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Natalia O Ryngach, Marina B Scherbinina, Tatiana M Shevchenko, Victoria M Gladun, Volodymyr I Sarychev
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: The awareness of the working-age population regarding the principles of a healthy lifestyle and risk factors of diseases is analyzed. Aim: To identify and characterize the level of awareness of the working-age population regarding the essence of a healthy lifestyle and risk factors (with a focus on irrational nutrition and its consequences). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: In the sociological study (2017), on request of Dnipropetrovsk regional state administration, methods of deep (N20) and personalized formal interviews (N2000) were used according to a specially developed methodology of qualitative and quantitative research stages and data collection tools...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Olugbenga A Mokuolu, Olufemi O Ajumobi, Godwin N Ntadom, Olanrewaju T Adedoyin, Alero A Roberts, Chimere O Agomo, Kate U Edozieh, Henrietta U Okafor, Robinson D Wammanda, Friday A Odey, Ibrahim K Maikore, Olatayo O Abikoye, Adekunle D Alabi, Chiomah Amajoh, Bala M Audu
BACKGROUND: Nigeria commenced a phased programmatic deployment of rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) at the primary health care (PHC) facility levels since 2011. Despite various efforts, the national testing rate for malaria is still very low. The uptake of RDT has been variable. This study was undertaken to determine the provider and patient perceptions to RDT use at the PHC level in Nigeria with their implications for improving uptake and compliance. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 120 randomly selected PHCs across six states, across the six-geopolitical zones of Nigeria in January 2013...
May 16, 2018: Malaria Journal
Xueting Zeng, Tienan Li, Cong Chen, Zhenjiang Si, Guohe Huang, Ping Guo, Xiaowen Zhuang
In this study, a hybrid land-water-environment (LWE) model is developed for identifying ecological effect and risk under uncertain precipitation in an agroforestry ecosystem. A simulation-based fuzzy-stochastic programming with risk analysis (SFSR) method is used into LWE model to reflect the meteorological impacts; meanwhile, it also can quantify artificial fuzziness (e.g., risk attitude of policymaker) and natural vagueness (e.g., ecological function) in decision-making. The developed LWE model with SFSR method is applied to a practical agroforestry ecosystem in China...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Olayinka O Ogunleye, Joseph O Fadare, Adesola F Yinka-Ogunleye, Bene D Anand Paramadhas, Brian Godman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has assumed pandemic dimensions especially among low and middle-income countries such as Nigeria. Irrational use of currently available antimicrobial agents is a major contributory factor. There remains a paucity of documented information on the determinants of antibiotics prescribing among physicians in Nigeria to guide future strategies to reduce AMR. This study therefore aimed to investigate the patterns and determinants of antibiotics prescription among doctors in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria as the first step to improve future antibiotic use in hospitals...
May 14, 2018: Hospital Practice (Minneapolis)
Shivangi Agarwal, Ekta Verma, Vivek Kumar, Namrita Lall, Samaresh Sau, Arun K Iyer, Sushil K Kashaw
Tuberculosis is an infectious chronic disease caused by obligate pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis that affects millions of people worldwide. Although many first and second line drugs are available for its treatment, but their irrational use has adversely lead to the emerging cases of multiple drug resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. Therefore, there is an intense need to develop novel potent analogues for its treatment. This has prompted us to develop potent analogues against TB. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome provides us with number of validated targets to combat against TB...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Abhimanyu Singh Chauhan, Mathew Sunil George, Pranab Chatterjee, Johanna Lindahl, Delia Grace, Manish Kakkar
Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has been identified as one of the major threats to global health, food security and development today. While there has been considerable attention about the use and misuse of antibiotics amongst human populations in both research and policy environments, there is no definitive estimate of the extent of misuse of antibiotics in the veterinary sector and its contribution to AMR in humans. In this study, we explored the drivers ofirrational usage of verterinary antibiotics in the dairy farming sector in peri-urban India...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Li Hou, Yan Zhang, Yan Luan, Beibei Xin, Chunxia Wang
Infection after gynecologic surgery is very common and frequent. If the control is not good, it will lead to serious consequences. Therefore, it is necessary to use antibiotics in the period of obstetrics and gynecology. This study will explore the use of antimicrobial agents in gynecologic and obstetric surgery, thus standardizing the use of antibiotics in the process of obstetrics and gynecology. Through the analysis of the use of antibacterials, we can see that the highest utilization rate of 5 kinds of antibacterial drugs followed by Cefaclor Sustained Release Tablets (65...
May 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Nivedita Dasgupta, Deepjyoti Paul, Debadatta Dhar Chanda, Shiela Chetri, Atanu Chakravarty, Amitabha Bhattacharjee
Therapeutic options with quinolones are severely compromised in infections caused by members of Enterobacteriaceae family. Mutations in chromosomal region are one of the major reasons for bacterial resistance towards this group of antibiotic. The aim of the study is to detect the mutations in gyr A and par C responsible for quinolone resistance among clinical isolates of Escherichia coli. A total of 96 quinolone-resistant clinical isolates of E. coli were collected from a tertiary care hospital of North-east India during March 2015 to August 2015...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Li Hou, Yan Zhang, Yan Luan, Beibei Xin, Chunxia Wang
Infection after gynecologic surgery is very common and frequent. If the control is not good, it will lead to serious consequences. Therefore, it is necessary to use antibiotics in the period of obstetrics and gynecology. This study will explore the use of antimicrobial agents in gynecologic and obstetric surgery, thus standardizing the use of antibiotics in the process of obstetrics and gynecology. Through the analysis of the use of antibacterials, we can see that the highest utilization rate of 5 kinds of antibacterial drugs followed by Cefaclor Sustained Release Tablets (65...
