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Vascular pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914706/vascular-calcification-in-chronic-kidney-disease-different-bricks-in-the-wall
#1
REVIEW
Marc Vervloet, Mario Cozzolino
A high prevalence of vascular calcification (VC) and a high incidence of cardiovascular events are two key complications of chronic kidney disease. Since most observational studies found a positive association between these two complications, a causal relationship has been assumed. If so, this would render VC a target of therapy. Recent studies, however, suggested this assumption might be an oversimplification. The fundamental aspects of these recent studies are two-fold. The first novel insight is that VC is not a single entity...
November 30, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912846/new-insights-and-evolving-role-of-pegylated-liposomal-doxorubicin-in-cancer-therapy
#2
REVIEW
Alberto A Gabizon, Yogita Patil, Ninh M La-Beck
We herein review various pharmacological and clinical aspects of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD), the first nanomedicine to be approved for cancer therapy, and discuss the gap between its potent antitumor activity in preclinical studies and its comparatively modest achievements in clinical studies and limited use in clinical practice. PLD is a complex formulation of doxorubicin based on pharmaceutical nanotechnology with unique pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. Its long circulation time with stable retention of the payload and its accumulation in tumors with high vascular permeability both result in important advantages over conventional chemotherapy...
November 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908822/how-admission-to-a-vascular-surgery-department-improves-medical-treatment-in-patients-with-lower-extremity-peripheral-arterial-disease
#3
M Thiney, N Della Schiava, P Feugier, P Lermusiaux, J Ninet, A Millon, A Long
OBJECTIVES: All patients with lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (LE-PAD) should benefit from recommended pharmacologic therapies including antiplatelet agents, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and HMG-CoA-reductase inhibitors (statins). In the present study, this triple therapy was defined as the best medical treatment. This study was designed to determine the number of patients who received best medical treatment at admission and at discharge from a vascular surgery department...
November 28, 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908711/cerebral-blood-flow-measured-by-arterial-spin-labeling-mri-at-resting-state-in-normal-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Nan Zhang, Marc L Gordon, Terry E Goldberg
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging uses arterial blood water as an endogenous tracer to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF). In this review, based on ASL studies in the resting state, we discuss state-of-the-art technical and data processing improvements in ASL, and ASL CBF changes in normal aging, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and other types of dementia. We propose that vascular and AD risk factors should be considered when evaluating CBF changes in aging, and that other validated biomarkers should be used as inclusion criteria or covariates when evaluating CBF changes in MCI and AD...
November 28, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907893/factors-impacting-complication-rates-for-catheter-ablation-of-atrial-fibrillation-from-2003-to-2015
#5
Eunice Yang, Esra Gucuk Ipek, Muhammad Balouch, Yuliya Mints, Jonathan Chrispin, Joseph E Marine, Ronald D Berger, Hiroshi Ashikaga, Jack Rickard, Hugh Calkins, Saman Nazarian, David D Spragg
AIMS: Complications from catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) are well described. Changing aspects of AF ablation including patient populations referred, institutional experience, and emerging catheter and pharmacological options may impact complication rates. We assessed procedural complication trends in AF ablation patients from 2003-2015 to identify what factors affect adverse event rates. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated consecutively enrolled patients undergoing initial AF ablation from 2003 through 2015...
October 6, 2016: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906452/primary-prophylaxis-for-venous-thromboembolism-in-ambulatory-cancer-patients-receiving-chemotherapy
#6
REVIEW
Marcello Di Nisio, Ettore Porreca, Matteo Candeloro, Michele De Tursi, Ilaria Russi, Anne Ws Rutjes
BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) often complicates the clinical course of cancer. The risk is further increased by chemotherapy, but the trade-off between safety and efficacy of primary thromboprophylaxis in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy is uncertain. This is the second update of a review first published in February 2012. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of primary thromboprophylaxis for VTE in ambulatory cancer patients receiving chemotherapy compared with placebo or no thromboprophylaxis...
December 1, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900610/novel-sgc-stimulators-and-sgc-activators-for-the-treatment-of-heart-failure
#7
Stefanie Breitenstein, Lothar Roessig, Peter Sandner, Kelly S Lewis
The burden of heart failure (HF) increases worldwide with an aging population, and there is a high unmet medical need in both, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). The nitric oxide (NO) pathway is a key regulator in the cardiovascular system and modulates vascular tone and myocardial performance. Disruption of the NO-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling axis and impaired cGMP formation by endothelial dysfunction could lead to vasotone dysregulation, vascular and ventricular stiffening, fibrosis, and hypertrophy resulting in a decline of heart as well as kidney function...
