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Fabián Méndez, Lyda Osorio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Public Health
Robert Horowitz, Bernard Sussman, Timothy Quill
In this article three palliative care physicians review narratives about the complicated experience of voluntarily stopping eating and drinking (VSED). Despite consensus about its legality, the decision to end life by VSED is emotionally and ethically challenging for patients, family members and clinicians. Each VSED story is unique, and the individual perspectives within a single story may diverge, conflict, and evolve over time. The narratives differ substantially in the range of suffering described, from acute, graphic, physical symptoms to primarily anticipatory and psychological distress...
2016: Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics
Bojana Kuzmanovic, Lionel Rigoux, Kai Vogeley
Previous research has demonstrated irrational asymmetry in belief updating: people tend to take into account good news and neglect bad news. Contradicting formal learning principles, belief updates were on average larger after better-than-expected information than after worse-than-expected information. In the present study, typically developing subjects demonstrated this optimism bias in self-referential judgments. In contrast, adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were significantly less biased when updating self-referential beliefs (each group n = 21, matched for age, gender and IQ)...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Madhusudan Singh Solanki, Girish Banwari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Takele Kefyalew, Zelalem Kebede, Dawit Getachew, David Mukanga, Tessema Awano, Agonafer Tekalegne, Esey Batisso, Wasihun Edossa, Emebet Mekonnen, James Tibenderana, Ebenezer Sheshi Baba, Constance Shumba, Joaniter I Nankabirwa, Prudence Hamade
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends injectable artesunate given either intravenously or by the intramuscular route for definitive treatment for severe malaria and recommends a single intramuscular dose of intramuscular artesunate or intramuscular artemether or intramuscular quinine, in that order of preference as pre-referral treatment when definitive treatment is not possible. Where intramuscular injections are not available, children under 6 years may be administered a single dose of rectal artesunate...
October 18, 2016: Malaria Journal
Mary P Henman
BACKGROUND: A suicidal person with a do-not-resuscitate (DNR) order presents an ethical dilemma to the emergency physician. Many believe that suicide is an irrational action, and therefore, all suicide attempts must be treated. Others believe a DNR order should be respected even in the setting of a suicide attempt. CASE REPORT: An elderly woman with a known terminal illness presented to the emergency department after a suspected suicide attempt. She had a DNR order during her previous hospitalization...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Bashir Mohamed Elmahi Yousif, Siripen Supakankunti
BACKGROUND: The appropriate use of medicines is essential for the provision of quality health services, patient safety, and the rational use of health resources. In Sudan, general practitioners (GPs) provide 80 % of insured patients' health services. Pharmaceutical service costs have been increasing since 2010. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to use the World Health Organization (WHO) and International Network for the Rational Use of Drugs prescribing indicators to assess prescription quality among GPs in different types of primary healthcare centers (PHCCs) within the National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF) in Gezira State, Sudan...
September 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
Saeid Komasi, Ali Soroush, Mostafa Bahremand, Mozhgan Saeidi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Korean Journal of Pain
Martin J Turner
In this article Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is proposed as a potentially important framework for the understanding and promotion of mental health in athletes. Cognitive-behavioral approaches predominate in the provision of sport psychology, and often form the backbone of psychological skills training for performance enhancement and maintenance. But far from being solely performance-focused, the cognitive-behavioral approach to sport psychology can restore, promote, and maintain mental health. This review article presents REBT (Ellis, 1957), the original cognitive behavioral therapy, as a valuable approach to addressing mental health issues in sport...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Kabir Sheikh, Mukund Uplekar
BACKGROUND: The unregulated availability and irrational use of tuberculosis (TB) medicines is a major issue of public health concern globally. Governments of many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have committed to regulating the quality and availability of TB medicines, but with variable success. Regulation of TB medicines remains an intractable challenge in many settings, but the reasons for this are poorly understood. The objective of this paper is to elaborate processes of regulation of quality and availability of TB medicines in three LMICs - India, Tanzania, and Zambia - and to understand the factors that constrain and enable these processes...
March 9, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Muhammad Atif, Muhammad Rehan Sarwar, Muhammad Azeem, Danial Umer, Abdul Rauf, Arslan Rasool, Muhammad Ahsan, Shane Scahill
BACKGROUND: Medicines are a main therapeutic intervention provided within hospitals and their proper use in the outpatient setting is important for patients and the community. The objective of this study was to evaluate drug use patterns in the outpatient departments (OPDs) of two tertiary care hospitals (Bahawal Victoria Hospital and Civil Hospital) in the Bahawalpur district of the Punjab province of Pakistan by employing the standard World Health Organization/International Network of Rational Use of Drugs (WHO/INRUD) drug use indicators...
