Saini, Laurent Perrin, Charna Dibner
Circadian clocks are functional in all light-sensitive organisms, allowing for an adaptation to the external world by anticipating daily environmental changes. Considerable progress in our understanding of the tight connection between the circadian clock and most aspects of physiology has been made in the field over the last decade. However, unraveling the molecular basis that underlies the function of the circadian oscillator in humans stays of highest technical challenge. Here, we provide a detailed description of an experimental approach for long-term (2-5 days) bioluminescence recording and outflow medium collection in cultured human primary cells...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907100/patterns-of-fish-connectivity-between-a-marine-protected-area-and-surrounding-fished-areas
#4
Rita Sahyoun, Paolo Guidetti, Antonio Di Franco, Serge Planes
Patterns of connectivity and self-recruitment are recognized as key factors shaping the dynamics of marine populations. Connectivity is also essential for maintaining and restoring natural ecological processes with genetic diversity contributing to the adaptation and persistence of any species in the face of global disturbances. Estimates of connectivity are crucial to inform the design of both marine protected areas (MPAs) and MPA networks. Among several approaches, genetic structure is frequently used as a proxy for patterns of connectivity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902695/text-mining-genotype-phenotype-relationships-from-biomedical-literature-for-database-curation-and-precision-medicine
#5
Ayush Singhal, Michael Simmons, Zhiyong Lu
The practice of precision medicine will ultimately require databases of genes and mutations for healthcare providers to reference in order to understand the clinical implications of each patient's genetic makeup. Although the highest quality databases require manual curation, text mining tools can facilitate the curation process, increasing accuracy, coverage, and productivity. However, to date there are no available text mining tools that offer high-accuracy performance for extracting such triplets from biomedical literature...
November 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899308/insight-gained-from-genome-wide-interaction-and-enrichment-analysis-on-weight-gain-during-citalopram-treatment
#6
Henrik Thyge Corfitsen, Antonio Drago
Weight gain is a possible side effect of the pharmacological antidepressant treatments. Defining antidepressant prescriptions based on personal genetic makeups would decrease the risk of weight gain and increase the quality of the current antidepressant pharmacological treatments. 643 depressed, citalopram treated individuals with available clinical and genome-wide genetic information were investigated to identify the molecular pathways associated with weight gain. 111 individuals experienced weight gain during citalopram treatment...
November 27, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898835/genomic-prediction-of-barley-hybrid-performance
#7
Norman Philipp, Guozheng Liu, Yusheng Zhao, Sang He, Monika Spiller, Gunther Stiewe, Klaus Pillen, Jochen C Reif, Zuo Li
Hybrid breeding in barley ( L.) offers great opportunities to accelerate the rate of genetic improvement and to boost yield stability. A crucial requirement consists of the efficient selection of superior hybrid combinations. We used comprehensive phenotypic and genomic data from a commercial breeding program with the goal of examining the potential to predict the hybrid performances. The phenotypic data were comprised of replicated grain yield trials for 385 two-way and 408 three-way hybrids evaluated in up to 47 environments...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896429/copy-number-variability-in-parkinson-s-disease-assembling-the-puzzle-through-a-systems-biology-approach
#8
REVIEW
Valentina La Cognata, Giovanna Morello, Velia D'Agata, Sebastiano Cavallaro
Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common progressive neurodegenerative disorder of aging, was long believed to be a non-genetic sporadic origin syndrome. The proof that several genetic loci are responsible for rare Mendelian forms has represented a revolutionary breakthrough, enabling to reveal molecular mechanisms underlying this debilitating still incurable condition. While single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and small indels constitute the most commonly investigated DNA variations accounting for only a limited number of PD cases, larger genomic molecular rearrangements have emerged as significant PD-causing mutations, including submicroscopic Copy Number Variations (CNVs)...
November 28, 2016: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891201/the-n170-component-is-sensitive-to-face-like-stimuli-a-study-of-chinese-peking-opera-makeup
#9
Tiantian Liu, Shoukuan Mu, Huamin He, Lingcong Zhang, Cong Fan, Jie Ren, Mingming Zhang, Weiqi He, Wenbo Luo
The N170 component is considered a neural marker of face-sensitive processing. In the present study, the face-sensitive N170 component of event-related potentials (ERPs) was investigated with a modified oddball paradigm using a natural face (the standard stimulus), human- and animal-like makeup stimuli, scrambled control images that mixed human- and animal-like makeup pieces, and a grey control image. Nineteen participants were instructed to respond within 1000 ms by pressing the 'F' or 'J' key in response to the standard or deviant stimuli, respectively...
