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Vascular pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351461/exercise-training-induces-enos-coupling-and-restores-relaxation-in-coronary-arteries-of-heart-failure-rats
#1
Gisele Kruger Couto, Suliana Mesquita Paula, Igor L Gomes-Santos, Carlos Eduardo Negrão, Luciana Venturini Rossoni
Exercise training (ET) has emerged as a non-pharmacological therapy for cardiovascular diseases because of its helpful milieu for improving vascular function. The aim of the present study was to assess whether ET reverses the alterations in vascular reactivity observed in heart failure (HF)-related coronary arteries and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in these adjustments. Male Wistar rats were subjected to either coronary artery ligation or sham operation (SO). Four weeks after the surgery, the rats were divided into two groups: untrained HF (UHF) and exercise-trained HF (THF)...
January 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348090/pharmacological-validation-of-the-folkloric-uses-of-cyperus-rotundus-l-in-different-ailments-an-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-research
#2
Musaddique Hussain, Hafiz Muhammad Waqas, Ikhlaq Hussain, Abdul Majeed, Shahid Masood Raza, Khalid Hussain Janbaz
In vivo and in vitro research study was conducted on Cyperus rotundus to evaluate the sound mechanistic background in the treatment of gastrointestinal, bronchial and vascular disorders as well as in pain, emesis, pyrexia and bacterial infections. Results showed that crude extract of Cyperus rotundus (Cr.Cr) exhibited the dose-dependent spasmolytic effect in rabbit jejunum by inhibiting the spontaneous and K+ (80 mM)-induced contractions. Pretreatment of tissue with Cr. Cr caused the rightward shift of calcium concentration response curves, similar to verapamil...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345193/serotonin-2a-receptor-inhibition-protects-against-the-development-of-pulmonary-hypertension-and-pulmonary-vascular-remodeling-in-neonatal-mice
#3
Cassidy Delaney, Laurie Sherlock, Susan Fisher, Joanne K Maltzahn, Clyde J Wright, Eva Nozik-Grayck
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) complicating bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) worsens clinical outcomes in former preterm infants. Increased serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) signaling plays a prominent role in PH pathogenesis and progression in adults. We hypothesized that increased 5-HT signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of neonatal PH complicating BPD and neonatal lung injury. Thus, we interrogated 5-HT signaling in neonatal mice exposed to bleomycin, previously demonstrated to induce PH and alveolar simplification...
January 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344421/anti-aging-implications-of-astragalus-membranaceus-huangqi-a-well-known-chinese-tonic
#4
REVIEW
Ping Liu, Haiping Zhao, Yumin Luo
Owing to a dramatic increase in average life expectancy and the Family Planning program of the 1970s - 1990s, China is rapidly becoming an aging society. Therefore, the investigation of healthspan-extending drugs becomes more urgent. Astragalus membranaceus (Huangqi) is a major medicinal herb that has been commonly used in many herbal formulations in the practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat a wide variety of diseases and body disorders, or marketed as life-prolonging extracts for human use in China, for more than 2000 years...
December 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344413/therapeutic-potential-and-cellular-mechanisms-of-panax-notoginseng-on-prevention-of-aging-and-cell-senescence-associated-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Haiping Zhao, Ziping Han, Guangwen Li, Sijia Zhang, Yumin Luo
Owing to a dramatic increase in average life expectancy, most countries in the world are rapidly entering an aging society. Therefore, extending health span with pharmacological agents targeting aging-related pathological changes, are now in the spotlight of gerosciences. Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen, a species of the genus Panax, has been called the "Miracle Root for the Preservation of Life," and has long been used as a Chinese herb with magical medicinal value. Panax notoginseng has been extensively employed in China to treat microcirculatory disturbances, inflammation, trauma, internal and external bleeding due to injury, and as a tonic...
