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Irrationality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420792/morality-constrains-the-default-representation-of-what-is-possible
#1
Jonathan Phillips, Fiery Cushman
The capacity for representing and reasoning over sets of possibilities, or modal cognition, supports diverse kinds of high-level judgments: causal reasoning, moral judgment, language comprehension, and more. Prior research on modal cognition asks how humans explicitly and deliberatively reason about what is possible but has not investigated whether or how people have a default, implicit representation of which events are possible. We present three studies that characterize the role of implicit representations of possibility in cognition...
April 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394295/antimicrobial-resistance-and-the-alternative-resources-with-special-emphasis-on-plant-based-antimicrobials-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Harish Chandra, Parul Bishnoi, Archana Yadav, Babita Patni, Abhay Prakash Mishra, Anant Ram Nautiyal
Indiscriminate and irrational use of antibiotics has created an unprecedented challenge for human civilization due to microbe's development of antimicrobial resistance. It is difficult to treat bacterial infection due to bacteria's ability to develop resistance against antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial agents are categorized according to their mechanism of action, i.e., interference with cell wall synthesis, DNA and RNA synthesis, lysis of the bacterial membrane, inhibition of protein synthesis, inhibition of metabolic pathways, etc...
April 10, 2017: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392747/-in-between-and-other-reasonable-ways-to-deal-with-risk-and-uncertainty-a-review-article
#3
Jens O Zinn
How people deal with risk and uncertainty has fuelled public and academic debate in recent decades. Researchers have shown that common distinctions between rational and 'irrational' strategies underestimate the complexity of how people approach an uncertain future. I suggested in 2008 that strategies in-between do not follow standards of instrumental rationality nor they are 'irrational' but follow their own logic which works well under particular circumstances. Strategies such as trust, intuition and emotion are an important part of the mix when people deal with risk and uncertainty...
November 16, 2016: Health, Risk & Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384891/ways-and-means-to-utilize-private-practitioners-for-tuberculosis-care-in-india
#4
Janmejaya Samal
The growing interest of utilizing the private practitioners in improving the outreach of public health services including Tuberculosis (TB) control programme stemmed out of people's preference for private health facilities in situations where public health facilities fail to meet the expectations. In different parts of India, many models of Public Private Partnership have been tried and tested and proved successful in providing quality TB care in the concerned community. In this paper, several ways and means have been proposed to effectively utilize private practitioners for TB care in India...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380045/haste-makes-waste-decision-making-in-patients-with-restless-legs-syndrome-with-and-without-augmentation
#5
Beatrice Heim, Marie-Theres Pertl, Ambra Stefani, Margarete Delazer, Anna Heidbreder, Laura Zamarian, Elisabeth Brandauer, Klaus Seppi, Birgit Högl, Werner Poewe, Atbin Djamshidian
OBJECTIVES: To investigate decision making in patients with primary restless legs syndrome (RLS) with and without augmentation treated with dopaminergic medication. METHODS: A total of 64 non-demented RLS patients treated with dopaminergic medication with and without augmentation were included in this study. We used an information sampling task to assess how much evidence participants gather before making a decision. Performance was compared to the results of 21 healthy controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361787/iap-guidelines-on-rickettsial-diseases-in-children
#6
Narendra Rathi, Atul Kulkarni, Vijay Yewale
OBJECTIVE: To formulate practice guidelines on rickettsial diseases in children for pediatricians across India. JUSTIFICATION: Rickettsial diseases are increasingly being reported from various parts of India. Due to low index of suspicion, nonspecific clinical features in early course of disease, and absence of easily available, sensitive and specific diagnostic tests, these infections are difficult to diagnose. With timely diagnosis, therapy is easy, affordable and often successful...
March 15, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347384/an-empirical-assessment-of-rebt-models-of-psychopathology-and-psychological-health-in-the-prediction-of-anxiety-and-depression-symptoms
#7
Horea-Radu Oltean, Philip Hyland, Frédérique Vallières, Daniel Ovidiu David
AIMS: This study aimed to assess the validity of two models which integrate the cognitive (satisfaction with life) and affective (symptoms of anxiety and depression) aspects of subjective well-being within the framework of rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT) theory; specifically REBT's theory of psychopathology and theory of psychological health. METHOD: 397 Irish and Northern Irish undergraduate students completed measures of rational/irrational beliefs, satisfaction with life, and anxiety/depression symptoms...