December 2016: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889637/cell-membrane-modulation-as-adjuvant-in-cancer-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Sara Zalba, Timo L M Ten Hagen
Cancer is a complex disease involving numerous biological processes, which can exist in parallel, can be complementary, or are engaged when needed and as such can replace each other. This redundancy in possibilities cancer cells have, are fundamental to failure of therapy. However, intrinsic features of tumor cells and tumors as a whole provide also opportunities for therapy. Here we discuss the unique and specific makeup and arrangement of cell membranes of tumor cells and how these may help treatment. Interestingly, knowledge on cell membranes and associated structures is present already for decades, while application of membrane modification and manipulation as part of cancer therapy is lagging...
November 9, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881842/the-investigation-of-the-origin-of-southern-tunisians-using-hla-genes
#11
Abdelhafidh Hajjej, Wassim Y Almawi, Lasmar Hattab, Amel El-Gaaied, Slama Hmida
The south of Tunisia is characterized by marked ethnic diversity, highlighted by the coexistence of native Berbers with Blacks, Jews and Arab-speaking populations. Despite this heterogeneity, genetic anthropology studies investigating the origin of current Southern Tunisians were rarely reported. We examined human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I (A, B) and class II (DRB1, DQB1) gene profiles of 250 unrelated Southern Tunisians, and compared them with those of Arab-speaking communities, along with Mediterranean and sub-Sahara African populations using genetic distances, neighbor-joining dendrograms, correspondence and haplotype analysis...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878088/dispersal-and-group-formation-dynamics-in-a-rare-and-endangered-temperate-forest-bat-nyctalus-lasiopterus-chiroptera-vespertilionidae
#12
João D Santos, Christoph F J Meyer, Carlos Ibáñez, Ana G Popa-Lisseanu, Javier Juste
For elusive mammals like bats, colonization of new areas and colony formation are poorly understood, as is their relationship with the genetic structure of populations. Understanding dispersal and group formation behaviors is critical not only for a better comprehension of mammalian social dynamics, but also for guiding conservation efforts of rare and endangered species. Using nuclear and mitochondrial markers, we studied patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation among and within breeding colonies of giant noctule bats (Nyctalus lasiopterus), their relation to a new colony still in formation, and the impact of this ongoing process on the regionwide genetic makeup...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874894/how-to-increase-patient-adherence-to-therapy
#13
Megan Brown
How do we increase patient adherence to therapy? As dermatologists, we will see thousands of patients over the course of our careers, most with treatable conditions that will improve with therapy and others with chronic or genetic conditions that will at least be made more tolerable with therapy. Approximately half of patients with chronic conditions are adherent to therapy. Why some patients adhere to treatment and others do not can be difficult to understand. The emotional makeup, culture, family background, socioeconomic status, and motivation of each person is unique, which leads to complexity...
October 2016: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871197/left-ventricular-assist-device-induced-reverse-remodeling-it-s-not-just-about-myocardial-recovery
#14
Karolina K Marinescu, Nir Uriel, Douglas L Mann, Daniel Burkhoff
The abnormal structure, function and molecular makeup of dilated cardiomyopathic hearts can be partially normalized in patients supported by a left ventricular assist device (LVAD), a process called reverse remodeling. This leads to recovery of function in many patients, though the rate of full recovery is low and in many cases is temporary, leading to the concept of heart failure remission, rather than recovery. Areas covered: We summarize data indicative of ventricular reverse remodeling, recovery and remission during LVAD support...
November 22, 2016: Expert Review of Medical Devices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836463/understanding-epigenetic-architecture-of-suicide-neurobiology-a-critical-perspective
#15
REVIEW
Bhaskar Roy, Yogesh Dwivedi
Current understanding of environmental cross-talk with genetic makeup is found to be mediated through an epigenetic interface which is associated with prominent reversible and heritable changes at gene expression level. Recent emergence of epigenetic modulation in shaping the genetic information has become a key regulatory factor in answering the underlying complexities associated with several mental disorders. A comprehensive understanding of the pertinent changes in the epigenetic makeup of suicide phenotype exhibits a characteristic signature with the possibility of using it as a biomarker to help predict the risk factors associated with suicide...