December 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344340/assessment-and-management-of-sexual-dysfunction-in-the-context-of-depression
#6
REVIEW
Pratap R Chokka, Jeffrey R Hankey
Sexual dysfunction (SD) is pervasive and underreported, and its effects on quality of life are underestimated. Due in part to its bidirectional relationship with depression, SD can be difficult to diagnose; it is also a common side effect of many antidepressants, leading to treatment noncompliance. While physicians often count on patients to spontaneously report SD, treatment is optimized when the clinician instead performs a thorough assessment of sexual functioning before and during drug therapy using a standardized questionnaire such as the Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX)...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339714/stent-thrombosis-in-patients-with-drug-eluting-stents-and-bioresorbable-vascular-scaffolds-the-feared-complication
#7
Laura S Kerkmeijer, Erhan Tenekecioglu, Joanna J Wykrzykowska
The percutaneous coronary intervention has undergone rapid evolution over the last 40 years and has become one of the most widely performed medical procedures. The introduction of intracoronary stents improved the safety and efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention. But with the advent of stenting, a new potentially fatal enemy emerged: stent thrombosis. Ever since, adjunct pharmacological therapy, stent technique and technology have been adjusted to reduce the risk of stent thrombosis. The aim of the present article is to provide an overview of past, present and future aspects of percutaneous intervention in relation to stent thrombosis...
January 15, 2018: Polish Archives of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338602/sequential-drug-treatment-algorithm-for-agitation-and-aggression-in-alzheimer-s-and-mixed-dementia
#8
Simon Jc Davies, Amer M Burhan, Donna Kim, Philip Gerretsen, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Vincent L Woo, Sanjeev Kumar, Sarah Colman, Bruce G Pollock, Benoit H Mulsant, Tarek K Rajji
INTRODUCTION: Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) include agitation and aggression in people with dementia. BPSD is common on inpatient psychogeriatric units and may prevent individuals from living at home or in residential/nursing home settings. Several drugs and non-pharmacological treatments have been shown to be effective in reducing behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. Algorithmic treatment may address the challenge of synthesizing this evidence-based knowledge...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337447/-geriatric-medicine
#9
Gabriel Gold, Christophe Büla, Pierre Olivier Lang, Philippe Chassagne
2017 highlights benefits of prevention. Better control of cardiovascular risk reduces the incidence of dementia and monthly high-dose vitamin D the incidence of respiratory infections in nursing home. Pre-operative geriatric assessment lowers by 20% the rate of delirium after hip-fracture surgery and complications in vascular surgery. Deleterious effects are also reported. High-dose vitamin D triples the rate of falls in supplemented residents and doesn't improve gait speed in sedentary men. Widely used in cardiovascular prevention, antithrombotic therapy is associated with an astonishing risk of subdural bleeding that further increases with the number of drugs combined together...
January 10, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332862/using-relaxation-techniques-to-improve-sleep-during-naps
#10
Eden Debellemaniere, Danielle Gomez-Merino, Mégane Erblang, Rodolphe Dorey, Michel Genot, Edith Perreaut-Pierre, André Pisani, Laurent Rocco, Fabien Sauvet, Damien Léger, Arnaud Rabat, Mounir Chennaoui
Insufficient sleep is a common occurrence in occupational settings (e.g. doctors, drivers, soldiers). The resulting sleep debt can lead to daytime sleepiness, fatigue, mood disorder, and cognitive deficits as well as altered vascular, immune and inflammatory responses. Short daytime naps have been shown to be effective at counteracting negative outcomes related to sleep debt with positive effects on daytime sleepiness and performance after a normal or restricted night of sleep in laboratory settings. However, the environmental settings in the workplace and the emotional state of workers are generally not conducive to beneficial effects...
