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Irrationality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212131/psychometric-properties-of-a-new-instrument-for-assessing-irrational-thoughts-in-burn-victims-scale-of-irrational-thoughts-after-burn-injuries
#1
Zahra Zare, Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani, Fatemeh Ranjbar, Diana Stark Ekman, Mostafa Farahbakhsh, Hemmat Maghsoudi, Robert Ekman, Farideh Nasiri
The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a scale for assessing irrational thoughts among burned patients. The present study was mixed (qualitative-methodologic) which was performed in several stages such as investigating similar or related scales, interviewing with patients and psychologists. Content validity was calculated by modified KAPPA basis on relevance and clarity. The reliability of the scale was measured using internal consistency and the test-retest method. To determine the construct validity, exploratory factor analysis approach using maximum likelihood extraction with varimax rotation was conducted...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210864/pharmacy-benefit-management-companies-do-they-create-value-in-the-us-healthcare-system
#2
Alan Lyles
Pharmacy benefit management companies (PBMs) perform functions in the US market-based healthcare system that may be performed by public agencies or quasi-public institutions in other nations. By aggregating lives covered under their many individual contracts with payers, PBMs have formidable negotiating power. They influence pharmaceutical insurance coverage, design the terms of coverage in a plan's drug benefit, and create competition among providers for inclusion in a plan's network. PBMs have, through intermediation, the potential to secure lower drug prices and to improve rational prescribing...
February 16, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208874/topical-corticosteroid-misuse-the-scenario-in-patients-attending-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-new-delhi
#3
Santwana Mahar, Khushbu Mahajan, Swati Agarwal, Hemanta Kumar Kar, Swapan Kumar Bhattacharya
INTRODUCTION: Irrational use of Topical Corticosteroid (TC) is quite common in India due to unrestricted availability and use of TC not only by general public but also by physicians and chemists due to quick relief of symptoms in different dermatological conditions. AIM: The present study was conducted to evaluate and analyse the prevalence of misuse of TC and the causes behind misuse of TC among patients in a dermatology outpatient department in New Delhi. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional observational questionnaire based study conducted over a period of 5 months (1(st) June 2015 to 30(th) November 2015)...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193274/evaluation-of-medicines-dispensing-pattern-of-private-pharmacies-in-rajshahi-bangladesh
#4
Shuvashis Saha, Md Tawhid Hossain
BACKGROUND: In developing country like BANGLADESH, people depend more on pharmacies due to expediency, shorter waiting time, cost reduction, availability of credit and flexible opening hours. The aim of this study was to investigate medicines dispensing patterns of the pharmacies in RAJSHAHI, BANGLADESH and to identify and analyze contribution of drugsellers and quacks in irrational drug use. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted during January 2016 - April, 2016 in 75 randomly selected private pharmacies including both licensed and unlicensed pharmacies of covering LAKSHMIPUR area...
February 13, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179620/effectiveness-of-antibiotic-use-management-in-tianjin-2011-2013-a-quasi-experimental-study
#5
Hai-Hong Zhang, Yue Du, Wei Liu, Shi-Duo Song, Wen Zhao, Guo-Wei Huang, He-Sheng Wang
BACKGROUND In this study we investigated changes in the status of antibiotic use in Tianjin since the implementation of the Antibiotic Stewardship Program (ASP) (2011-2013), as well as existing problems, strategies, and outcomes to promote rational clinical antibiotic use. MATERIAL AND METHODS A quasi-experimental study was performed to investigate situations of antibiotic use in secondary and tertiary general hospitals in Tianjin from April 2011 to 2013. Five major indicators were analyzed: percentage of antibiotic use in inpatient cases (%), antibacterial use density (AUD), proportion of prophylactic antibiotic application for type I surgical incision, compliance rate of medication administration 0...
February 9, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177094/-analysis-of-the-parameters-traditional-or-not-for-the-evaluation-of-the-metabolic-acidosis
#6
Caterina Urso, Salvatore Brucculeri, Caterina Carollo, Gregorio Caimi
Despite huge progress in acidbase knowledge, several confusing, irrational and controversial issues still remain. Acid-base disturbances have been usually evaluated with the traditional Henderson-Hasselbach method and with BE evaluation that seem inadequate since they define the magnitude of metabolic acidosis rather than its cause. Some studies have shown that the traditional approach is often not able to highlight the complicated acid-base disorders in critically ill patients; in these subjects, the possibility to identify tissue acids could offer a greater prognostic value than the evaluation of traditional parameters...
