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Irrationality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163302/irrational-delay-revisited-examining-five-procrastination-scales-in-a-global-sample
#1
Frode Svartdal, Piers Steel
Scales attempting to measure procrastination focus on different facets of the phenomenon, yet they share a common understanding of procrastination as an unnecessary, unwanted, and disadvantageous delay. The present paper examines in a global sample (N = 4,169) five different procrastination scales - Decisional Procrastination Scale (DPS), Irrational Procrastination Scale (IPS), Pure Procrastination Scale (PPS), Adult Inventory of Procrastination Scale (AIP), and General Procrastination Scale (GPS), focusing on factor structures and item functioning using Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Item Response Theory...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159891/the-experience-of-sexuality-in-adults-with-intellectual-disability
#2
M D Gil-Llario, V Morell-Mengual, R Ballester-Arnal, I Díaz-Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: People with intellectual disability have the same sexual needs as those without any disability, yet their sexuality is often restricted by reluctant attitudes and/or fears based on irrational beliefs. The aim of this study is to describe and analyse different areas of sexuality in adults with mild or moderate intellectual disability. METHOD: The sample consisted of 180 men and 180 women attending occupational centres. All the participants were administered a questionnaire about sexuality adapted to their characteristics...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151319/patients-attitudes-and-knowledge-about-drug-use-a-survey-in-turkish-family-healthcare-centres-and-state-hospitals
#3
Ahmet Akıcı, Salih Mollahaliloğlu, Başak Dönertaş, Şenay Özgülcü, Ali Alkan, Nesrin Filiz Başaran
Background/aim: Irrational drug use is a common problem. This study aimed to evaluate patients' knowledge and habits concerning drug use, and compare them in terms of some sociodemographic characteristics. Materials and methods: A face-to-face questionnaire was given to outpatients from family healthcare centres (FHCs) and state hospitals (SHs) in 12 provinces in Turkey during May 2010. A total of 4470 patients (FHCs: 2209; SHs: 2261) responded to the questionnaire (response rate: 93.1%). Results: Getting prescriptions without a physical examination was common (second place in FHCs; third place in SHs); 51...
November 13, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149850/a-cross-sectional-examination-of-psychological-distress-positive-mental-health-and-their-predictors-in-medical-students-in-their-clinical-clerkships
#4
Inge van Dijk, Peter L B J Lucassen, Chris van Weel, Anne E M Speckens
BACKGROUND: Medical students can experience the transition from theory to clinical clerkships as stressful. Scientific literature on the mental health of clinical clerkship students is scarce and mental health is usually defined as absence of psychological distress without assessing psychological, emotional and social wellbeing, together called 'positive mental health'. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of psychological distress and positive mental health and explores possible predictors in a Dutch sample of clinical clerkship students...
November 17, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127137/ethics-of-treatment-interruption-trials-in-hiv-cure-research-addressing-the-conundrum-of-risk-benefit-assessment
#5
Gail E Henderson, Holly L Peay, Eugene Kroon, Rosemary Jean Cadigan, Karen Meagher, Thidarat Jupimai, Adam Gilbertson, Jill Fisher, Nuchanart Q Ormsby, Nitiya Chomchey, Nittaya Phanuphak, Jintanat Ananworanich, Stuart Rennie
Though antiretroviral therapy is the standard of care for people living with HIV, its treatment limitations, burdens, stigma and costs lead to continued interest in HIV cure research. Early-phase cure trials, particularly those that include analytic treatment interruption (ATI), involve uncertain and potentially high risk, with minimal chance of clinical benefit. Some question whether such trials should be offered, given the risk/benefit imbalance, and whether those who choose to participate are acting rationally...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121840/role-of-irrational-beliefs-and-anger-rumination-on-nurses-anger-expression-styles
#6
Eun-Mi Ham, Mi-Jin You
The aim of this study was to identify whether certain cognitive factors, such as irrational beliefs and anger rumination, affect nurses' anger expression styles. A total of 335 nurses employed at four tertiary hospitals in Korea completed surveys between July 29 and September 25, 2015. The surveys included Shortened General Attitude and Belief Scale, the Korean Version of the Anger Rumination Scale, and the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-Korean version. Results revealed that higher levels of irrational beliefs and anger rumination were associated with more anger-in and anger-out, and less anger-control expressions...
November 1, 2017: Workplace Health & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119961/-the-effectiveness-of-the-improvement-of-health-in-the-schoolchildren-staying-in-a-country-summer-camp
#7
D N Lir, A Ya Perevalov
Organization of recreational activities in the children's camps is inseparable from the assessment of their effectiveness. AIM: The objective of the present study was to estimate the influence of the pastime of the children in a summer camp under the habitual climatic conditions and the resulting improvement of their health status including the body component composition and the functional state of the organism. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 44 schoolchildren at the age from 9 to12 years...