March 28, 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344380/time-is-money-rational-life-cycle-inertia-and-the-delegation-of-investment-management
#8
Hugh Hoikwang Kim, Raimond Maurer, Olivia S Mitchell
Many households display inertia in investment management over their life cycles. Our calibrated dynamic life cycle portfolio choice model can account for such an apparently 'irrational' outcome, by incorporating the fact that investors must forgo acquiring job-specific skills when they spend time managing their money, and their efficiency in financial decision making varies with age. Resulting inertia patterns mesh well with findings from prior studies and our own empirical results from Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) data...
August 2016: Journal of Financial Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342404/cognitive-behavioural-therapy-and-mindfulness-based-stress-reduction-may-be-equally-effective-in-reducing-anxiety-and-depression-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#9
Bram B Sizoo, Erik Kuiper
Anxiety and depression co-occur in 50-70% of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) but treatment methods for these comorbid problems have not been systematically studied. Recently, two ASD-tailored protocols were published: mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). We wanted to investigate if both methods are equally effective in reducing anxiety and depression symptoms among adults with ASD. 59 adults with ASD and anxiety or depression scores above 7 on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, gave informed consent to participate; 27 followed the CBT protocol, and 32 the MBSR treatment protocol...
March 22, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339110/a-fast-non-iterative-approach-for-accelerated-high-temporal-resolution-cine-cmr-using-dynamically-interleaved-streak-removal-in-the-power-spectral-encoded-domain-with-low-pass-filtering-dispel-and-modulo-prime-spokes-mops
#10
Keigo Kawaji, Mita B Patel, Charles G Cantrell, Akiko Tanaka, Marco Marino, Satoshi Tamura, Hui Wang, Yi Wang, Timothy J Carroll, Takeyoshi Ota, Amit R Patel
PURPOSE: To introduce a pair of accelerated non-Cartesian acquisition principles that when combined, exploit the periodicity of k-space acquisition, and thereby enable acquisition of high-temporal cine-Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR). METHODS: The mathematical formulation of a non-iterative, undersampled non-Cartesian cine acquisition and reconstruction is presented. First, a low-pass-filtering step that exploits streaking artifact redundancy is provided; (i.e...
March 24, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324983/the-precuneus-may-encode-irrationality-in-human-gambling
#11
P Sacre, M S D Kerr, S Subramanian, K Kahn, J Gonzalez-Martinez, M A Johnson, S V Sarma, J T Gale
Humans often make irrational decisions, especially psychiatric patients who have dysfunctional cognitive and emotional circuitry. Understanding the neural basis of decision-making is therefore essential towards patient management, yet current studies suffer from several limitations. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in humans have dominated decision-making neuroscience, but have poor temporal resolution and the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal is only a proxy for neural activity. On the other hand, lesion studies in humans used to infer functionality in decision-making lack characterization of neural activity altogether...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315843/market-level-exposure-to-state-antismoking-media-campaigns-and-public-support-for-tobacco-control-policy-in-the-united-states-2001-2002
#12
Jeff Niederdeppe, Maxwell Kellogg, Christofer Skurka, Rosemary J Avery
OBJECTIVE: This study tests whether exposure to state antismoking media campaigns is associated with increased support for comprehensive bans on smoking indoors and cigarette advertising. METHODS: We combine commercially available data on market-level state-sponsored antismoking advertisements with three waves of the Current Population Survey's Tobacco Use Supplement to test the relationship between market-level volume of state antismoking advertising exposure and support for tobacco control policy between 2001 and 2002...
March 18, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300478/step-by-step-harvesting-the-dynamics-of-delay-discounting-decisions
#13
Stefan Scherbaum, Simon Frisch, Maja Dshemuchadse
People show a tendency to devalue rewards when they are delayed in time. This so-called delay discounting often happens to an extent that seems irrational from an economical perspective. Research studying outcomes of delay discounting decisions has successfully derived descriptive models for such choice preferences. However, this outcome-based approach faces limitations in integrating the influence of contextual factors on the decision. Recently, this outcome-centred perspective on delay discounting has been complemented by a focus on the process dynamics leading to delay discounting decisions...
