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Irrationality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933098/-reevaluation-for-systematic-reviews-for-traditional-chinese-medicine-injections-for-coronary-disease
#1
Xiu-Ping Yin, Yan-Ming Xie, Xing Liao, Man Luo
To reevaluate the systematic reviews for traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) injections for treating coronary disease, data in four Chinese databases and PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Wed of Science OVID from inception until May 2016 were searched. We extracted data according to the AMSTAR and PRISMA checklists to evaluate the methodological quality and reporting characteristics of included literatures. A total of 69 systematic reviews were included, involving 24 TCM injections, which showed certain efficacy in treating coronary disease, and whose main outcome indexes included alleviation of symptoms of angina pectoris and electrocardiogram...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926027/using-institutional-and-behavioural-economics-to-examine-animal-health-systems
#2
C A Wolf
Economics provides a framework for understanding management decisions and their policy implications for the animal health system. While the neoclassical economic model is useful for framing animal health decisions on the farm, some of its assumptions and prescriptive results may be unrealistic. Institutional and behavioural economics address some of these potential shortcomings by considering the role of information, psychology and social factors in decisions. Framing such decisions under contract theory allows us to consider asymmetric information between policy-makers and farmers...
April 2017: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924688/the-barrier-to-informed-choice-in-cancer-screening-statistical-illiteracy-in-physicians-and-patients
#3
Odette Wegwarth, Gerd Gigerenzer
An efficient health care requires both informed doctors and patients. Our current healthcare system falls short on both counts. Most doctors and patients do not understand the available medical evidence. To illustrate the extent of the problem in the setting of cancer screening: In a representative sample of some 5000 women in nine European countries, 92% overestimated the reduction of breast cancer mortality by mammography by a factor of 10-200, or did not know. For a similar sample of about 5000 men with respect to PSA screening, this number was 89%...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923330/decision-making-process-by-users-and-providers-of-health-care-services-during-the-ah1n1-epidemic-influenza-in-mexico-lessons-learned-and-challenges-ahead
#4
Víctor Huízar-Hernández, Armando Arredondo, Marta Caballero, Angélica Castro-Ríos, Sergio Flores-Hernández, Rogelio Pérez-Padilla, Hortensia Reyes-Morales
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to analyze, using a decision analysis approach, the probability of severity of illness due to delayed utilization of health services and inappropriate hospital medical treatment during the 2009 AH1N1 influenza epidemic in Mexico. METHODS: Patients with influenza AH1N1 confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test from two hospitals in Mexico City, were included. Path methodology based upon literature and validated by clinical experts was followed...
April 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915888/stigmatization-of-people-who-inject-drugs-pwid-by-pharmacists-in-tajikistan-sociocultural-context-and-implications-for-a-pharmacy-based-prevention-approach
#5
Umedjon Ibragimov, Hannah L Cooper, Regine Haardörfer, Kristin L Dunkle, William A Zule, Frank Y Wong
BACKGROUND: Pharmacies are an important source of sterile syringes for people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tajikistan who are under high risk of HIV and hepatitis C virus. Accessibility of sterile syringes at pharmacies without prescription may depend on pharmacists' attitudes towards PWID. This qualitative inquiry examines meanings and processes of stigmatization of PWID among pharmacists and pharmacy students in Tajikistan. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 19 pharmacists and 9 students (N = 28) in the cities of Dushanbe and Kulob, Tajikistan...
September 16, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904565/class-1-integrons-and-plasmid-mediated-multiple-resistance-genes-of-the-campylobacter-species-from-pediatric-patient-of-a-university-hospital-in-taiwan
#6
Yi-Chih Chang, Ni Tien, Jai-Sing Yang, Chi-Cheng Lu, Fuu-Jen Tsai, Tsurng-Juhn Huang, I-Kuan Wang
BACKGROUND: The Campylobacter species usually causes infection between humans and livestock interaction via livestock breeding. The studies of the Campylobacter species thus far in all clinical isolates were to show the many kinds of antibiotic phenomenon that were produced. Their integrons cause the induction of antibiotic resistance between bacterial species in the Campylobacter species. RESULTS: The bacterial strains from the diarrhea of pediatric patient which isolated by China Medical University Hospital storage bank...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898411/50-years-of-rational-emotive-and-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Daniel David, Carmen Cotet, Silviu Matu, Cristina Mogoase, Simona Stefan
OBJECTIVE: Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), introduced by Albert Ellis in the late 1950s, is one of the main pillars of cognitive-behavioral therapy. Existing reviews on REBT are overdue by 10 years or more. We aimed to summarize the effectiveness and efficacy of REBT since its beginnings and investigate the alleged mechanisms of change. METHOD: Systematic search identified 84 articles, out of which 69 provided data for between-group analyses and 39 for within-group analyses...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894070/-the-effects-of-mobile-social-networking-service-based-cognitive-behavior-therapy-on-insomnia-in-nurses
#8
Ji Eun Kim, Suk Sun Kim
PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the effects of cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) based on the mobile social networking service (SNS) on dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep, sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, depression, and quality of life among rotating-shift nurses in a hospital in Korea. METHODS: A nonequivalent control group pre-post test design was used. The participants included 55 nurses with rotating three-shift work (25 in the experimental group and 30 in the control group)...
