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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090406/leaf-disc-grafting-for-the-transmission-of-candidatus-liberibacter-asiaticus-in-citrus-citrus-sinensis-rutaceae-seedlings
#1
Flavia Tabay Zambon, Karen Plant, Ed Etxeberria
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The search for resistance/tolerance to the devastating citrus huanglongbing disease (syn. HLB or citrus greening) is generating an increasing number of new plants of diverse genetic makeup. As the increasing number of new plants require more space, resources, and time, the need for faster and more efficient HLB screening tests becomes crucial. METHODS AND RESULTS: The leaf-disc grafting system described here consists in replacing a disc of leaf tissue with a similar disc from an infected plant...
January 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079712/a-comprehensive-review-of-genomics-and-noncoding-rna-in-gliomas
#2
Ahmed Hassan, Jennifer Mosley, Sanjay Singh, Pascal Olivier Zinn
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant primary adult brain tumor. In spite of our greater understanding of the biology of GBMs, clinical outcome of GBM patients remains poor, as their median survival with best available treatment is 12 to 18 months. Recent efforts of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) have subgrouped patients into 4 molecular/transcriptional subgroups: proneural, neural, classical, and mesenchymal. Continuing efforts are underway to provide a comprehensive map of the heterogeneous makeup of GBM to include noncoding transcripts, genetic mutations, and their associations to clinical outcome...
January 11, 2017: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074050/enhanced-dereplication-of-fungal-cultures-via-use-of-mass-defect-filtering
#3
Noemi D Paguigan, Tamam El-Elimat, Diana Kao, Huzefa A Raja, Cedric J Pearce, Nicholas H Oberlies
Effective and rapid dereplication is a hallmark of present-day drug discovery from natural sources. This project strove to both decrease the time and expand the structural diversity associated with dereplication methodologies. A 5 min liquid chromatographic run time employing heated electrospray ionization (HESI) was evaluated to determine whether it could be used as a faster alternative over the 10 min ESI method we reported previously. Results revealed that the 5 min method was as sensitive as the 10 min method and, obviously, was twice as fast...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069833/clasp2-ensures-mitotic-fidelity-and-prevents-differentiation-of-epidermal-keratinocytes
#4
Marta N Shahbazi, Daniel Peña-Jimenez, Francesca Antonucci, Matthias Drosten, Mirna Perez-Moreno
Epidermal homeostasis is tightly controlled by a balancing act of self-renewal or terminal differentiation of proliferating basal keratinocytes. An increase in DNA content as a consequence of a mitotic block is a recognized mechanism underlying keratinocyte differentiation, but the molecular mechanisms involved in this process are not yet fully understood. Using cultured primary keratinocytes, here we report that the expression of the mammalian Microtubule and Kinetochore-associated protein Clasp2 is intimately associated to the basal proliferative makeup of keratinocytes, and its deficiency leads to premature differentiation...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068894/strain-differences-in-a-murine-model-of-air-pollutant-induced-nonatopic-asthma-and-rhinitis
#5
Jack R Harkema, Lucas A Hotchkiss, Nicholas A Vetter, Daven N Jackson-Humbles, Ryan P Lewandowski, James G Wagner
Ozone is an irritating gas found in photochemical smog. Epidemiological associations have been made between the onset of asthma and childhood exposures to increasing levels of ambient ozone (i.e., air pollutant-induced nonatopic asthma). Individuals, however, vary in their susceptibility to this outdoor air pollutant, which may be due, in part, to their genetic makeup. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that there are murine strain-dependent differences in pulmonary and nasal pathologic responses to repeated ozone exposures...
January 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068891/immunological-variation-due-to-genetics-of-inflammatory-snps-and-age-and-impact-on-disease-manifestation
#6
Gary R Burleson
The immune system is a critical component in defense against viral, bacterial, parasitic, and fungal diseases. Immunological mechanisms, including immunological mediators, innate immunity, cell-mediated immunity, and humoral-mediated immunity, serve to maintain homeostasis and protect the host from disease. Immunological variation can impact defense mechanisms, however. Two factors in particular that can influence immune function are the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and aging. SNPs affecting inflammatory cytokines are an important modifier involved in a number of diseases such as asthma, periodontal disease, atherosclerosis, diabetic retinopathy, psoriasis, and osteoporosis...
January 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067814/two-uav-intersection-localization-system-based-on-the-airborne-optoelectronic-platform
#7
Guanbing Bai, Jinghong Liu, Yueming Song, Yujia Zuo
To address the limitation of the existing UAV (unmanned aerial vehicles) photoelectric localization method used for moving objects, this paper proposes an improved two-UAV intersection localization system based on airborne optoelectronic platforms by using the crossed-angle localization method of photoelectric theodolites for reference. This paper introduces the makeup and operating principle of intersection localization system, creates auxiliary coordinate systems, transforms the LOS (line of sight, from the UAV to the target) vectors into homogeneous coordinates, and establishes a two-UAV intersection localization model...