January 2017: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176669/effects-of-carotenoids-on-health-are-all-the-same-results-from-clinical-trials
#7
Arrigo F G Cicero, Alessandro Colletti
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of a lot of age-related pathologies and some types of cancers. Carotenoids have shown antioxidant properties, due to the ability to quench singlet oxygen and to scavenge free radicals that may prevent and treat a wide range of chronic diseases. The aim of this review is to discuss the clinical evidence present in literature about the effects of carotenoids on human health and to evaluate their effectiveness in the prevention and treatment of many chronic diseases...
February 6, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174099/combining-field-work-and-laboratory-work-in-the-study-of-financial-risk-taking
#8
REVIEW
John Coates, Mark Gurnell
A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. Financial markets are periodically destabilized by bubbles and crashes during which investors display respectively what has been called "irrational exuberance" and "irrational pessimism". How can we best study these pathologies in competitive and risk-taking behaviours? In this article, we argue that a science of risk-taking and of the financial markets needs to draw heavily on physiology and especially endocrinology, due to their central roles in moderating human behaviour...
February 4, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166848/randomized-control-trial-to-assess-the-efficacy-of-metacognitive-training-compared-with-a-psycho-educational-group-in-people-with-a-recent-onset-psychosis
#9
S Ochoa, R López-Carrilero, M L Barrigón, E Pousa, A Barajas, E Lorente-Rovira, F González-Higueras, E Grasa, I Ruiz-Delgado, J Cid, I Birulés, I Esteban-Pinos, R Casañas, A Luengo, P Torres-Hernández, I Corripio, M Montes-Gámez, M Beltran, A De Apraiz, L Domínguez-Sánchez, E Sánchez, B Llacer, T Pélaez, J L Bogas, S Moritz
BACKGROUND: Aims were to assess the efficacy of metacognitive training (MCT) in people with a recent onset of psychosis in terms of symptoms as a primary outcome and metacognitive variables as a secondary outcome. METHOD: A multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial was performed. A total of 126 patients were randomized to an MCT or a psycho-educational intervention with cognitive-behavioral elements. The sample was composed of people with a recent onset of psychosis, recruited from nine public centers in Spain...
February 7, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152623/bidding-to-commit
#10
Pat Barclay
Economists and biologists have both theorized that individuals can benefit from committing to courses of action because it forces others to concede a greater share of any surpluses, but little experimental work has tested the actual benefits of such a strategy and people's willingness to so "tie their hands." Participants played a Battle-of-the-Sexes (Experiment 1) or Hawk-Dove game (Experiment 2), where one member of each pair could not change his or her action once played (committed), whereas the other could change actions in response (uncommitted)...
January 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149832/critical-analysis-of-cardiovascular-and-central-nervous-system-fixed-dose-combinations-available-in-indian-market
#11
Krunal Prajapati, Samidh Shah, Mira Desai
INTRODUCTION: Fixed Dose Combinations (FDCs) are being increasingly used to improve compliance and achieve greater benefits of the two or more active ingredients given together than the corresponding individual drug components given separately. AIM: To analyse the rationality of Cardiovascular (CV) and Central Nervous System (CNS) FDCs available in Indian market. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CVS and CNS FDCs, enlisted in Indian Drug Review, 2014, were analysed by a pretested validated eight point criteria tool...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140305/prescribing-cascade-a-proposed-new-way-to-evaluate-it
#12
Marcelo L Ponte, Lionel Wachs, Adolfo Wachs, Héctor A Serra
Prescribing cascade is defined as the situation in which a first drug administered to a patient causes adverse event signs and symptoms, that are misinterpreted as a new condition, resulting in a new medication being prescribed. The cascade may have multiple steps and differ in complexity and severity. Despite being well identified, prescribing cascade is an increasingly common problem in medical practice. It constitutes a warning about irrational use of medicines that puts health at risk and increases treatment costs if it is not taken into account...
2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139971/evaluation-of-drug-prescribing-patterns-based-on-the-who-prescribing-indicators-at-outpatient-clinics-of-five-hospitals-in-jordan-a%C3%A2-cross-sectional-study%C3%A2
#13
Ahmad Al-Azayzih, Sayer I Al-Azzam, Karem H Alzoubi, Mohammad Shawaqfeh, Majed M Masadeh
BACKGROUND: Irrational drug prescribing is considered one of the major challenges for the healthcare sectors worldwide, leading to negative outcomes in patients including various drug-related problems, such as polypharmacy, adverse drug events, more demands on drug monitoring, and unwanted increase in treatment cost. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the trends and issues related to prescription at outpatient hospital pharmacies in Jordan and to contrast that to the WHO rational medication list and WHO drug use indicators...