January 13, 2018: Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330760/oxidized-phospholipids-stimulate-production-of-stem-cell-factor-via-nrf2-dependent-mechanisms
#11
Taras Afonyushkin, Olga V Oskolkova, Valery N Bochkov
Receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit and its ligand stem cell factor (SCF) regulate resident vascular wall cells and recruit circulating progenitors. We tested whether SCF may be induced by oxidized palmitoyl-arachidonoyl-phosphatidylcholine (OxPAPC) known to accumulate in atherosclerotic vessels. Gene expression analysis demonstrated OxPAPC-induced upregulation of SCF mRNA and protein in different types of endothelial cells (ECs). Elevated levels of SCF mRNA were observed in aortas of ApoE-/- knockout mice. ECs produced biologically active SCF because conditioned medium from OxPAPC-treated cells stimulated activation (phosphorylation) of c-Kit in naïve ECs...
January 12, 2018: Angiogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329415/establishment-of-a-three-dimensional-model-to-study-human-uterine-angiogenesis
#12
Camille L Duran, Colette A Abbey, Kayla J Bayless
STUDY QUESTION: Can primary human uterine microvascular endothelial cells (UtMVECs) be used as a model to study uterine angiogenic responses in vitro that are relevant in pregnancy? SUMMARY ANSWER: UtMVECs demonstrated angiogenic responses when stimulated with proangiogenic factors, including sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), physiological levels of wall shear stress (WSS), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and various combinations of estrogen and progesterone...
December 21, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318581/prostanoids-for-critical-limb-ischaemia
#13
REVIEW
Valeria Vietto, Juan Va Franco, Victoria Saenz, Denise Cytryn, Jose Chas, Agustín Ciapponi
BACKGROUND: Peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular disease in the general population. Although numerous treatments have been adopted for patients at different disease stages, no option other than amputation is available for patients presenting with critical limb ischaemia (CLI) unsuitable for rescue or reconstructive intervention. In this regard, prostanoids have been proposed as a therapeutic alternative, with the aim of increasing blood supply to the limb with occluded arteries through their vasodilatory, antithrombotic, and anti-inflammatory effects...
January 10, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314250/inhibition-of-camkk2-enhances-fracture-healing-by-stimulating-indian-hedgehog-signaling-and-accelerating-endochondral-ossification
#14
Justin N Williams, Anuradha Valiya Kambrath, Roshni B Patel, Kyung Shin Kang, Elsa Mével, Yong Li, Ying-Hua Cheng, Austin J Pucylowski, Mariah A Hassert, Michael J Voor, Melissa A Kacena, William R Thompson, Stuart J Warden, David B Burr, Matthew R Allen, Alexander G Robling, Uma Sankar
Approximately ten percent of all bone fractures do not heal, resulting in patient morbidity and healthcare costs. However, no pharmacological treatments are currently available to promote efficient bone healing. Inhibition of Ca2+ /calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2) reverses age-associated loss of trabecular and cortical bone volume and strength in mice. In the current study, we investigated the role of CaMKK2 in bone fracture healing and show that its pharmacological inhibition using STO-609 accelerates early cellular and molecular events associated with endochondral ossification, resulting in a more rapid and efficient healing of the fracture...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312602/tanshinone-iia-inhibits-angiogenesis-in-human-endothelial-progenitor-cells-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#15
Hsiang-Ping Lee, Yueh-Ching Liu, Po-Chun Chen, Huai-Ching Tai, Te-Mao Li, Yi-Chin Fong, Chih-Shiang Chang, Min-Huan Wu, Li-Pin Chiu, Chia-Jung Wang, Yi-Hsuan Chen, Yih-Jer Wu, Chih-Hsin Tang, Shih-Wei Wang
Accumulating evidence reports that bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) regulate angiogenesis, postnatal neovascularization and tumor metastasis. It has been suggested that understanding the molecular targets and pharmacological functions of natural products is important for novel drug discovery. Tanshinone IIA is a major diterpene quinone compound isolated from Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) and is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Evidence indicates that tanshinone IIA modulates angiogenic functions in human umbilical vein endothelial cells...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310804/the-cytoskeletal-network-regulates-expression-of-the-profibrotic-genes-pai-1-and-ctgf-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#16
Rohan Samarakoon, Paul J Higgins
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are subject to changing hemodynamic stimuli that alter cytoskeletal dynamics, cellular architecture, and structure-associated signal transduction. Tensional stress, force application, and structural perturbations are sensed by VSMCs and impact the physiological as well as pathophysiological responses of the vasculature. Microtubule-targeting drugs provide useful tools to analyze cytoskeletal-associated signaling pathways and their linkages to pathological outcomes. Architecture-based controls on a subset of profibrotic genes commonly expressed in vascular disease are highlighted by their frequent induction in mechanically manipulated cells and with associated changes in cytoskeletal dynamics...