May 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Salman Y Guraya, Shaista S Guraya, Fawzia Habib, Khalid W AlQuiliti, Khalid I Khoshhal
OBJECTIVES: Test anxiety is well known among medical students. However, little is known about test anxiety produced by different components of exam individually. This study aimed to stratify varying levels of test anxiety provoked by each exam modality and to explore the students perceptions about confounding factors. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire was administered to medical students. The instrument contained four main themes; lifestyle, psychological and specific factors of information needs, learning styles, and perceived difficulty level of each assessment tool...
May 6, 2018: Medical Teacher
Nsengi Y Ntamabyaliro, Christian Burri, Didier B Nzolo, Aline B Engo, Yves N Lula, Samuel M Mampunza, Célestin N Nsibu, Gauthier K Mesia, Jean-Marie N Kayembe, Joris L Likwela, Leon M Kintaudi, Gaston L Tona
BACKGROUND: Malaria the first causes of death from parasitic infection worldwide. Interventions to reduce the burden of malaria have produced a tremendous drop in malaria morbidity and mortality. However, progress is slower in DRC, which shares with Nigeria 39% of deaths related to malaria globally. Inappropriate use of drugs may be one of the factors of this below-average performance. The aim of this study was to describe the use of drugs in the management of uncomplicated malaria in public health facilities in DRC...
May 3, 2018: Malaria Journal
Yanling Zhang, Feng Fu
The 'irrational' preference for fairness has attracted increasing attention. Although previous studies have focused on the effects of spitefulness on the evolution of fairness, they did not consider non-monotonic rejections shown in behavioral experiments. In this paper, we introduce a non-monotonic rejection in an evolutionary model of the Ultimatum Game. We propose strategy intervention to study the evolution of fairness in general structured populations. By sequentially adding five strategies into the competition between a fair strategy and a selfish strategy, we arrive at the following conclusions...
2018: PloS One
Shyam Bhanu Verma, Christos Zouboulis
A veritable epidemic of alarming superficial dermatophytosis (tinea), predominantly tinea corporis, tinea cruris and tinea facei has swept through India in approximately past five years or so. Dermatologists and academic departments from across the nation observe that between 20-50% patients attending the outpatient department seek treatment of tinea. A large number of these patients have recalcitrant disease. While the alarming outbreak of tinea has prompted a relatively recent surge of academic studies there is a stark paucity of reliable, nationwide epidemiological data and lack of evidence in all aspects of the disease...
April 28, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Hui-Po Wang, Chun-Li Wang
The concept of Pharmacovigilance Planning and Risk Minimization Planning (PVP/RMP), initiated by the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH), addressed an important conceptual change from monitoring the safety of individual medicine to proactively conducting risk prevention for the minimization of medication error. However, the implementation of PVP/RMP is a challenge in societies like Taiwan where irrational medication and co-medication is prevalent. It is even more difficult in Taiwan where two regulatory bodies are governing pharmaceutical affairs, namely Taiwan Food and Drug Administration (TFDA) in charge of Western Medicine (WM) and the Department of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy (DCMP) in charge of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)...
April 2018: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
Wei Pan, Yi-Shin Chen
Conventional decision theory suggests that under risk, people choose option(s) by maximizing the expected utility. However, theories deal ambiguously with different options that have the same expected utility. A network approach is proposed by introducing 'goal' and 'time' factors to reduce the ambiguity in strategies for calculating the time-dependent probability of reaching a goal. As such, a mathematical foundation that explains the irrational behavior of choosing an option with a lower expected utility is revealed, which could imply that humans possess rationality in foresight...
2018: PloS One
L John Hoffer
High-protein hypocaloric nutrition, tailored to each patient's muscle mass, protein-catabolic severity, and exogenous energy tolerance, is the most plausible nutrition therapy in protein-catabolic critical illness. Sufficient protein provision could mitigate the rapid muscle atrophy characteristic of this disease while providing urgently needed amino acids to the central protein compartment and sites of tissue injury. The protein dose may range from 1.5 to 2.5 g protein (1.8-3.0 g free amino acids)/kg dry body weight per day...
April 27, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Jan-Willem van Prooijen, Karen M Douglas, Clara De Inocencio
A common assumption is that belief in conspiracy theories and supernatural phenomena are grounded in illusory pattern perception. In the present research we systematically tested this assumption. Study 1 revealed that such irrational beliefs are related to perceiving patterns in randomly generated coin toss outcomes. In Study 2, pattern search instructions exerted an indirect effect on irrational beliefs through pattern perception. Study 3 revealed that perceiving patterns in chaotic but not in structured paintings predicted irrational beliefs...
April 2018: European Journal of Social Psychology
Daniel David
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Bhavna Gupta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2018: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
James R Wright
Johns Hopkins's surgeon William Stewart Halsted is renowned for popularizing the radical mastectomy, a disfiguring procedure that was overutilized during the 1900s. Cancer historians have questioned why Halsted, a meticulous surgical investigator, became more aggressive in his approach to breast cancer surgery when his own data failed to show prolonged patient survival. Joseph Colt Bloodgood, one of Halsted's early surgical residents, Hopkins's head of surgical pathology, and Halsted's primary outcome data analyst, played previously unrecognized roles...
2018: Bulletin of the History of Medicine
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