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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142317/the-maternal-genetic-make-up-of-the-iberian-peninsula-between-the-neolithic-and-the-early-bronze-age
#1
Anna Szécsényi-Nagy, Christina Roth, Guido Brandt, Cristina Rihuete-Herrada, Cristina Tejedor-Rodríguez, Petra Held, Íñigo García-Martínez-de-Lagrán, Héctor Arcusa Magallón, Stephanie Zesch, Corina Knipper, Eszter Bánffy, Susanne Friederich, Harald Meller, Primitiva Bueno Ramírez, Rosa Barroso Bermejo, Rodrigo de Balbín Behrmann, Ana M Herrero-Corral, Raúl Flores Fernández, Carmen Alonso Fernández, Javier Jiménez Echevarria, Laura Rindlisbacher, Camila Oliart, María-Inés Fregeiro, Ignacio Soriano, Oriol Vicente, Rafael Micó, Vicente Lull, Jorge Soler Díaz, Juan Antonio López Padilla, Consuelo Roca de Togores Muñoz, Mauro S Hernández Pérez, Francisco Javier Jover Maestre, Joaquín Lomba Maurandi, Azucena Avilés Fernández, Katina T Lillios, Ana Maria Silva, Miguel Magalhães Ramalho, Luiz Miguel Oosterbeek, Claudia Cunha, Anna J Waterman, Jordi Roig Buxó, Andrés Martínez, Juana Ponce Martínez, Mark Hunt Ortiz, Juan Carlos Mejías-García, Juan Carlos Pecero Espín, Rosario Cruz-Auñón Briones, Tiago Tomé, Eduardo Carmona Ballestero, João Luís Cardoso, Ana Cristina Araújo, Corina Liesau von Lettow-Vorbeck, Concepción Blasco Bosqued, Patricia Ríos Mendoza, Ana Pujante, José I Royo-Guillén, Marco Aurelio Esquembre Beviá, Victor Manuel Dos Santos Goncalves, Rui Parreira, Elena Morán Hernández, Elena Méndez Izquierdo, Jorge Vega Y Miguel, Roberto Menduiña García, Victoria Martínez Calvo, Oscar López Jiménez, Johannes Krause, Sandra L Pichler, Rafael Garrido-Pena, Michael Kunst, Roberto Risch, Manuel A Rojo-Guerra, Wolfgang Haak, Kurt W Alt
Agriculture first reached the Iberian Peninsula around 5700 BCE. However, little is known about the genetic structure and changes of prehistoric populations in different geographic areas of Iberia. In our study, we focus on the maternal genetic makeup of the Neolithic (~ 5500-3000 BCE), Chalcolithic (~ 3000-2200 BCE) and Early Bronze Age (~ 2200-1500 BCE). We report ancient mitochondrial DNA results of 213 individuals (151 HVS-I sequences) from the northeast, central, southeast and southwest regions and thus on the largest archaeogenetic dataset from the Peninsula to date...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142178/actual-consumption-amount-of-personal-care-products-reflecting-japanese-cosmetic-habits
#2
Masahiko Yamaguchi, Daisuke Araki, Takeshi Kanamori, Yasuko Okiyama, Hirokazu Seto, Masaki Uda, Masahito Usami, Yutaka Yamamoto, Takuji Masunaga, Hitoshi Sasa
Safety assessments of cosmetics are carried out by identifying possible harmful effects of substances in cosmetic products and assessing the exposure to products containing these substances. The present study provided data on the amounts of cosmetic products consumed in Japan to enhance and complement the existing data from Europe and the United States, i.e., the West. The outcomes of this study increase the accuracy of exposure assessments and enable more sophisticated risk assessment as a part of the safety assessment of cosmetic products...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137972/circulating-tumoral-dna-preanalytical-validation-and-quality-control-in-a-diagnostic-laboratory
#3
Sergey Nikolaev, Laure Lemmens, Thibaud Koessler, Jean-Louis Blouin, Thierry Nouspikel
We present the results of our technical validation process in establishing the analysis of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) as a diagnostic tool. Like most cells in our body, tumor cells shed DNA in the blood flow. Analysis of ctDNA mutational content can provide invaluable information on the genetic makeup of a tumor, and assist oncologists in deciding on therapy, or in following residual disease. However, low absolute amounts of circulating DNA and low tumor fraction constitute formidable analytical challenges...