2017: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114561/awareness-about-rational-use-of-medicines-among-fresh-bachelor-of-medicine-and-bachelor-of-surgery-graduates
#8
Vijaya Laxman Chaudhari, Smita N Mali, Amruta V Dawari, Tushar B Nishandar
CONTEXT: Fresh Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery graduates (FMGs) are responsible for the majority of prescription errors and irrational use of medicines. Little research has explored their knowledge on rational prescribing practices. AIMS: The present study aimed to evaluate the awareness of rational use of medicines (RUMs) among the FMGs. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A multicentric, cross-sectional, and questionnaire-based study was conducted among 308 FMGs during the internship orientation program...
2017: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109916/self-medication-practices-and-rational-drug-use-habits-among-university-students-a-cross-sectional-study-from-kahramanmara%C3%A5-turkey
#9
Ramazan Azim Okyay, Ayşegül Erdoğan
Background: Self-medication refers to the use of medicines to treat self-diagnosed diseases without consulting any healthcare professionals. Irrational drug use and self-medication have serious negative consequences both on health and economy. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the habits related to rational use of drugs (RUD) and to estimate the prevalence of self-medication practices among university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on university students in Kahramanmaraş...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096701/assessment-of-utilization-pattern-of-fixed-dose-drug-combinations-in-primary-secondary-and-tertiary-healthcare-centers-in-nepal-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Arjun Poudel, Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim, Pranaya Mishra, Subish Palaian
BACKGROUND: Prescription practices, especially in South Asian countries, have come under investigation for quality. Although there have been no studies in Nepal that have analyzed the prescription pattern of FDCs for different levels of health care centers, several studies from Nepal and other countries in the region have revealed poor medicine use practices, including irrational use of fixed-dose drug combinations (FDCs). This research aimed at assessing the utilization pattern of FDCs among primary (PHC), secondary (SHC) and tertiary health care (THC) centers in Western region of Nepal...
November 2, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094055/effect-of-menstrual-cycle-on-acute-intermittent-porphyria
#11
V R Souza Júnior, V M V Lemos, I M L Feitosa, R Florencio, C W B Correia, L B Correia Fontes, M F Hazin Costa, M C B Correia
A 16-year-old female who was attended as an outpatient reported localized, acute abdominal pain with vomiting, symmetrical motor weakness, and burning sensation in both arms and legs. Her medical history showed irrational behavior, repeated admissions at the emergency units of many other reference hospitals, where she had been investigated for celiac disease and treated with analgesics for pain events. Her clinical condition remained unchanged despite the use of many oral analgesics. In those admissions, she showed dysautonomia, vomiting, and abdominal pain...
January 2017: Child neurology open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081899/the-illusion-of-moral-superiority
#12
Ben M Tappin, Ryan T McKay
Most people strongly believe they are just, virtuous, and moral; yet regard the average person as distinctly less so. This invites accusations of irrationality in moral judgment and perception-but direct evidence of irrationality is absent. Here, we quantify this irrationality and compare it against the irrationality in other domains of positive self-evaluation. Participants (N = 270) judged themselves and the average person on traits reflecting the core dimensions of social perception: morality, agency, and sociability...
August 2017: Social Psychological and Personality Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075215/are-we-rational-or-not-the-exploration-of-voter-choices-during-the-2016-presidential-and-legislative-elections-in-taiwan
#13
I-Ching Lee, Eva E Chen, Nai-Shing Yen, Chia-Hung Tsai, Hsu-Po Cheng
The decisions voters make-and whether those decisions are rational-have profound implications on the functionality of a democratic society. In this study, we delineated two criteria in evaluating voter rationality and weigh evidence of voter rationality versus irrationality. Furthermore, we compared models in two different elections in Taiwan to explore the reasons behind the irrational choices voters can make. Survey questions and an implicit association test (IAT) were administered prior to both elections among 197 voters in Taipei...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072196/-bb-z-module-defects-in-crystals
#14
Abdullah Sirindil, Marianne Quiquandon, Denis Gratias
An analysis is presented of the new types of defects that can appear in crystalline structures where the positions of the atoms and the unit cell belong to the same {\bb Z}-module, i.e. are irrational projections of an N > 3-dimensional (N-D) lattice Λ as in the case of quasicrystals. Beyond coherent irrationally oriented twins already discussed in a previous paper [Quiquandon et al. (2016). Acta Cryst. A72, 55-61], new two-dimensional translational defects are expected, the translation vectors of which, being projections of nodes of Λ, have irrational coordinates with respect to the unit-cell reference frame...