November 30, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898502/-full-metal-jacket-treatment-of-multiple-paravalvular-leaks
#8
Giuseppe Santoro, Giancarlo Scognamiglio, Maria T Palladino, Carola Iacono, Giampiero Gaio, Maria G Russo
A 40-year-old man with osteogenesis imperfecta type I submitted to multiple procedures of surgical mitral and aortic valve replacement was referred for refractory congestive heart failure due to significant paravalvular leaks (PVLs) of both mitral and aortic prostheses. Due to perceived very high risk of a further mitroaortic surgery, transcatheter closure of PVLs under three-dimensional echocardiographic guide was performed. Thus, four Amplatzer Vascular Plug type II (St. Jude Medical Corp, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA) devices were implanted into the aortic PVLs, and three Amplatzer Vascular Plug type II devices were used to occlude a huge mitral PVL...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898441/epidemiology-of-myopia
#9
Pei-Chang Wu, Hsiu-Mei Huang, Hun-Ju Yu, Po-Chiung Fang, Chueh-Tan Chen
Myopia is not a simple refractive error, but an eyesight-threatening disease. There is a high prevalence of myopia, 80% to 90%, in young adults in East Asia; myopia has become the leading cause of blindness in this area. As the myopic population increases globally, the severity of its impact is predicted. Approximately one fifth of the myopic population has high myopia (≥-6 diopters), which results in irreversible vision loss such as retinal detachment, choroidal neovascularization, cataracts, glaucoma, and macular atrophy...
November 2016: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897192/pi3-kinase-inhibition-improves-vascular-malformations-in-mouse-models-of-hereditary-haemorrhagic-telangiectasia
#10
Roxana Ola, Alexandre Dubrac, Jinah Han, Feng Zhang, Jennifer S Fang, Bruno Larrivée, Monica Lee, Ana A Urarte, Jan R Kraehling, Gael Genet, Karen K Hirschi, William C Sessa, Francesc V Canals, Mariona Graupera, Minhong Yan, Lawrence H Young, Paul S Oh, Anne Eichmann
Activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1) is an endothelial serine-threonine kinase receptor for bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) 9 and 10. Inactivating mutations in the ALK1 gene cause hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia type 2 (HHT2), a disabling disease characterized by excessive angiogenesis with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Here we show that inducible, endothelial-specific homozygous Alk1 inactivation and BMP9/10 ligand blockade both lead to AVM formation in postnatal retinal vessels and internal organs including the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in mice...
November 29, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897119/glaucoma-hot-topics-in-pharmacology
#11
Shiama I Balendra, Parth Arvind Shah, Mishank Jain, Andrzej Grzybowski, Francesca M Cordeiro
BACKGROUND: Glaucoma comprises a group of neurodegenerative diseases resulting in retinal ganglion cell death within the optic nerve head. It is projected to affect almost 80 million people worldwide by 2020. The condition's asymptomatic nature translates to over half of glaucoma sufferers being unaware of their condition. By the time of diagnosis, irreversible blindness is likely to have occurred. Prime areas of glaucoma research therefore include identification and optimization of risk factors for the disease, accurate and early diagnostic tools and novel therapeutic methods...
November 29, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895757/expression-of-semaphorin-6d-and-its-receptor-plexin-a1-in-gastric-cancer-and-their-association-with-tumor-angiogenesis
#12
Yanjie Lu, Qian Xu, Lei Chen, Yanzhen Zuo, Shaochen Liu, Yatao Hu, Xiaoru Li, Yuhong Li, Xiangyang Zhao
The semaphorin and plexin family of ligands and receptor proteins provides important axon growth and guidance cues required for development. In recent years, studies have expanded their role in the regulation of cardiac morphogenesis and tumorigenesis. However, the mechanism responsible for their role in regulating cancer development and progression has not been clarified. In the present study, semaphorin 6D (Sema6D) and its receptor plexin-A1 were identified to be expressed at high levels in vascular epithelial cells within gastric cancer, and were positively correlated with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2)...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894090/gremlin-promotes-retinal-pigmentation-epithelial-rpe-cell-proliferation-migration-and-vegf-production-via-activating-vegfr2-akt-mtorc2-signaling
#13
Yuan Liu, Zhijun Chen, Haixia Cheng, Juan Chen, Jing Qian
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is characterized by late-phase pathologic retinal vasoproliferation. Gremlin is a novel vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) receptor 2 (VEGFR2) agonist and promotes angiogenic response. We demonstrated that gremlin expression was significantly increased in retinas of ROP model mice, which was correlated with VEGF upregulation. In retinal pigmentation epithelial (RPE) cells, gremlin activated VEGFR2-Akt-mTORC2 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2) signaling, and promoted cell proliferation, migration and VEGF production...
November 23, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892731/is-arachidonic-acid-stimulation-really-a-test-for-the-response-to-aspirin-time-to-think-again
#14
Bartosz Olechowski, Alexander Ashby, Mark Mariathas, Vikram Khanna, Michael Mahmoudi, Nick Curzen
Platelets play a key role in pathogenesis of atherothrombosis. Activated platelets initiate thrombus formation. Antiplatelet therapy (APT) modifies these properties. APT involves aspirin. The existence of "aspirin resistance" is reported in many populations with cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of this phenomenon is highly variable, affecting more than 50% of patient subgroups in some papers. Areas covered: This review describes the prevalence of "aspirin resistance", analyses why there is so much apparent variation and addresses whether the commonly used tests of aspirin response are in fact accurately assessing its functional performance...