November 9, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833795/a-potential-third-manta-ray-species-near-the-yucat%C3%A3-n-peninsula-evidence-for-a-recently-diverged-and-novel-genetic-manta-group-from-the-gulf-of-mexico
#16
Silvia Hinojosa-Alvarez, Ryan P Walter, Pindaro Diaz-Jaimes, Felipe Galván-Magaña, E Misty Paig-Tran
We present genetic and morphometric support for a third, distinct, and recently diverged group of Manta ray that appears resident to the Yucatán coastal waters of the Gulf of Mexico. Individuals of the genus Manta from Isla Holbox are markedly different from the other described manta rays in their morphology, habitat preference, and genetic makeup. Herein referred to as the Yucatán Manta Ray, these individuals form two genetically distinct groups: (1) a group of mtDNA haplotypes divergent (0.78%) from the currently recognized Manta birostris and M...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829276/biliary-carcinomas-pathology-and-the-role-of-dna-mismatch-repair-deficiency
#17
Vitor Werneck Krauss Silva, Gokce Askan, Tanisha D Daniel, Maeve Lowery, David S Klimstra, Ghassan K Abou-Alfa, Jinru Shia
The pathology of biliary carcinomas is diverse with different gross and histological features in tumors arising in the different segments of the biliary system. Various epidemiological risk factors, varied genetic makeup, and tissue microenvironment are contributory factors. As biliary tumors have been shown to be a part of the Lynch syndrome tumor spectrum, it is plausible to speculate that DNA mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency plays a role in biliary tumors. Literature data suggest that DNA MMR deficiency indeed occurs in these tumors, albeit infrequently with the reported frequencies (weighted for sample size) of high level microsatellite instability (MSI) being 5% each for gallbladder carcinoma and carcinoma of extra-hepatic bile ducts, and 10% each for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and ampullary carcinoma...
October 2016: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824251/the-influence-of-friction-between-football-helmet-and-jersey-materials-on-force-a-consideration-for-sport-safety
#18
Anthony M Rossi, Tina L Claiborne, Gregory B Thompson, Stacey Todaro
CONTEXT: The pocketing effect of helmet padding helps to dissipate forces experienced by the head, but if the player's helmet remains stationary in an opponent's shoulder pads, the compressive force on the cervical spine may increase. OBJECTIVE: To (1) measure the coefficient of static friction between different football helmet finishes and football jersey fabrics and (2) calculate the potential amount of force on a player's helmet due to the amount of friction present...
September 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821046/spontaneous-mutations-in-the-flhd-operon-generate-motility-heterogeneity-in-escherichia-coli-biofilm
#19
Shelley M Horne, Joseph Sayler, Nicholas Scarberry, Meredith Schroeder, Ty Lynnes, Birgit M Prüß
BACKGROUND: Heterogeneity and niche adaptation in bacterial biofilm involve changes to the genetic makeup of the bacteria and gene expression control. We hypothesized that i) spontaneous mutations in the flhD operon can either increase or decrease motility and that ii) the resulting motility heterogeneity in the biofilm might lead to a long-term increase in biofilm biomass. RESULTS: We allowed the highly motile E. coli K-12 strain MC1000 to form seven- and fourteen-day old biofilm, from which we recovered reduced motility isolates at a substantially greater frequency (5...
November 8, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814400/sperm-microrna-content-is-altered-in-a-mouse-model-of-male-obesity-but-the-same-suite-of-micrornas-are-not-altered-in-offspring-s-sperm
#20
Tod Fullston, E Maria C Ohlsson-Teague, Cristin G Print, Lauren Y Sandeman, Michelle Lane
The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide and has tripled in men of reproductive age since the 1970s. Concerningly, obesity is not only comorbid with other chronic diseases, but there is mounting evidence that it increases the non-communicable disease load in their children (eg mortality, obesity, autism). Animal studies have demonstrated that paternal obesity increases the risk of metabolic (eg glucose metabolism defects, obesity) and reproductive disorders in offspring. Epigenetic changes within sperm are clear mechanistic candidates that are associated with both changes to the father's environment and offspring phenotype...
2016: PloS One
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