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Elisenda Alari-Pahissa, Antía Moreira, Ana Zabalza, Roberto Alvarez-Lafuente, Elvira Munteis, Andrea Vera, Rafael Arroyo, Jose C Alvarez-Cermeño, Luisa Maria Villar, Miguel López-Botet, Jose E Martínez-Rodríguez
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has been recently associated with a lower multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility, remaining controversial whether it has a protective role or is merely an epiphenomenon related to westernization and early-life viral infections. We aimed to evaluate whether CMV serostatus may differ in early MS as compared to non-early MS patients, analyzing the putative association of this virus with MS clinical course and humoral immune responses against other herpesviruses...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Roberta Rizzo, Dario Di Luca
Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) comprises two viral species, HHV-6A and HHV-6B, closely related but differing for pathogenic and biological characteristics. Both viral species are predominantly lymphotropic, infecting T lymphocytes and other lymphoid cells, including natural killer (NK) cells. The interactions between HHV-6 and NK cells have been scarcely studied, but it has become clear that NK cells are not only crucial in immune protection during the early phases of infection, but also that HHV-6 infection can affect NK cell functions...
March 7, 2018: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Anette Holck Draborg, Niclas Stefan Rasmussen, Janni Lisander Larsen, Charlotte Sværke Jørgensen, Noreen Sandhu, Kristin Skogstrand, Søren Jacobsen, Gunnar Houen
We investigated immune responses to a lytic cytomegalovirus antigen (CMVpp52), and to a lytic human herpes virus (HHV) 6 antigen (HHV6p41), in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and healthy controls (HCs), in order to clarify if the previously established impaired responses to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in SLE patients is a general defect in their responses against (all) HHVs. Multiplex Luminex technology results showed a normal induction of five quantified cytokines (interferon γ, interleukin(IL)12, IL17, IL10, and tumor necrosis factor α) in SLE patients compared to HCs upon stimulation with CMVpp52 and HHV6p41...
2018: PloS One
Alexander L Greninger, Pavitra Roychoudhury, Negar Makhsous, Derek Hanson, Jill Chase, Gerhard Krueger, Hong Xie, Meei-Li Huang, Lindsay Saunders, Dharam Ablashi, David M Koelle, Linda Cook, Keith R Jerome
Quantitative PCR is the diagnostic pillar for clinical virology testing, and reference materials are necessary for accurate, comparable quantitation between clinical laboratories. Accurate quantitation of HHV-6A/B is important for detection of viral reactivation and inherited chromosomally integrated HHV-6A/B in immunocompromised patients. Reference materials in clinical virology commonly consist of laboratory-adapted viral strains that may be affected by the culture process. We performed next-generation sequencing to make relative copy number measurements at single nucleotide resolution of eight candidate HHV-6A and seven HHV-6B reference strains and DNA materials from the HHV-6 Foundation and Advanced Biotechnologies...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Virology
Marco Telford, Arcadi Navarro, Gabriel Santpere
Human herpesviruses 6-A and -B (HHV-6A, HHV-6B) are ubiquitous in human populations worldwide. These viruses have been associated with several diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Hodgkin's lymphoma or encephalitis. Despite of the need to understand the genetic diversity and geographic stratification of these viruses, the availability of complete viral sequences from different populations is still limited. Here, we present nine new inherited chromosomally integrated HHV-6 sequences from diverse geographical origin which were generated through target DNA enrichment on lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from healthy individuals...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Masao Ogata, Kuniko Takano, Yukiyoshi Moriuchi, Tadakazu Kondo, Toshimitsu Ueki, Nobuaki Nakano, Takehiko Mori, Nobuhiko Uoshima, Koji Nagafuji, Satoshi Yamasaki, Yasuhiko Shibasaki, Rika Sakai, Koji Kato, Ilseung Choi, Yumi Jo, Tetsuya Eto, Shinichi Kako, Kumi Oshima, Takahiro Fukuda
Cord blood transplantation (CBT) is a distinct risk factor for human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) reactivation and HHV-6 encephalitis. In a prospective multicenter trial, we investigated the effects of prophylactic foscarnet (90 mg/kg intravenous infusion from day 7 to 27 after CBT) on the occurrence of HHV-6 reactivation, HHV-6 encephalitis, and acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) in CBT recipients. Between 2014 and 2016, a total of 57 patients were included in a foscarnet-prophylaxis group. Outcomes were compared with a historical control group who received CBT between 2010 and 2014 (standard-treatment group, n=63)...
