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Irrationality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339110/a-fast-non-iterative-approach-for-accelerated-high-temporal-resolution-cine-cmr-using-dynamically-interleaved-streak-removal-in-the-power-spectral-encoded-domain-with-low-pass-filtering-dispel-and-modulo-prime-spokes-mops
#1
Keigo Kawaji, Mita B Patel, Charles G Cantrell, Akiko Tanaka, Marco Marino, Satoshi Tamura, Hui Wang, Yi Wang, Timothy J Carroll, Takeyoshi Ota, Amit R Patel
PURPOSE: To introduce a pair of accelerated non-Cartesian acquisition principles that when combined, exploit the periodicity of k-space acquisition, and thereby enable acquisition of high-temporal cine-Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR). METHODS: The mathematical formulation of a non-iterative, undersampled non-Cartesian cine acquisition and reconstruction is presented. First, a low-pass-filtering step that exploits streaking artifact redundancy is provided; (i.e...
March 24, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324983/the-precuneus-may-encode-irrationality-in-human-gambling
#2
P Sacre, M S D Kerr, S Subramanian, K Kahn, J Gonzalez-Martinez, M A Johnson, S V Sarma, J T Gale
Humans often make irrational decisions, especially psychiatric patients who have dysfunctional cognitive and emotional circuitry. Understanding the neural basis of decision-making is therefore essential towards patient management, yet current studies suffer from several limitations. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in humans have dominated decision-making neuroscience, but have poor temporal resolution and the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal is only a proxy for neural activity. On the other hand, lesion studies in humans used to infer functionality in decision-making lack characterization of neural activity altogether...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315843/market-level-exposure-to-state-antismoking-media-campaigns-and-public-support-for-tobacco-control-policy-in-the-united-states-2001-2002
#3
Jeff Niederdeppe, Maxwell Kellogg, Christofer Skurka, Rosemary J Avery
OBJECTIVE: This study tests whether exposure to state antismoking media campaigns is associated with increased support for comprehensive bans on smoking indoors and cigarette advertising. METHODS: We combine commercially available data on market-level state-sponsored antismoking advertisements with three waves of the Current Population Survey's Tobacco Use Supplement to test the relationship between market-level volume of state antismoking advertising exposure and support for tobacco control policy between 2001 and 2002...
March 18, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300478/step-by-step-harvesting-the-dynamics-of-delay-discounting-decisions
#4
Stefan Scherbaum, Simon Frisch, Maja Dshemuchadse
People show a tendency to devalue rewards when they are delayed in time. This so-called delay discounting often happens to an extent that seems irrational from an economical perspective. Research studying outcomes of delay discounting decisions has successfully derived descriptive models for such choice preferences. However, this outcome-based approach faces limitations in integrating the influence of contextual factors on the decision. Recently, this outcome-centred perspective on delay discounting has been complemented by a focus on the process dynamics leading to delay discounting decisions...
March 16, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271587/strategies-for-reduction-in-the-duration-of-intravenous-drug-use-interest-of-drug-tracers-as-quality-indicators-to-improve-intravenous-to-oral-switch
#5
Jennifer Corny, Simon Perreau, Anne-Pauline Thivilliers, Céline Leplay, Delphine Chevalier, Hélène Beaussier, Yvonnick Bézie
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Intravenous (IV) to oral (PO) drug switch is a challenge for tertiary care institutions for several reasons: catheter-related infections, patient's pain and discomfort or higher costs, and overuse of IV drugs considered as an irrational use of medicines. The objective was to evaluate yearly acetaminophen and proton-pump inhibiters' (PPIs) IV/PO ratios from 2011 to 2015 and to determine their correlation with all drugs IV/PO ratios and their relevance as drug tracers...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268031/-content-analysis-of-food-adverts-aimed-at-children
#6
José Antonio Ponce-Blandón, Manuel Pabón-Carrasco, María de Las Mercedes Lomas-Campos
OBJECTIVE: To determine the contents and persuasive techniques used in processed food adverts aimed at children in Andalusia, comparing them with those aimed at adults. METHODS: Study based on advert content analysis with two phases: a descriptive design phase and an analytical observational design phase. A sample of adverts from 60hours of broadcasting from the two most watched television channels in Andalusia. RESULTS: A total of 416 food and non-alcoholic beverage adverts were obtained, for 91 different products...