November 11, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135216/interfacial-molecular-packing-determines-exciton-dynamics-in-molecular-heterostructures-the-case-of-pentacene-perfluoropentacene
#4
Andre Rinn, Tobias Breuer, Julia Wiegand, Michael Beck, Jens Hübner, Robin C Döring, Michael Oestreich, Wolfram Heimbrodt, Gregor Witte, Sangam Chatterjee
The great majority of electronic and optoelectronic devices depend on interfaces between p-type and n-type semiconductors. Finding matching donor-acceptor systems in molecular semiconductors remains a challenging endeavor since structurally compatible molecules may not necessarily be suitable with respect to their optical and electronic properties and the large exciton binding energy in these materials may favor bound electron-hole pairs rather than free carriers or charge-transfer at an interface. Regardless, interfacial charge-transfer exciton states are commonly considered as an intermediate step to achieve exciton dissociation...
November 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131922/prenatal-and-postnatal-genetic-testing-why-how-and-when
#5
Joan M Stoler
There have been major advances in genetic testing especially over the last 10 years. We have advanced from looking at simple chromosomes under a microscope to more sophisticated analysis of the DNA makeup of chromosomes and from testing a single gene to sequencing almost all of our genetic material. Similarly, in the field of prenatal testing we have made great strides in screening and diagnostic testing in the hope of detecting significant abnormalities in the fetus while decreasing the risk to the pregnancy...
November 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129355/a-metagenomic-approach-to-dissect-the-genetic-composition-of-enterotypes-in-han-chinese-and-two-muslim-groups
#6
Jing Li, Ruiqing Fu, Yajun Yang, Hans-Peter Horz, Yaqun Guan, Yan Lu, Haiyi Lou, Lei Tian, Shijie Zheng, Hongjiao Liu, Meng Shi, Kun Tang, Sijia Wang, Shuhua Xu
Distinct enterotypes have been observed in the human gut but little is known about the genetic basis of the microbiome. Moreover, it is not clear how many genetic differences exist between enterotypes within or between populations. In this study, both the 16S rRNA gene and the metagenomes of the gut microbiota were sequenced from 48 Han Chinese, 48 Kazaks, and 96 Uyghurs, and taxonomies were assigned after de novo assembly. Single nucleotide polymorphisms were also identified by referring to data from the Human Microbiome Project...
November 9, 2017: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124388/measuring-the-impact-of-olive-pomace-enriched-biscuits-on-the-gut-microbiota-and-its-metabolic-activity-in-mildly-hypercholesterolaemic-subjects
#7
Lorenza Conterno, Francesca Martinelli, Matteo Tamburini, Francesca Fava, Andrea Mancini, Maddalena Sordo, Massimo Pindo, Stefan Martens, Domenico Masuero, Urska Vrhovsek, Claudia Dal Lago, Gabriele Ferrario, Mario Morandini, Kieran Tuohy
PURPOSE: Olive pomace is a major waste product of olive oil production but remains rich in polyphenols and fibres. We measured the potential of an olive pomace-enriched biscuit formulation delivering 17.1 ± 4.01 mg/100 g of hydroxytyrosol and its derivatives, to modulate the composition and metabolic activity of the human gut microbiota. METHODS: In a double-blind, controlled parallel dietary intervention 62 otherwise healthy hypercholesterolemic (total plasma cholesterol 180-240 mg/dl) subjects were randomly assigned to eat 90 g of olive pomace-enriched biscuit (olive-enriched product, OEP) or an isoenergetic control (CTRL) for 8 weeks...
November 9, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120167/understanding-the-inflammatory-tissue-reaction-to-brain-implants-to-improve-neurochemical-sensing-performance
#8
Steven M Wellman, Takashi D Y Kozai
Neurochemical sensing probes are a valuable diagnostic and therapeutic tool that can be used to study neurodegenerative diseases involving deficiencies in neurotransmitter signaling. However, implantation of these biosensors can elicit a harmful tissue response that alters the neurochemical environment within the brain. Transmission of chemical messengers via neurons is impeded by a barrier-forming glial scar that occurs within weeks after insertion followed by progressive neurodegeneration, attenuating signal sensitivity...