February 15, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Erasmia Rouka
Human Herpes Virus type 6 (HHV-6) is a ubiquitous virus consisting of two viral species, HHV-6A and HHV-6B that have been associated with numerous and diverse pathologies. As many other viruses HHV-6 modulates the apoptotic machinery of its host to subvert immune response to infection, yet the exact mechanisms behind this process remain under investigation. The genes encoding the CTSS, PTX3, CHI3L1, Mx1, CXCL16, BIRC3 and BST2 proteins have been linked to HHV-6Α related neurologic diseases whilst also associated with apoptosis...
March 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Anastasiia Filippova, Julie Charles, Olivier Epaulard, Raphaële Germi, Virginie Persoons, Isabelle Templier, Marie-Therese Leccia, Brigitte Dreno, Irina Malova, Patrice Morand, Julien Lupo
Exogenous human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) reinfection has never been reported in patients receiving tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes therapy. We report an unusual case of HHV-6 infection following infusion of HHV-6 infected autologous T lymphocytes. HHV-6 infection could interfere with the tumor antigen immune recognition and the efficacy of immunotherapy.
February 9, 2018: Cytotherapy
Volker Strenger, Gerald Merth, Herwig Lackner, Stephan W Aberle, Harald H Kessler, Markus G Seidel, Wolfgang Schwinger, Daniela Sperl, Petra Sovinz, Anna Karastaneva, Martin Benesch, Christian Urban
Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a possibly life-threatening syndrome of immune dysregulation and can be divided into primary (hereditary) and secondary forms (including malignancy-associated HLH (M-HLH)). We retrospectively analysed epidemiological, clinical, virological and laboratory data from patients with M-HLH treated at our department between 1995 and 2014. Out of 1.706 haemato-/oncologic patients treated at our department between 1995 and 2014, we identified 22 (1.29%) patients with secondary HLH (1...
February 6, 2018: Annals of Hematology
Asma Hassani, John R Corboy, Suhail Al-Salam, Gulfaraz Khan
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neuroinflammatory condition of the central nervous system (CNS). It is a major cause of neurological disability in young adults, particularly women. What triggers the destruction of myelin sheaths covering nerve fibres is unknown. Both genetic and infectious agents have been implicated. Of the infectious agents, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a common herpesvirus, has the strongest epidemiological and serological evidence. However, the presence of EBV in the CNS and demonstration of the underlying mechanism(s) linking EBV to the pathogenesis of MS remain to be elucidated...
2018: PloS One
Adam M Szewc, Steve Taylor, Gary D Cage, Jeffery Jacobsen, Ozlem Pinar Bulut, Daphne E de Mello
A previously healthy 11-year-old Caucasian boy presented with a 2-week history of nonspecific symptoms of nausea and nonbilious, nonbloody emesis. He developed significant jaundice and hepatic encephalopathy within 1 week of beginning symptoms and was discovered to have fulminant liver failure. Extensive work-ups for underlying etiologies included serologic evaluation for underlying chronic liver diseases, toxicology screening, inborn errors of metabolism, and infectious diseases. The results of the entire assessment were negative except for human herpesvirus 6B, which was detected in the liver by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis...
January 30, 2018: Laboratory Medicine
G T Chua, J S Rosa Duque, P C Y Chong, P P W Lee, Y L Lau, M H K Ho
DRESS (drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms) is a rare but potentially life-threatening disorder characterized by fever, skin eruption, haematological abnormalities and multi-organ dysfunction after drug exposure. The pathophysiology is thought to be related to interactions between culprit drugs, viral reactivation and T-lymphocytes activation. We report 4 paediatric patients with DRESS who were treated at our centre over the past 12 years. Most cases improved after corticosteroids. Other immunosuppressive medications were attempted in refractory cases with varied outcomes...
November 30, 2017: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Rahmi Ozdemir, Mehmet Kucuk, Saime Ergen Dibeklioglu
Background: The etiology of myocarditis in children has not yet been completely elucidated. Objective: Medical records of eight pediatric patients diagnosed with acute myocarditis within a 41-day period in a small-town hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Methods: We examined antibody titers of adenovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex virus, respiratory syncytial virus, varicella-zoster virus and cytomegalovirus in peripheral blood...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
P Wipfler, N Dunn, O Beiki, E Trinka, A Fogdell-Hahn
PURPOSE: Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is a common epileptic disorder. Although likely multifactorial, the mechanisms underlying the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease remains unknown in majority of patients. Viruses, particularly Human Herpes Virus 6A and B (HHV-6), two neurotropic herpes viruses, have been implicated in MTLE due to their ubiquitous nature and ability to establish lifelong latency with risk of reactivation. However, the results of studies investigating this relationship are conflicting...