November 28, 2016: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891612/neurovascular-mechanisms-underlying-augmented-cold-induced-reflex-cutaneous-vasoconstriction-in-human-hypertension
#15
Jody L Greaney, W Larry Kenney, Lacy M Alexander
Despite ample evidence of dysregulated sympathetic control of the peripheral vasculature in hypertension, no studies have examined integrated neurovascular function during cold stress in hypertensive adults (HTN). We hypothesized that (1) whole-body cooling would elicit greater cutaneous vasoconstriction and greater increases in skin sympathetic nervous system activity (SSNA) in HTN (n = 14; 56 ± 2 yrs) compared to age-matched normotensive adults (NTN; n = 14; 55 ± 2 yrs) and (2) augmented reflex vasoconstriction in HTN would be mediated by an increase in cutaneous vascular adrenergic sensitivity and a greater contribution of non-adrenergic sympathetic co-transmitters...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881716/influence-of-route-of-administration-and-lipidation-of-apolipoprotein-a-i-peptide-on-pharmacokinetics-and-cholesterol-mobilization
#16
Jie Tang, Dan Li, Lindsey Drake, Wenmin Yuan, Sarah Deshaine, Emily E Morin, Rose Ackermann, Karl Olsen, David E Smith, Anna Schwendeman
Apoliprotein A-I (apoA-I), apoA-I mimetic peptides and their lipid complexes or reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (HDL) have been studied as treatments for various pathologies. However, consensus is lacking about the best method for administration - by intravenous (IV) or intra-peritoneal (IP) routes, and formulation - as an HDL particle or in a lipid-free form. The objective of this study was to systematically examine peptide plasma levels, cholesterol mobilization and lipoprotein remodeling in vivo following administration of lipid-free apoA-I peptide (22A) or phospholipid reconstituted 22A-sHDL by IV and IP routes...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881399/intradermal-administration-of-endothelin-1-attenuates-endothelium-dependent-and-independent-cutaneous-vasodilation-via-rho-kinase-in-young-adults
#17
Naoto Fujii, Tatsuro Amano, Lyra Halili, Jeffrey C Louie, Sarah Yan Zhang, Brendan D McNeely, Glen P Kenny
We recently showed that intradermal administration of endothelin-1 diminished endothelium-dependent and -independent cutaneous vasodilation. We evaluated the hypothesis that Rho kinase may be a mediator of this response. We also sought to evaluate if endothelin-1 increases sweating. In twelve adults (25±6 years), we measured cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) and sweating during 1) endothelium-dependent vasodilation induced via administration of incremental doses of methacholine (0.25, 5, 100, 2000mM each for 25 min) and 2) endothelium-independent vasodilation induced via administration of 50mM sodium nitroprusside (20-25 min)...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881385/antihypertensive-effects-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-activation
#18
Marta Toral, Miguel Romero, Francisco Perez-Vizcaino, Juan Duarte, Rosario Jimenez
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors, which is composed of three members encoded by distinct genes: PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ. The biological actions of PPARα and PPARγ and their potential as a cardiovascular therapeutic target have been extensively reviewed, whereas the biological actions of PPARβ/δ and its effectiveness as a therapeutic target in the treatment of hypertension remain less investigated...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878277/synthetic-paclitaxel-octreotide-conjugate-reverses-the-resistance-of-paclitaxel-in-a2780-taxol-ovarian-cancer-cell-line
#19
Yang Shen, Xiao-Yu Zhang, Xi Chen, Li-Li Fan, Mu-Lan Ren, Yong-Ping Wu, Kenneth Chanda, Shi-Wen Jiang
The high mortality of ovarian cancer is partly due to the frequent resistance of ovarian cancer to current chemotherapy agents such as paclitaxel and platinum. Somatostatin analogue (SSTA) has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of some tumors through binding to somatostatin receptor (SSTR) and activation of Ras-, Rapl- and B-Raf-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (Erk2). It was reported that paclitaxel-octreotide conjugate (POC) exhibited enhanced tumor growth inhibition with reduced toxicity...
November 18, 2016: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878269/marmesin-mediated-suppression-of-vegf-vegfr-and-integrin%C3%A2-%C3%AE-1-expression-its-implication-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cell-responses-and-tumor-angiogenesis
#20
Jae Hyeon Kim, Min Su Kim, Bo Hee Lee, Jin-Kyu Kim, Eun-Kyung Ahn, Hye-Jin Ko, Young-Rak Cho, Sang-Jin Lee, Gyu-Un Bae, Yong Kee Kim, Joa Sub Oh, Dong-Wan Seo
In the present study, we investigated the effects and molecular mechanism of marmesin, a natural coumarin compound isolated from Broussonetia kazinoki, on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell responses and tumor angiogenesis. Marmesin abrogated mitogen-stimulated proliferation and invasion in both p53 wild-type A549 and p53-deficient H1299 NSCLC cells. These antitumor activities of marmesin were mediated by the inactivation of mitogenic signaling pathways and downregulation of cell signaling-related proteins including vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), integrin β1, integrin-linked kinase and matrix metalloproteinases-2...
November 15, 2016: Oncology Reports
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