August 2017: Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887289/baseline-resistance-and-cross-resistance-among-fluoroquinolones-in-multi-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-at-a-national-reference-laboratory
#9
Mamatha H G, V Shanthi
OBJECTIVES: Pre-existing fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance in Multiple Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR TB) patients is a major threat in treating MDR TB. This study was conducted to assess the percentage of FQ resistance among MDR TB patients and to determine whether there is complete cross-resistance between FQs (ofloxacin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin) used as second line drugs in TB treatment. METHODS: Among 879 MDR TB suspects tested, 68 were confirmed to be MDRTB and mono rifampicin resistant...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870092/emergence-of-arma-and-rmtb-genes-among-vim-ndm-and-imp-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-pathogens
#10
Sangeetha Gopalakrishnan, Arunagiri Kamalanathan, Sivaranjani Rajan, Vijay Manohar Bhagat, M K Showkath Ali
In the recent years, it has been noted that microorganisms with acquired resistance to almost all available potent antibiotics are increasing worldwide. Hence, the use of antibiotics in every clinical setup has to be organized to avoid irrational use of antibiotics. This study was aimed to establish the pattern of antibiotic sensitivity and relevance of antimicrobial resistance in aerobic Gram-negative bacilli. A total of 103 aerobic Gram-negative bacteria namely Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp...
September 5, 2017: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869082/development-of-botanicals-to-combat-antibiotic-resistance
#11
REVIEW
Pooja D Gupta, Tannaz J Birdi
The discovery of antibiotics in the previous century lead to reduction in mortality and morbidity due to infectious diseases but their inappropriate and irrational use has resulted in emergence of resistant microbial populations. Alteration of target sites, active efflux of drugs and enzymatic degradations are the strategies employed by the pathogenic bacteria to develop intrinsic resistance to antibiotics. This has led to an increased interest in medicinal plants since 25-50% of current pharmaceuticals are plant derived...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864361/healthcare-associated-infections-in-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-and-its-correlation-with-environmental-surveillance
#12
Sanjay Kumar, Binoy Shankar, Sugandha Arya, Manorma Deb, Harish Chellani
Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) are frequent complications in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) with varying risk factors and bacteriological profile. There is paucity of literature comparing the bacteriological profile of organisms causing HAI with the environmental surveillance isolates. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate demographic profile, risk factors and outcome of HAI in NICU and correlate with environmental surveillance. Three hundred newborns with signs and symptoms of sepsis were enrolled in the study group and their profile, risk factors and outcome were compared with the control group...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857063/rural-recruitment-and-retention-of-health-workers-across-cadres-and-types-of-contract-in-north-east-india-a-qualitative-study
#13
Preety R Rajbangshi, Devaki Nambiar, Nandini Choudhury, Krishna D Rao
Background Like many other low- and middle-income countries, India faces challenges of recruiting and retaining health workers in rural areas. Efforts have been made to address this through contractual appointment of health workers in rural areas. While this has helped to temporarily bridge the gaps in human resources, the overall impact on the experience of rural services across cadres has yet to be understood. This study sought to identify motivations for, and the challenges of, rural recruitment and retention of nurses, doctors and specialists across types of contract in rural and remote areas in India's largely rural north-eastern states of Meghalaya and Nagaland...
September 2017: WHO South-East Asia Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854851/the-effect-of-group-counseling-using-ellis-s-a-b-c-technique-on-irrational-beliefs-and-self-efficacy-about-breast-self-awareness-of-women-health-volunteers
#14
Mahnaz Rouzbeh, Masoumeh Namadian, Elham Shakibazadeh, Jafar Hasani, Robabeh Rouzbeh
PURPOSE: This preliminary pilot effort assessed the effect of group counseling using A-B-C technique on irrational beliefs and self-efficacy for women health volunteers (WHVs) in breast self-awareness. DESIGN: In this randomized controlled trial, 40 WHVs from three health centers (Abhar, Iran) were randomly allocated into two groups. METHOD: Seven weekly group counseling sessions were held for the intervention group. Data about cancer fatalism belief, dissatisfaction of body, anxiety, and self-efficacy were collected through validated questionnaires 1 month before and 2 weeks after the intervention...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Transcultural Nursing: Official Journal of the Transcultural Nursing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819925/the-behavioural-ecology-of-irrational-behaviours
#15
Philippe Huneman, Johannes Martens
Natural selection is often envisaged as the ultimate cause of the apparent rationality exhibited by organisms in their specific habitat. Given the equivalence between selection and rationality as maximizing processes, one would indeed expect organisms to implement rational decision-makers. Yet, many violations of the clauses of rationality have been witnessed in various species such as starlings, hummingbirds, amoebas and honeybees. This paper attempts to interpret such discrepancies between economic rationality (defined by the main axioms of rational choice theory) and biological rationality (defined by natural selection)...