2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Alexander Rozental, Erik Forsell, Andreas Svensson, Gerhard Andersson, Per Carlbring
Procrastination is a common self-regulatory failure that can have a negative impact on well-being and performance. However, few clinical trials have been conducted, and no follow-up has ever been performed. The current study therefore aimed to provide evidence for the long-term benefits and investigate predictors of a positive treatment outcome among patients receiving Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT). A total of 150 self-recruited participants were randomized to guided or unguided ICBT. Self-report measures of procrastination, depression, anxiety, and quality of life were distributed at pre-treatment assessment, post-treatment assessment, and one-year follow-up...
September 29, 2016: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Arend Hintze, Ralph Hertwig
When humans fail to make optimal decisions in strategic games and economic gambles, researchers typically try to explain why that behaviour is biased. To this end, they search for mechanisms that cause human behaviour to deviate from what seems to be the rational optimum. But perhaps human behaviour is not biased; perhaps research assumptions about the optimality of strategies are incomplete. In the one-shot anonymous symmetric ultimatum game (UG), humans fail to play optimally as defined by the Nash equilibrium...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Scott D Cohen, Daniel Cukor, Paul L Kimmel
Anxiety is a common yet frequently overlooked psychiatric symptom in patients with ESRD treated with hemodialysis (HD). Anxiety is characterized by disruptive feelings of uncertainty, dread, and fearfulness. A variety of common medical complaints may be manifestations of an anxiety disorder, including palpitations, tremors, indigestion, numbness/tingling, nervousness, shortness of breath, diaphoresis, and fear. It is essential for the clinician to rule out specific medical conditions, including cardiovascular, pulmonary, and neurologic diseases, before ascribing these symptoms to an anxiety disorder...
September 22, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Carmita Helena Najjar Abdo
Ejaculatory function cannot be evaluated outside the dyadic process and without taking into account the men's and women's cognition of the condition and how their subjective perception impacts on the evaluation of the relationship and sexual quality. Although the distress of the sufferer and his partner has been a motivating factor in leading men with ejaculatory dysfunction to seek medical help, few objective or prospective evaluations of the effects on the couple have been reported. Specialized literature has been dealing with ejaculatory disorders in a heterogeneous manner...
August 2016: Translational Andrology and Urology
Zhou Lulin, Ethel Yiranbon, Henry Asante Antwi
Early accounts of the development of modern medicine suggest that the clinical skills, scientific competence, and doctors' judgment were the main impetus for treatment decision, diagnosis, prognosis, therapy assessment, and medical progress. Yet, clinician judgment has its own critics and is sometimes harshly described as notoriously fallacious and an irrational and unfathomable black box with little transparency. With the rise of contemporary medical research, the reputation of clinician judgment has undergone significant reformation in the last century as its fallacious aspects are increasingly emphasized relative to the evidence based options...
2016: BioMed Research International
Ting Qian, T Florian Jaeger, Richard N Aslin
Forming an accurate representation of a task environment often takes place incrementally as the information relevant to learning the representation only unfolds over time. This incremental nature of learning poses an important problem: it is usually unclear whether a sequence of stimuli consists of only a single pattern, or multiple patterns that are spliced together. In the former case, the learner can directly use each observed stimulus to continuously revise its representation of the task environment. In the latter case, however, the learner must first parse the sequence of stimuli into different bundles, so as to not conflate the multiple patterns...
September 15, 2016: Cognition
Kwesi B Mensah, Charles Ansah
UNLABELLED: Epidemiological studies show clearly that Caesarean birth, perinatal or neonatal irrational antibiotic use is strongly associated with increased risk of obesity and diabetes in later life. Irrational use of antibiotics is a great global public health concern especially in developing economies like Ghana due to poor regulation on medicines. Unfortunately, this concern has been reduced to the fear of development of resistant organisms and the destruction of the world's limited range of antibiotics therapy at the expense of other insidious risks including the development of metabolic and atopic diseases...
June 2016: Ghana Medical Journal
Muthu Gopal, Sathishkumar Elumalai, Suresh Arumugam, Vishnuprabu Durairajpandian, Munirajan Arasambattu Kannan, Esthermary Selvam, Srivani Seetharaman
INTRODUCTION: Typhoid fever is endemic in India and other developing countries, causing major public health problems with high morbidity and mortality. The resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) towards commonly prescribed antimicrobials is increasing in developing countries. However, there have been several reports of the therapeutic failure of fluoroquinolones in patients with Salmonella infection. Resistance to quinolones/ fluoroquinolones commonly arises due to target site mutation...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Frode Svartdal, Gerit Pfuhl, Kent Nordby, Gioel Foschi, Katrin B Klingsieck, Alexander Rozental, Per Carlbring, Sari Lindblom-Ylänne, Kaja Rębkowska
Procrastination is a common problem, but defining and measuring it has been subject to some debate. This paper summarizes results from students and employees (N = 2893) in Finland, Germany, Italy, Norway, Poland, and Sweden using the Pure Procrastination Scale (PPS) and the Irrational Procrastination Scale (IPS; Steel, 2010), both assumed to measure unidimensional and closely related constructs. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated inadequate configural fit for the suggested one-factor model for PPS; however, acceptable fit was observed for a three-factor model corresponding to the three different scales the PPS is based on...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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