March 16, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271587/strategies-for-reduction-in-the-duration-of-intravenous-drug-use-interest-of-drug-tracers-as-quality-indicators-to-improve-intravenous-to-oral-switch
#14
Jennifer Corny, Simon Perreau, Anne-Pauline Thivilliers, Céline Leplay, Delphine Chevalier, Hélène Beaussier, Yvonnick Bézie
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Intravenous (IV) to oral (PO) drug switch is a challenge for tertiary care institutions for several reasons: catheter-related infections, patient's pain and discomfort or higher costs, and overuse of IV drugs considered as an irrational use of medicines. The objective was to evaluate yearly acetaminophen and proton-pump inhibiters' (PPIs) IV/PO ratios from 2011 to 2015 and to determine their correlation with all drugs IV/PO ratios and their relevance as drug tracers...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268031/-content-analysis-of-food-adverts-aimed-at-children
#15
José Antonio Ponce-Blandón, Manuel Pabón-Carrasco, María de Las Mercedes Lomas-Campos
OBJECTIVE: To determine the contents and persuasive techniques used in processed food adverts aimed at children in Andalusia, comparing them with those aimed at adults. METHODS: Study based on advert content analysis with two phases: a descriptive design phase and an analytical observational design phase. A sample of adverts from 60hours of broadcasting from the two most watched television channels in Andalusia. RESULTS: A total of 416 food and non-alcoholic beverage adverts were obtained, for 91 different products...
March 3, 2017: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266226/why-have-the-majority-of-recent-polio-cases-occurred-in-countries-affected-by-islamist-militancy-a-historical-comparative-analysis-of-the-political-determinants-of-polio-in-nigeria-somalia-pakistan-afghanistan-and-syria
#16
Jonathan Kennedy
This article aims to understand why the last few areas where polio remains are affected by armed conflicts involving militant organizations that use Islam to legitimize their activities. The first section critically analyses the argument that Muslims' animosity towards polio vaccination programmes is a consequence of their irrational, backward, anti-Western theology. This argument is depoliticizing, ahistorical and orientalist. Moreover, it does not explain why Islamist militant groups' attitudes to polio vaccination campaigns vary between countries...
March 7, 2017: Medicine, Conflict, and Survival
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265347/value-added-medicines-what-value-repurposed-medicines-might-bring-to-society
#17
Mondher Toumi, Cécile Rémuzat
Background & objectives: Despite the wide interest surrounding drug repurposing, no common terminology has been yet agreed for these products and their full potential value is not always recognised and rewarded, creating a disincentive for further development. The objectives of the present study were to assess from a wide perspective which value drug repurposing might bring to society, but also to identify key obstacles for adoption of these medicines and to discuss policy recommendations. Methods: A preliminary comprehensive search was conducted to assess how the concept of drug repurposing was described in the literature...
2017: Journal of Market Access & Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264981/reason-s-enemy-is-not-emotion-engagement-of-cognitive-control-networks-explains-biases-in-gain-loss-framing
#18
Rosa Li, David V Smith, John A Clithero, Vinod Venkatraman, R McKell Carter, Scott A Huettel
In the classic gain/loss framing effect, describing a gamble as a potential gain or loss biases people to make risk-averse or risk-seeking decisions, respectively. The canonical explanation for this effect is that frames differentially modulate emotional processes, which in turn leads to irrational choice behavior. Here, we evaluate the source of framing biases by integrating functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 143 human participants performing a gain/loss framing task with meta-analytic data from >8000 neuroimaging studies...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264021/antimicrobial-use-in-paediatric-patients-in-a-teaching-hospital-in-ethiopia
#19
Hafte Kahsay Kebede, Hailay Abrha Gesesew, Tewodros Eyob Woldehaimanot, Kabaye Kumela Goro
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics use in in children are different from adults due to a lack of data on pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy and safety of drugs, different physiological spectrum, pediatrics populations being vulnerable to the majority of the illnesses, and the adverse effect of their irrational use is more serious. However, antibiotic use is not explored much in a paediatric population. The current study focused on antibiotic use among pediatric population using data from a tertiary hospital in Ethiopia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248674/prevalence-serotype-distribution-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-salmonella-isolated-from-food-products-in-morocco
#20
Nadia Amajoud, Brahim Bouchrif, Mohammed El Maadoudi, Nadia Skalli Senhaji, Bouchra Karraouan, Abdeltif El Harsal, Jamal El Abrini
INTRODUCTION: Salmonellosis is one of the most common foodborne diseases worldwide. The irrational use of antibiotics in medicine and in animal feed has greatly promoted the emergence and spread of resistant strains of non-typhoidal Salmonella. METHODOLOGY: A total of 464 food products were collected in Tetouan from January 2010 to December 2012. The isolation and identification of Salmonella were performed according to Moroccan standard 08.0.116. All isolates were serotyped and were then tested for antibiotic resistance using the disk diffusion method...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
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