March 3, 2017: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266226/why-have-the-majority-of-recent-polio-cases-occurred-in-countries-affected-by-islamist-militancy-a-historical-comparative-analysis-of-the-political-determinants-of-polio-in-nigeria-somalia-pakistan-afghanistan-and-syria
#7
Jonathan Kennedy
This article aims to understand why the last few areas where polio remains are affected by armed conflicts involving militant organizations that use Islam to legitimize their activities. The first section critically analyses the argument that Muslims' animosity towards polio vaccination programmes is a consequence of their irrational, backward, anti-Western theology. This argument is depoliticizing, ahistorical and orientalist. Moreover, it does not explain why Islamist militant groups' attitudes to polio vaccination campaigns vary between countries...
March 7, 2017: Medicine, Conflict, and Survival
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265347/value-added-medicines-what-value-repurposed-medicines-might-bring-to-society
#8
Mondher Toumi, Cécile Rémuzat
Background & objectives: Despite the wide interest surrounding drug repurposing, no common terminology has been yet agreed for these products and their full potential value is not always recognised and rewarded, creating a disincentive for further development. The objectives of the present study were to assess from a wide perspective which value drug repurposing might bring to society, but also to identify key obstacles for adoption of these medicines and to discuss policy recommendations. Methods: A preliminary comprehensive search was conducted to assess how the concept of drug repurposing was described in the literature...
2017: Journal of Market Access & Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264981/reason-s-enemy-is-not-emotion-engagement-of-cognitive-control-networks-explains-biases-in-gain-loss-framing
#9
Rosa Li, David V Smith, John A Clithero, Vinod Venkatraman, R McKell Carter, Scott A Huettel
In the classic gain/loss framing effect, describing a gamble as a potential gain or loss biases people to make risk-averse or risk-seeking decisions, respectively. The canonical explanation for this effect is that frames differentially modulate emotional processes - which in turn leads to irrational choice behavior. Here, we evaluate the source of framing biases by integrating functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 143 human participants performing a gain/loss framing task with meta-analytic data from over 8000 neuroimaging studies...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264021/antimicrobial-use-in-paediatric-patients-in-a-teaching-hospital-in-ethiopia
#10
Hafte Kahsay Kebede, Hailay Abrha Gesesew, Tewodros Eyob Woldehaimanot, Kabaye Kumela Goro
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics use in in children are different from adults due to a lack of data on pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy and safety of drugs, different physiological spectrum, pediatrics populations being vulnerable to the majority of the illnesses, and the adverse effect of their irrational use is more serious. However, antibiotic use is not explored much in a paediatric population. The current study focused on antibiotic use among pediatric population using data from a tertiary hospital in Ethiopia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248674/prevalence-serotype-distribution-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-salmonella-isolated-from-food-products-in-morocco
#11
Nadia Amajoud, Brahim Bouchrif, Mohammed El Maadoudi, Nadia Skalli Senhaji, Bouchra Karraouan, Abdeltif El Harsal, Jamal El Abrini
INTRODUCTION: Salmonellosis is one of the most common foodborne diseases worldwide. The irrational use of antibiotics in medicine and in animal feed has greatly promoted the emergence and spread of resistant strains of non-typhoidal Salmonella. METHODOLOGY: A total of 464 food products were collected in Tetouan from January 2010 to December 2012. The isolation and identification of Salmonella were performed according to Moroccan standard 08.0.116. All isolates were serotyped and were then tested for antibiotic resistance using the disk diffusion method...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230062/triple-combination-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-hypertension-a-review-of-the-evidence
#12
REVIEW
R Düsing, B Waeber, M Destro, C Santos Maia, P Brunel
Hypertension is a serious public health concern with inadequate control of blood pressure (BP) worldwide. Contributing factors include low efficacy of drugs, underuse of combination therapies, irrational combinations, physicians' therapeutic inertia and poor adherence to treatment. Current guidelines recommend the use of initial (dual) combination therapy in high-risk patients for immediate BP response, better short- and long-term BP control, and continued/improved patient adherence. This article aims to review the existing evidence of triple-combination therapies with respect to efficacy, safety and adherence to treatment...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Human Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227248/the-precuneus-may-encode-irrationality-in-human-gambling
#13
P Sacre, M S D Kerr, S Subramanian, K Kahn, J Gonzalez-Martinez, M A Johnson, S V Sarma, J T Gale, P Sacre, M S D Kerr, S Subramanian, K Kahn, J Gonzalez-Martinez, M A Johnson, S V Sarma, J T Gale, S Subramanian, M S D Kerr, M A Johnson, J T Gale, K Kahn, P Sacre, S V Sarma, J Gonzalez-Martinez
Humans often make irrational decisions, especially psychiatric patients who have dysfunctional cognitive and emotional circuitry. Understanding the neural basis of decision-making is therefore essential towards patient management, yet current studies suffer from several limitations. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in humans have dominated decision-making neuroscience, but have poor temporal resolution and the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal is only a proxy for neural activity. On the other hand, lesion studies in humans used to infer functionality in decision-making lack characterization of neural activity altogether...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224732/pathways-into-psychopathology-modeling-the-effects-of-trait-emotional-intelligence-mindfulness-and-irrational-beliefs-in-a-clinical-sample
#14
K V Petrides, María G Gómez, Juan-Carlos Pérez-González
We investigated possible pathways into mental illness via the combined effects of trait emotional intelligence (trait EI), mindfulness, and irrational beliefs. The sample comprised 121 psychiatric outpatients (64.5% males, mean age = 38.8 years) with a variety of formal clinical diagnoses. Psychopathology was operationalized by means of 3 distinct indicators from the Millon Clinical Multi-Axial Inventory (mild pathology, severe pathology, and clinical symptomatology). A structural equation model confirmed significant direct trait EI and mindfulness effects on irrational beliefs and psychopathology...