January 6, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065918/exploiting-next-generation-sequencing-to-solve-the-haplotyping-puzzle-in-polyploids-a-simulation-study
#8
Ehsan Motazedi, Richard Finkers, Chris Maliepaard, Dick de Ridder
Haplotypes are the units of inheritance in an organism, and many genetic analyses depend on their precise determination. Methods for haplotyping single individuals use the phasing information available in next-generation sequencing reads, by matching overlapping single-nucleotide polymorphisms while penalizing post hoc nucleotide corrections made. Haplotyping diploids is relatively easy, but the complexity of the problem increases drastically for polyploid genomes, which are found in both model organisms and in economically relevant plant and animal species...
January 8, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065763/the-kidd-jk-blood-group-system
#9
REVIEW
Shaun Lawicki, Randal B Covin, Amy A Powers
The Kidd blood group system was discovered in 1951 and is composed of 2 antithetical antigens, Jk(a) and Jk(b), along with a third high-incidence antigen, Jk3. The Jk3 antigen is expressed in all individuals except those with the rare Kidd-null phenotype. Four Kidd phenotypes are therefore possible: Jk(a+b-), Jk(a-b+), Jk(a+b+), and Jk(a-b-). The glycoprotein carrying the Kidd antigens is a 43-kDa, 389-amino acid protein with 10 membrane-spanning domains which functions as a urea transporter on endothelial cells of the renal vasa recta as well as erythrocytes...
November 9, 2016: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053085/inhibition-of-mammalian-glycoprotein-ykl-40-identification-of-the-physiological-ligand
#10
Abhishek A Kognole, Christina M Payne
YKL-40 is a mammalian glycoprotein associated with progression, severity, and prognosis of chronic inflammatory diseases and a multitude of cancers. Despite this well-documented association, identification of the lectin's physiological ligand, and accordingly, biological function, has proven experimentally difficult. YKL-40 has been shown to bind chito-oligosaccharides; however, the production of chitin by the human body has not yet been documented. Possible alternative ligands include proteoglycans, polysaccharides, and fibers like collagen, all of which makeup the extracellular matrix...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052818/the-role-of-advanced-glycation-end-products-in-cancer-disparity
#11
D P Turner
While the socioeconomic and environmental factors associated with cancer disparity have been well documented, the contribution of biological factors is an emerging field of research. Established disparity factors such as low income, poor diet, drinking alcohol, smoking, and a sedentary lifestyle may have molecular effects on the inherent biological makeup of the tumor itself, possibly altering cell signaling events and gene expression profiles to profoundly alter tumor development and progression. Our understanding of the molecular and biological consequences of poor lifestyle is lacking, but such information may significantly change how we approach goals to reduce cancer incidence and mortality rates within minority populations...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051182/nesting-of-colon-and-ovarian-cancer-cells-in-the-endothelial-niche-is-associated-with-alterations-in-glycan-and-lipid-metabolism
#12
Anna Halama, Bella S Guerrouahen, Jennifer Pasquier, Noothan J Satheesh, Karsten Suhre, Arash Rafii
The metabolic phenotype of a cancer cell is determined by its genetic makeup and microenvironment, which dynamically modulates the tumor landscape. The endothelial cells provide both a promoting and protective microenvironment - a niche for cancer cells. Although metabolic alterations associated with cancer and its progression have been fairly defined, there is a significant gap in our understanding of cancer metabolism in context of its microenvironment. We deployed an in vitro co-culture system based on direct contact of cancer cells with endothelial cells (E4(+)EC), mimicking the tumor microenvironment...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049817/global-urban-signatures-of-phenotypic-change-in-animal-and-plant-populations
#13
Marina Alberti, Cristian Correa, John M Marzluff, Andrew P Hendry, Eric P Palkovacs, Kiyoko M Gotanda, Victoria M Hunt, Travis M Apgar, Yuyu Zhou
Humans challenge the phenotypic, genetic, and cultural makeup of species by affecting the fitness landscapes on which they evolve. Recent studies show that cities might play a major role in contemporary evolution by accelerating phenotypic changes in wildlife, including animals, plants, fungi, and other organisms. Many studies of ecoevolutionary change have focused on anthropogenic drivers, but none of these studies has specifically examined the role that urbanization plays in ecoevolution or explicitly examined its mechanisms...