January 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Eva Eliassen, Dario Di Luca, Roberta Rizzo, Isabel Barao
Human Herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is a set of two closely related herpes viruses known as HHV-6A and HHV-6B. Both are lymphotropic viruses that establish latency in the host. The ability to evade the immune responses of effector cells is likely a major factor contributing to the development of a persistent HHV-6A/B (collectively termed HHV-6) infection. Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes that, along with neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages, participate in the critical innate immune response during viral infections, but can also mediate the antigen-specific memory responses generally associated with adaptive immunity...
December 1, 2017: Viruses
Lena E Winestone, Rajesh Punn, John S Tamaresis, Julia Buckingham, Benjamin A Pinsky, Jesse J Waggoner, Sandhya Kharbanda
Human Herpes Virus 6 (HHV-6) reactivation occurs in approximately half of patients following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). While encephalitis and delayed engraftment are well-documented complications of HHV-6 following HSCT, the extent to which HHV-6 viremia causes disease in children is controversial. We performed a retrospective review of HHV-6 reactivation and possible manifestations in pediatric allogeneic HSCT patients at a single institution. Of 89 children and young adults who underwent allogeneic HSCT over a three-and-a-half-year period, 34 patients reactivated HHV-6 early post-transplant...
March 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
Sofía Del Carmen Martínez, Ruth Gervás Ríos, Yoana Franco Rodríguez, Cristina González Velasco, Miguel Ángel Cruz Sánchez, María Del Mar Abad Hernández
Despite the frequency of infections with herpesviridae family, only eight subtypes affect humans (Herpex Simplex Virus types 1 and 2, Varicella Zoster Virus, Epstein-Barr Virus, Citomegalovirus and Human Herpes Virus types 6, 7 and 8). Amongst enteroviruses infections, the most important are Poliovirus, Coxackievirus and Echovirus. Symptoms can vary from mild to severe and early diagnosis is of upmost importance. Nowadays, low-density arrays can detect different types of viruses in a single assay using DNA extracted from biological samples...
January 2017: Revista Española de Patología
Roberta Rizzo, Irene Soffritti, Maria D'Accolti, Daria Bortolotti, Dario Di Luca, Elisabetta Caselli
Natural killer (NK) cells have a critical role in controlling virus infections, and viruses have evolved several mechanisms to escape NK cell functions. In particular, Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is associated with diseases characterized by immune dysregulation and has been reported to infect NK cells. We recently found that HHV-6 in vitro infection of human thyroid follicular epithelial cells and T-lymphocytes modulates several miRNAs associated with alterations in immune response. Since miRNAs are key regulators of many immune pathways, including NK cell functions, we aimed to study the impact of HHV-6A and -6B in vitro infection on the intracellular mediators correlated to NK cell function...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Uwe Fiebig, Angela Holzer, Daniel Ivanusic, Elena Plotzki, Hartmut Hengel, Frank Neipel, Joachim Denner
Porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) infection is widely prevalent among pigs, and PCMV is one of the viruses which may be transmitted during xenotransplantation using pig cells, tissues, or organs. While human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a major risk factor for allotransplantation, it is still unclear whether PCMV is able to infect human cells or pose a risk for xenotransplantation. Previously, it was shown that transmission of PCMV after pig kidney to non-human primate transplantations resulted in a significantly reduced survival time of the transplanted organ...
October 28, 2017: Viruses
Rajesh Kumar, Pankaj Kumar, Manoj Kumar Singh, Dipti Agarwal, Bendangienla Jamir, Shashi Khare, Samrendra Narayan
OBJECTIVE: To study the etiology and clinico-epidemiological profile of acute viral encephalitis in children with acute encephalitis syndrome (AES). METHODS: An observational study including 100 patients fulfilling the criteria for AES was conducted in children of age group 1 mo - 16 y. Viral isolation was done on RD cells, HEp-2 cells and Vero cells from the cerebrospinal fluid samples of suspected viral encephalitis (VE) cases. An enzyme immunoassay for IgM antibodies was performed for measles, mumps, Varicella zoster virus (VZV), Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)...
October 27, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
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