February 21, 2017: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220682/the-treadmill-of-production-and-the-positional-economy-of-consumption
#15
Dean Curran
The theory of the treadmill of production highlights how the constant search for economic growth leads to advanced economies being stuck on a "treadmill," where their well-being is not improved by economic growth, yet the impacts of this pursuit of growth causes massive, unsustainable environmental damages. In interrogating the specific driving force that keeps the irrational system of the treadmill so powerfully in place, the theory of the treadmill of production focuses on how those who control the production process, corporations, are the primary agents driving the treadmill, while also highlighting how the state and workers generally continue to provide support for the treadmill's continued reproduction...
February 2017: Canadian Review of Sociology, Revue Canadienne de Sociologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219899/irrational-numbers-in-surgical-training
#16
Jonathan Glass
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217622/can-the-recent-public-notice-by-the-ministry-of-ayurveda-yoga-and-naturopathy-unani-siddha-and-homoeopathy-be-helpful-in-combating-the-irrational-use-of-herbal-drugs
#17
Janmejaya Samal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212131/psychometric-properties-of-a-new-instrument-for-assessing-irrational-thoughts-in-burn-victims-scale-of-irrational-thoughts-after-burn-injuries
#18
Zahra Zare, Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani, Fatemeh Ranjbar, Diana Stark Ekman, Mostafa Farahbakhsh, Hemmat Maghsoudi, Robert Ekman, Farideh Nasiri
The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a scale for assessing irrational thoughts among burned patients. The present study was mixed (qualitative-methodologic) which was performed in several stages such as investigating similar or related scales, interviewing with patients and psychologists. Content validity was calculated by modified KAPPA basis on relevance and clarity. The reliability of the scale was measured using internal consistency and the test-retest method. To determine the construct validity, exploratory factor analysis approach using maximum likelihood extraction with varimax rotation was conducted...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210864/pharmacy-benefit-management-companies-do-they-create-value-in-the-us-healthcare-system
#19
Alan Lyles
Pharmacy benefit management companies (PBMs) perform functions in the US market-based healthcare system that may be performed by public agencies or quasi-public institutions in other nations. By aggregating lives covered under their many individual contracts with payers, PBMs have formidable negotiating power. They influence pharmaceutical insurance coverage, design the terms of coverage in a plan's drug benefit, and create competition among providers for inclusion in a plan's network. PBMs have, through intermediation, the potential to secure lower drug prices and to improve rational prescribing...
February 16, 2017: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208874/topical-corticosteroid-misuse-the-scenario-in-patients-attending-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-new-delhi
#20
Santwana Mahar, Khushbu Mahajan, Swati Agarwal, Hemanta Kumar Kar, Swapan Kumar Bhattacharya
INTRODUCTION: Irrational use of Topical Corticosteroid (TC) is quite common in India due to unrestricted availability and use of TC not only by general public but also by physicians and chemists due to quick relief of symptoms in different dermatological conditions. AIM: The present study was conducted to evaluate and analyse the prevalence of misuse of TC and the causes behind misuse of TC among patients in a dermatology outpatient department in New Delhi. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional observational questionnaire based study conducted over a period of 5 months (1(st) June 2015 to 30(th) November 2015)...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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