November 9, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115304/tumour-heterogeneity-and-resistance-to-cancer-therapies
#9
REVIEW
Ibiayi Dagogo-Jack, Alice T Shaw
Cancer is a dynamic disease. During the course of disease, cancers generally become more heterogeneous. As a result of this heterogeneity, the bulk tumour might include a diverse collection of cells harbouring distinct molecular signatures with differential levels of sensitivity to treatment. This heterogeneity might result in a non-uniform distribution of genetically distinct tumour-cell subpopulations across and within disease sites (spatial heterogeneity) or temporal variations in the molecular makeup of cancer cells (temporal heterogeneity)...
November 8, 2017: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113934/validating-ehr-clinical-models-using-ontology-patterns
#10
Catalina Martínez-Costa, Stefan Schulz
Clinical models are artefacts that specify how information is structured in electronic health records (EHRs). However, the makeup of clinical models is not guided by any formal constraint beyond a semantically vague information model. We address this gap by advocating ontology design patterns as a mechanism that makes the semantics of clinical models explicit. This paper demonstrates how ontology design patterns can validate existing clinical models using SHACL. Based on the Clinical Information Modelling Initiative (CIMI), we show how ontology patterns detect both modeling and terminology binding errors in CIMI models...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112749/pgg-population-a-database-for-understanding-the-genomic-diversity-and-genetic-ancestry-of-human-populations
#11
Chao Zhang, Yang Gao, Jiaojiao Liu, Zhe Xue, Yan Lu, Lian Deng, Lei Tian, Qidi Feng, Shuhua Xu
There are a growing number of studies focusing on delineating genetic variations that are associated with complex human traits and diseases due to recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies. However, identifying and prioritizing disease-associated causal variants relies on understanding the distribution of genetic variations within and among populations. The PGG.Population database documents 7122 genomes representing 356 global populations from 107 countries and provides essential information for researchers to understand human genomic diversity and genetic ancestry...
November 3, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110803/sexual-dysfunction-in-primary-care-an-exploratory-descriptive-analysis-of-medical-record-diagnoses
#12
Katie M Heiden-Rootes, Joanne Salas, Sarah Gebauer, Matthew Witthaus, Jeffrey Scherrer, Kristin McDaniel, Dasha Carver
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of sexual dysfunction (SDx) diagnoses in primary care settings is not well known, which is a concern because of the high prevalence of comorbid chronic health conditions in patients diagnosed with SDx. AIM: To explore the relation of SDx diagnosis, chronic health conditions, and prescription medications commonly associated with SDx for men and women in primary care using medical records diagnoses. METHODS: Exploratory descriptive analyses were used to interpret secondary data from a primary care patient database...
November 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103941/asymmetry-of-an-intracellular-scaffold-at-vertebrate-electrical-synapses
#13
Audrey J Marsh, Jennifer Carlisle Michel, Anisha P Adke, Emily L Heckman, Adam C Miller
Neuronal synaptic connections are either chemical or electrical, and these two types of synapses work together to dynamically define neural circuit function [1]. Although we know a great deal about the molecules that support chemical synapse formation and function, we know little about the macromolecular complexes that regulate electrical synapses. Electrical synapses are created by gap junction (GJ) channels that provide direct ionic communication between neurons [2]. Although they are often molecularly and functionally symmetric, recent work has found that pre- and postsynaptic neurons can contribute different GJ-forming proteins, creating molecularly asymmetric channels that are correlated with functional asymmetry at the synapse [3, 4]...
October 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102742/gene-environment-interactions-between-education-and-body-mass-evidence-from-the-uk-and-finland
#14
Vikesh Amin, Petri Böckerman, Jutta Viinikainen, Melissa C Smart, Yanchun Bao, Meena Kumari, Niina Pitkänen, Terho Lehtimäki, Olli Raitakari, Jaakko Pehkonen
More education is associated with a lower body mass index (BMI) and likelihood of being overweight. However, since a large proportion of the variation in body mass is due to genetic makeup, it has been hypothesized that education may moderate the genetic risk. We estimate main associations between (i) education, (ii) genetic risk, and (iii) interactions between education and genetic risk on BMI and the probability of being overweight in the UK and Finland. The estimates show that education is negatively associated with BMI and overweightness, and genetic risk is positively associated...