2018: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310796/the-dynamic-actin-cytoskeleton-in-smooth-muscle
#17
Dale D Tang
Smooth muscle contraction requires both myosin activation and actin cytoskeletal remodeling. Actin cytoskeletal reorganization facilitates smooth muscle contraction by promoting force transmission between the contractile unit and the extracellular matrix (ECM), and by enhancing intercellular mechanical transduction. Myosin may be viewed to serve as an "engine" for smooth muscle contraction whereas the actin cytoskeleton may function as a "transmission system" in smooth muscle. The actin cytoskeleton in smooth muscle also undergoes restructuring upon activation with growth factors or the ECM, which controls smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration...
2018: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309860/effects-of-total-saponins-from-trillium-tschonoskii-rhizome-on-grey-and-white-matter-injury-evaluated-by-quantitative-multiparametric-mri-in-a-rat-model-of-ischemic-stroke
#18
Manzhong Li, Junyao Ouyang, Yi Zhang, Brian Chi Yan Cheng, Yu Zhan, Le Yang, Haiyan Zou, Hui Zhao
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Trillium tschonoskii rhizome (TTR), a medicinal herb, has been traditionally used to treat traumatic brain injury and headache in China. Although the potential neuroprotective efficacy of TTR has gained increasing interest, the pharmacological mechanism remains unclear. Steroid saponins are the main bioactive components of the herb. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the protective and repair-promoting effects of the total saponins from TTR (TSTT) on grey and white matter damages in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assay...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309758/anti-thrombotic-efficacy-of-s007-867-pre-clinical-evaluation-in-experimental-models-of-thrombosis-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#19
Ankita Misra, Prem Prakash, Hobby Aggarwal, Priyanka Dhankani, Sachin Kumar, Chandra Prakash Pandey, Nicholas Pugh, Dominique Bihan, Manoj Kumar Barthwal, Richard W Farndale, Dinesh Kumar Dikshit, Madhu Dikshit
Pharmacological inhibition of platelet collagen interaction is a promising therapeutic strategy to treat intra-vascular thrombosis. S007-867 is a novel synthetic inhibitor of collagen-induced platelet aggregation. It has shown better antithrombotic protection than aspirin and clopidogrel with minimal bleeding tendency in mice. The present study is aimed to systematically investigate the antithrombotic efficacy of S007-867 in comparison to aspirin and clopidogrel in vivo and to delineate its mechanism of action in vitro...
January 5, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305859/n-oleoylethanolamide-suppresses-intimal-hyperplasia-after-balloon-injury-in-rats-through-ampk-ppar%C3%AE-pathway
#20
Yun Zhao, Yijun Liu, Zuo Jing, Lu Peng, Peng Jin, Yangbin Lin, Yu Zhou, Lichao Yang, Jie Ren, Qiang Xie, Xin Jin
Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration are crucial events in the pathological course of restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). N-oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is a bioactive lipid amide released upon dietary fat digestion with many reported actions. However, the effect of OEA on restenosis after vascular injury remains unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of OEA on intimal hyperplasia after balloon injury in vivo, its effect on VSMC proliferation and migration induced by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulation in vitro, and the underlying mechanism underlying these effects...
January 3, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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