August 17, 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815070/supracarinal-dissection-of-the-oesophagus-and-lymphadenectomy-by-mie
#16
REVIEW
Harushi Osugi, Kousuke Narumiya, Kenji Kudou
Since 1995, video-assisted thoracoscopic oesophagectomy (VATS), according the same surgical principles as the Japanese open surgery, has been completed in 700 patients with oesophageal cancer. Our indication for VATS is (I) no extensive pleural adhesion; (II) no contiguous tumor spread; (III) pulmonary function capable of sustaining single-lung ventilation, and (IV) non radiated patients. We use 4 ports around a 5 cm mini-thoracotomy on 5th intercostal space. We laid emphasis on utilizing magnifying effect of video (5 to 20 magnifications), obtained by positioning the camera at close vicinity to the dissection...
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805823/bronze-mean-hexagonal-quasicrystal
#17
Tomonari Dotera, Shinichi Bekku, Primož Ziherl
The most striking feature of conventional quasicrystals is their non-traditional symmetry characterized by icosahedral, dodecagonal, decagonal or octagonal axes. The symmetry and the aperiodicity of these materials stem from an irrational ratio of two or more length scales controlling their structure, the best-known examples being the Penrose and the Ammann-Beenker tiling as two-dimensional models related to the golden and the silver mean, respectively. Surprisingly, no other metallic-mean tilings have been discovered so far...
August 14, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798274/disparities-of-trastuzumab-use-in-resource-limited-or-resource-abundant-regions-and-its-survival-benefit-on-her2-positive-breast-cancer-a-real-world-study-from-china
#18
Jianbin Li, Shusen Wang, Yongsheng Wang, Xiaojia Wang, Haibo Wang, Jifeng Feng, Qingyuan Zhang, Tao Sun, Quchang Ouyang, Yongmei Yin, Yinhua Liu, Cuizhi Geng, Min Yan, Zefei Jiang
BACKGROUND: Trastuzumab is a key component of therapy for human epidermal growth receptor 2 (HER2) positive breast cancer. Because real-world data are lacking, the present research was conducted to evaluate the the actual use of and the effectiveness of trastuzumab in the real world in China. METHODS: Inpatients with HER2 positive invasive breast cancer from 13 hospitals in Eastern China (2010-2015, n = 1,139) were included in this study. We aimed to assess the actual use of trastuzumab and to evaluate potential efficacy from trastuzumab in real-world research...
August 10, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797983/rationalisation-of-the-irrational-neuropathological-basis-of-hypothyroidism-olfaction-disorders-paradox-experimental-study
#19
Nazan Aydin, Leyla Ramazanoglu, Mehmet Resid Onen, Ilhan Yilmaz, Mehmet Dumlu Aydin, Konca Altinkaynak, Muhammet Calik
OBJECTIVE: Hypothyroidism is defined as an underactive thyroid gland and one of the reasons for inadequate stimulation of thyroid is dysfunction of the hormone regulating brain centers. Olfaction disorders have been considered as a problem in hypothyroidism. It has been hypothesised that olfaction disorders reduce olfactory stimulation and diminished olfactory stimulus may trigger hypothyroidism. In this study an examination was made of the thyroid hormone levels, histological features of thyroid glands and vagal nerve network degradation in an experimental animal model of olfactory bulbectomy (OBX)...
August 7, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767584/effects-of-a-rational-emotive-health-education-intervention-on-stress-management-and-irrational-beliefs-among-technical-college-teachers-in-southeast-nigeria
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Samuel C Ugwoke, Chiedu Eseadi, Chima C Igbokwe, Gertrude T U Chiaha, Okechukwu O Nwaubani, Chibueze Tobias Orji, Leonard T Ugwuanyi, Ifeoma S Chukwuma, Edith C Edikpa, Vera N Ogakwu, Eucharia A Onu, Patricia Agu, Ujunwa A Nwobi, Faith Omeke, Francisca C Okeke, Rita N Ezema, Lawretta I Abugu
BACKGROUND: Stress is the product of how an individual reacts and adapts to the specific demands and threats they encounter while carrying out given tasks. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a rational-emotive health education intervention (REHEI) on stress management, and irrational beliefs in a sample of technical college teachers in Southeast Nigeria. METHOD: The study design was a pretest-posttest control group. Repeated measures analysis of variance, paired t test and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to analyze the data collected...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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