January 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049398/infectious-agents-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-exploring-the-links
#14
Mohammad Zubair Alam, Qamre Alam, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Asif Ahmad Jiman-Fatani, Esam I Azhar, Mohammad Azhar Khan, Absarul Haque
Recent studies have shown that bacterial and viral infections are risk factors for various neurodegenerative diseases such as Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and Lyme disease (LD). However, it is still controversial how the infections play a role in neurological diseases progression. Infections in central nervous system may lead multiple damages in infected and neighboring cells. The infection leads to the activation of inflammatory processes and host immune responses, which acts as defense mechanism and also causes damage to the host neuronal functions and viability...
January 3, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045253/nanomaterials-for-in-vivo-imaging
#15
Bryan Ronain Smith, Sanjiv Sam Gambhir
In vivo imaging, which enables us to peer deeply within living subjects, is producing tremendous opportunities both for clinical diagnostics and as a research tool. Contrast material is often required to clearly visualize the functional architecture of physiological structures. Recent advances in nanomaterials are becoming pivotal to generate the high-resolution, high-contrast images needed for accurate, precision diagnostics. Nanomaterials are playing major roles in imaging by delivering large imaging payloads, yielding improved sensitivity, multiplexing capacity, and modularity of design...
January 3, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032783/neurological-exclusiveness-or-unified-science-inclusiveness-comment-on-schwartz-et-al-2016
#16
Arthur W Staats
Schwartz, Lilienfeld, Meca, and Sauvigné (2016) argue effectively and productively that neuroscience is monistic (excludes other fields) in a way that affects negatively psychology department makeup, psychology grant support, and the way students are trained. They conclude, rather, that it is important to effect an inclusion of different fields of psychology. This paper broadens and strengthens their position. However, it also points out that a call for inclusiveness raises a central question. How is inclusiveness to be accomplished? Without stipulation to the contrary the call is for an eclecticism...
December 2016: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031167/pinus-ponderosa-a-checkered-past-obscured-four-species
#17
Ann Willyard, David S Gernandt, Kevin Potter, Valerie Hipkins, Paula Marquardt, Mary Frances Mahalovich, Stephen K Langer, Frank W Telewski, Blake Cooper, Connor Douglas, Kristen Finch, Hassani H Karemera, Julia Lefler, Payton Lea, Austin Wofford
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Molecular genetic evidence can help delineate taxa in species complexes that lack diagnostic morphological characters. Pinus ponderosa (Pinaceae; subsection Ponderosae) is recognized as a problematic taxon: plastid phylogenies of exemplars were paraphyletic, and mitochondrial phylogeography suggested at least four subdivisions of P. ponderosa. These patterns have not been examined in the context of other Ponderosae species. We hypothesized that putative intraspecific subdivisions might each represent a separate taxon...
December 28, 2016: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018753/genetic-determinants-of-swallowing-impairment-recovery-and-responsiveness-to-treatment
#18
REVIEW
Alicja Raginis-Zborowska, Neil Pendleton, Shaheen Hamdy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Here we review the latest literature and evidence in the field of genetics and determinants of swallowing and its treatments-specifically, this is a very recent concept in the field of oropharyngeal dysphagia, with only now an emerging research interest in the relationship between our genetic makeup and the effect this has on swallowing function and dysfunction. As such our review will look at preclinical, clinical and hypothesis generating research covering all aspects of the genetics of swallowing, giving new importance to the genotype-phenotype influences pertaining to dysphagia and its recovery...
2016: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005553/is-the-role-of-physicians-really-evolving-due-to-non-physician-clinicians-predominance-in-staff-makeup-in-sub-saharan-african-health-systems-comment-on-non-physician-clinicians-in-sub-saharan-africa-and-the-evolving-role-of-physicians
#19
Mohsin M Sidat
Health workforce shortages in Sub-Saharan Africa are widely recognized, particularly of physicians, leading the training and deployment of Non-physician clinicians (NPCs). The paper by Eyal et al provides interesting and legitimate viewpoints on evolving role of physicians in context of decisive increase of NPCss in Sub-Saharan Africa. Certainly, in short or mid-term, NPCs will continue to be a proxy solution and a valuable alternative to overcome physicians' shortages in sub-Saharan Africa. Indeed, NPCs have an important role at primary healthcare (PHC) level...
July 2, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000793/root-transcriptome-of-two-contrasting-indica-rice-cultivars-uncovers-regulators-of-root-development-and-physiological-responses
#20
Alka Singh, Pramod Kumar, Vibhav Gautam, Balakrishnan Rengasamy, Bijan Adhikari, Makarla Udayakumar, Ananda K Sarkar
The huge variation in root system architecture (RSA) among different rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars is conferred by their genetic makeup and different growth or climatic conditions. Unlike model plant Arabidopsis, the molecular basis of such variation in RSA is very poorly understood in rice. Cultivars with stable variation are valuable resources for identification of genes involved in RSA and related physiological traits. We have screened for RSA and identified two such indica rice cultivars, IR-64 (OsAS83) and IET-16348 (OsAS84), with stable contrasting RSA...
December 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
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