November 2, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102374/body-composition-is-associated-with-clinical-outcomes-in-patients-with-non-dialysis-dependent-chronic-kidney-disease
#15
Ting-Yun Lin, Ching-Hsiu Peng, Szu-Chun Hung, Der-Cherng Tarng
An inverse relationship between body mass index (BMI) and mortality (the obesity paradox) has been found in patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, it is unclear whether increased muscle mass or body fat confers the survival advantage. To resolve this we investigated the impact of body makeup on a composite outcome of death or cardiovascular events in a prospective cohort of 326 patients with stage 3-5 CKD not yet on dialysis. Lean mass and body fat were determined using the Body Composition Monitor, a multifrequency bioimpedance spectroscopy device, and were expressed as the lean tissue or fat tissue index, respectively...
November 1, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100114/wall-based-measurement-features-provides-an-improved-ivus-coronary-artery-risk-assessment-when-fused-with-plaque-texture-based-features-during-machine-learning-paradigm
#16
Sumit K Banchhor, Narendra D Londhe, Tadashi Araki, Luca Saba, Petia Radeva, John R Laird, Jasjit S Suri
BACKGROUND: Planning of percutaneous interventional procedures involves a pre-screening and risk stratification of the coronary artery disease. Current screening tools use stand-alone plaque texture-based features and therefore lack the ability to stratify the risk. METHOD: This IRB approved study presents a novel strategy for coronary artery disease risk stratification using an amalgamation of IVUS plaque texture-based and wall-based measurement features. Due to common genetic plaque makeup, carotid plaque burden was chosen as a gold standard for risk labels during training-phase of machine learning (ML) paradigm...
October 23, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095543/background-current-role-and-potential-applications-of-radiogenomics
#17
Katja Pinker, Fuki Shitano, Evis Sala, Richard K Do, Robert J Young, Andreas G Wibmer, Hedvig Hricak, Elizabeth J Sutton, Elizabeth A Morris
With the genomic revolution in the early 1990s, medical research has been driven to study the basis of human disease on a genomic level and to devise precise cancer therapies tailored to the specific genetic makeup of a tumor. To match novel therapeutic concepts conceived in the era of precision medicine, diagnostic tests must be equally sufficient, multilayered, and complex to identify the relevant genetic alterations that render cancers susceptible to treatment. With significant advances in training and medical imaging techniques, image analysis and the development of high-throughput methods to extract and correlate multiple imaging parameters with genomic data, a new direction in medical research has emerged...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080046/the-microbiome-that-shapes-us-can-it-cause-obesity
#18
REVIEW
Endashaw Omer, Hadi Atassi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We sought to examine the effects of the gut microbial makeup on weight gain and obesity. We wanted to find out what the current research on this topic was and what the effect of the gut microbiota on energy metabolism is, as well the effects of diet on the microbiome and what effect the microbiome has on metabolic syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: Obesity is thought to be due to greater calorie intake than expenditure. Recently, research has looked into the effects of the microbiome on obesity...
October 27, 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064910/a-molecular-pathway-analysis-informs-the-genetic-risk-for-arrhythmias-during-antipsychotic-treatment
#19
Ellen Kure Fischer, Antonio Drago
Arrhythmias are a frequent and potentially fatal side effect of antipsychotic treatment. Strict ECG monitoring and clinical interviews are the standards used to prevent arrhythmias. A biologic predictive tool is missing. The identification of a genetic makeup at risk of antipsychotic-induced arrhythmias is the aim of the present investigation. The aim of this study was to identify a molecular pathway enriched in single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with antipsychotic-induced QTc modifications. In total, 661 schizophrenic individuals from the CATIE study, M=486 (73...
October 23, 2017: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061427/population-trends-and-public-awareness-of-healthy-and-pathological-ageing-in-india-a-brief-overview
#20
Santosh Loganathan, Vijeth Iyengar, Suresh Vedalaveni Chowdappa, Mathew Varghese
India is poised to experience dramatic shifts in the age and makeup of its population. Specifically, projections havehighlighted an increase in both the percentage of the elderly and those suffering from dementia-related disorders.Previous studies have examined the demographics of aging, its impact on the healthcare infrastructure and recommended policies to better cater to the elderly. This article focuses on a summary of these findings in relation to key stakeholders in the care of the elderly including mental health professionals, family caregivers, and public health officials...
October 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
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