November 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section A, Foundations and Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071740/coaptation-triangle-and-golden-proportion-in-mitral-valve-anatomy-does-nature-play-with-geometry
#15
Luca Deorsola, Alessandra Bellone
INTRODUCTION: The Coaptation Triangle, or Tenting Area, can be identified on long-axis 2D images. Its assessment is a routine practice during echocardiographic mitral evaluation. The Golden Proportion is a particular geometric ratio between two segments. Its value is an irrational number, commonly rounded to 0.618 and showing unique geometrical/mathematical properties. Interestingly, its presence has been documented in an extremely variable number of natural settings. Hypothesizing the presence of the Golden Proportion in normal mitral anatomy, we examined the Coaptation Triangle of healthy valves to investigate such a theory...
October 26, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061294/monitoring-of-aeolian-desertification-on-the-qinghai-tibet-plateau-from-the-1970s-to-2015-using-landsat-images
#16
Chun-Lai Zhang, Qing Li, Ya-Ping Shen, Na Zhou, Xue-Song Wang, Jiao Li, Wen-Ru Jia
Aeolian desertification, one of the most serious environmental issues, has hampered socioeconomic development on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). However, research on aeolian desertification in this region has been limited. To develop a set of science-based preventive measures to mitigate desertification in this region, it is first necessary to clarify the status, evolution, and driving factors of aeolian desertification. In this study, based on extensive field investigations and a current classification system for aeolian desertification, we established a new system for interpreting aeolian desertified land (ADL) on the plateau using Landsat images from 1977, 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2015 and obtained the distribution of ADL through visual interpretation of the images...
October 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059253/a-novel-electronic-algorithm-using-host-biomarker-point-of-care-tests-for-the-management-of-febrile-illnesses-in-tanzanian-children-e-poct-a-randomized-controlled-non-inferiority-trial
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Kristina Keitel, Frank Kagoro, Josephine Samaka, John Masimba, Zamzam Said, Hosiana Temba, Tarsis Mlaganile, Willy Sangu, Clotilde Rambaud-Althaus, Alain Gervaix, Blaise Genton, Valérie D'Acremont
BACKGROUND: The management of childhood infections remains inadequate in resource-limited countries, resulting in high mortality and irrational use of antimicrobials. Current disease management tools, such as the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) algorithm, rely solely on clinical signs and have not made use of available point-of-care tests (POCTs) that can help to identify children with severe infections and children in need of antibiotic treatment. e-POCT is a novel electronic algorithm based on current evidence; it guides clinicians through the entire consultation and recommends treatment based on a few clinical signs and POCT results, some performed in all patients (malaria rapid diagnostic test, hemoglobin, oximeter) and others in selected subgroups only (C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, glucometer)...
October 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044002/irrational-antibiotic-prescribing-practice-among-children-in-critical-care-of-tertiary-hospitals
#18
Mirza Tasawer Baig, Ali Akbar Sial, Ambreen Huma, Maryam Ahmed, Uzma Shahid, Nayel Syed
This study assessed the prescribing pattern of irrational use of antibiotic among children under age of 12 years in public and private sector hospitals in Pakistan. The prospective clinical evaluation of drug utilization pattern of antimicrobials from Patient Bedside File (PBF) of in-patients and Culture Sensitivity Test (CST) reports were evaluated to determine the antibiotic resistance. Two indicators recorded to assess antibiotic prescribing were; dose of prescribed antibiotic (low-dose, rational and high -dose) and Indication (valid or invalid)...
July 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040055/the-empirical-case-for-acquiescing-to-intuition
#19
Daniel K Walco, Jane L Risen
Will people follow their intuition even when they explicitly recognize that it is irrational to do so? Dual-process models of judgment and decision making are often based on the assumption that the correction of errors necessarily follows the detection of errors. But this assumption does not always hold. People can explicitly recognize that their intuitive judgment is wrong but nevertheless maintain it, a phenomenon known as acquiescence. Although anecdotes and experimental studies suggest that acquiescence occurs, the empirical case for acquiescence has not been definitively established...
October 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038902/-urinary-tract-infections-what-has-been-confirmed-in-therapy
#20
REVIEW
J Marcon, C G Stief, G Magistro
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) affect approximately 150 million people worldwide per year, causing annual health costs of over three billion dollars just in the USA. Every second woman experiences at least one UTI in her lifetime, with every one in four experiencing recurrence. Uncomplicated infections like single or recurrent cystitis and pyelonephritis can be distinguished from complicated disease. UTIs in men can spread to the male glands, causing prostatitis and epididymitis. Antibiotic therapy is the standard procedure for UTIs...
October 16, 2017: Der Internist
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