January 30, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131965/the-importance-of-thinking-styles-in-predicting-binge-eating
#14
A V Nikčević, C Marino, G Caselli, M M Spada
Impulsivity, Body Mass Index, negative emotions and irrational food beliefs are often reported as predictors of binge eating. In the current study we explored the role played by two thinking styles, namely food thought suppression and desire thinking, in predicting binge eating among young adults controlling for established predictors of this condition. A total of 338 university students (268 females) participated in this study by completing a battery of questionnaires measuring the study variables. Path analysis revealed that impulsivity was not associated with binge eating, that Body Mass Index and negative emotions predicted binge eating, and that irrational food beliefs only influenced binge eating via food thought suppression and desire thinking...
January 10, 2017: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125328/the-role-of-parietal-cortex-in-overimitation-a-study-with-fnirs
#15
Dominic Oliver, Ilias Tachtsidis, Antonia F de C Hamilton
Previous studies have shown right parietal activation in response to observing irrational actions. Behavioural studies show that people sometimes imitate irrational actions, a phenomenon called overimitation. However, limitations on movement in fMRI mean that the neural basis of overimitation has not been studied. To address this, our study employed a less restrictive neuroimaging technique, functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Measurements were taken while participants observed either rational or irrational movements before performing movements on a computerised puzzle task...
January 26, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123917/helping-health-care-providers-and-clinical-scientists-understand-apparently-irrational-policy-decisions
#16
REVIEW
Sandor J Demeter
Health care providers (HCP) and clinical scientists (CS) are generally most comfortable using evidence-based rational decision-making models. They become very frustrated when policymakers make decisions that, on the surface, seem irrational and unreasonable. However, such decisions usually make sense when analysed properly. The goal of this paper to provide a basic theoretical understanding of major policy models, to illustrate which models are most prevalent in publicly funded health care systems, and to propose a policy analysis framework to better understand the elements that drive policy decision-making...
December 21, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112611/irrational-exuberance-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-as-fetish
#17
Philip M Rosoff, Lawrence J Schneiderman
The Institute of Medicine and the American Heart Association have issued a "call to action" to expand the performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in response to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Widespread advertising campaigns have been created to encourage more members of the lay public to undergo training in the technique of closed-chest compression-only CPR, based upon extolling the virtues of rapid initiation of resuscitation, untempered by information about the often distressing outcomes, and hailing the "improved" results when nonprofessional bystanders are involved...
February 2017: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112602/response-to-open-peer-commentaries-on-irrational-exuberance-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-as-fetish
#18
Philip M Rosoff, Lawrence J Schneiderman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104970/geriatric-prescription-in-a-nigerian-tertiary-hospital
#19
Nwani Paul Osemeke, Onwukwe Chikezie Hart, Nwosu Maduaburochukwu Cosmas, Isah Ambrose Ohumagho
OBJECTIVES: To assess the medications prescribed for elderly inpatients on specific days during hospital admission with a view to detecting areas of irrational prescription. METHODS: It was a prospective study of all patients aged 65 years and above admitted to the medical wards of a Nigerian tertiary hospital over a 12-month period. The World Health Organization/International Network of Rational Use of Drugs (WHO/INRUD) drug use indicators were used to assess drug prescriptions on various days of admission...
December 2016: Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088118/histidine-functionalized-carbon-based-dot-zinc-ii-nanoparticles-as-a-novel-stabilizer-for-pickering-emulsion-synthesis-of-polystyrene-microspheres
#20
Li Ruiyi, Li Zaijun, Liu Junkang
Carbon-based dots (CDs) are nanoparticles with size-dependent optical and electronic properties that have been widely applied in energy-efficient displays and lighting, photovoltaic devices and biological markers. However, conventional CDs are difficult to be used as ideal stabilizer for Pickering emulsion due to its irrational amphiphilic structure. The study designed and synthesized a new histidine-functionalized carbon dot-Zinc(II) nanoparticles, which is termed as His-CD-Zn. The His-CD was made via one-step hydrothermal treatment of histidine and maleic acid...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
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