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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148627/assessment-of-endpoint-criteria-and-perceived-barriers-during-maximal-cardiorespiratory-fitness-testing-among-pregnant-women
#1
Caitlin M Hesse, Rachel A Tinius, Bailey J Cooley, Alyssa A Olenick, Maire M Blankenship, Donald L Hoover, Jill M Maples
BACKGROUND: A plateau in volume of oxygen consumption (VO2) is the primary indicator for determining if an individual has reached their maximal aerobic capacity. However, secondary criteria can also be used to identify maximal effort (i.e. lactate level, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), percent of age-predicted maximal heart rate (HR) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER)). Age and gender-specific secondary criteria have been developed for the general population, but no secondary criteria have been established for pregnant women...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147922/the-effect-of-head-to-head-competition-on-behavioural-thermoregulation-thermophysiological-strain-and-performance-during-exercise-in-the-heat
#2
Jo Corbett, Danny K White, Martin J Barwood, Christopher R D Wagstaff, Michael J Tipton, Terry McMorris, Joseph T Costello
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that pacing is a thermoregulatory behaviour. We investigated the effect of competition on pacing, performance and thermophysiological strain during exercise in the heat and the psychological factors mediating competition effects. METHOD: Eighteen males (maximum oxygen uptake [V O 2max] 3.69 [0.44] L min(-1)) undertook a preliminary 20-km cool (wet-bulb globe temperature [WBGT] 12 °C) cycling time trial (TT) and three experimental 20-km trials (balanced order): (i) cool TT (CoolSolo); (ii) hot (WBGT 26 °C) TT (HotSolo); (iii) hot head-to-head competition (HotH2H)...
November 17, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147573/risk-factors-for-exertional-rhabdomyolysis-with-renal-stress
#3
Terje Apeland, Tore Danielsen, Eva M Staal, Anders Åsberg, Inga S Thorsen, Tom Ole Dalsrud, Stein Ørn
Background: Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis denotes the exertional damage of myocytes with leakage of sarcoplasmic content into the circulation. The purpose of this study was to determine important risk factors for the development of exertional rhabdomyolysis in a temperate climate and to study the renal effects of myoglobinuria. Methods: A cluster of eight military recruits was admitted to hospital due to exertional rhabdomyolysis with myoglobinuria. The patients were treated according to current guidelines with isotonic saline and alkalinisation of the urine...
2017: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146151/a-new-two-component-compression-system-turning-an-elastic-bandage-into-an-inelastic-compression-device-interface-pressure-stiffness-and-haemodynamic-effectiveness
#4
Giovanni Mosti, Hugo Partsch
INTRODUCTION: Bandage application does not exert consistent compression pressure, leading to extremely variable compression when applied to patients. A new elastic bandage can exert a predefined pressure independently of healthcare providers and the size of the wrapped limb. The bandage system includes a series of non-stretchable patches that when applied to the bandage make it stiff. The aim of this work was to assess, in an experimental setting, the venous ejection fraction (EF) from the lower leg and the tolerability of this new bandage in a group of patients affected by superficial venous incompetence...
November 13, 2017: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143570/the-perceptual-responses-to-high-velocity-low-load-and-low-velocity-high-load-resistance-exercise-in-older-adults
#5
Darren L Richardson, Michael J Duncan, Alfonso Jimenez, Victoria M Jones, Paul M Juris, Neil D Clarke
The present study examined exercise affect during volume-load matched, high-velocity, low-load and low-velocity, high-load resistance exercise conditions in older adults. Ten older adults completed three sets of eight exercises on six separate occasions (three high-velocity, low-load and three low-velocity, high-load sessions) in a crossover study design. High-velocity, low-load was performed at 40% of predicted one repetition maximum, and low-velocity, high-load at 80%. The Physical Activity Affect Scale, Felt Arousal Scale, Feeling Scale, Rating of Perceived Exertion, Visual Analogue Scales, and the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale examined exercise intensity and affect...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143502/-exercise-induced-bronchoconstriction-epidemiology-physiopathology-and-management
#6
Fabienne Reinhard-Groebli, Laurent P Nicod
Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, associated or not with asthma, describes a transient limitation of airflow in the airways occurring during or after physical activity, regardless of age or training. Bronchoconstriction on exertion is principally induced by thermal and fluid losses of the bronchial mucosa by hyperventilation of large air volumes. Respiratory symptoms are variable and not specific. Among bronchial provocation test, eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation owns the best sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction...
November 15, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138674/exercise-training-restores-cardiac-microrna-1-and-microrna-29c-to-nonpathological-levels-in-obese-rats
#7
André C Silveira, Tiago Fernandes, Úrsula P R Soci, João L P Gomes, Diego L Barretti, Glória G F Mota, Carlos Eduardo Negrão, Edilamar M Oliveira
We previously reported that aerobic exercise training (AET) consisted of 10 weeks of 60-min swimming sessions, and 5 days/week AET counteracts CH in obesity. Here, we evaluated the role of microRNAs and their target genes that are involved in heart collagen deposition and calcium signaling, as well as the cardiac remodeling induced by AET in obese Zucker rats. Among the four experimental Zucker groups: control lean rats (LZR), control obese rats (OZR), trained lean rats (LZR + TR), and trained obese rats (OZR + TR), heart weight was greater in the OZR than in the LZR group due to increased cardiac intramuscular fat and collagen...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136305/neural-basis-of-exertional-fatigue-in-the-heat-a-review-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-methods
#8
REVIEW
X R Tan, Ivan C C Low, Mary C Stephenson, T W Soong, Jason K W Lee
The central nervous system, specifically the brain, is implicated in the development of exertional fatigue under a hot environment. Diverse neuroimaging techniques have been used to visualize the brain activity during or after exercise. Notably, the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become prevalent due to its excellent spatial resolution and versatility. This review evaluates the significance and limitations of various brain MRI techniques in exercise studies - brain volumetric analysis, functional MRI, functional connectivity MRI and arterial spin labelling...
November 14, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129676/exercise-enhances-cognitive-function-and-neurotrophin-expression-in-the-hippocampus-accompanied-by-changes-in-epigenetic-programming-in-senescence-accelerated-mice
#9
Hiroshi Maejima, Naohiko Kanemura, Takanori Kokubun, Kenji Murata, Kiyomi Takayanagi
Aerobic exercise is known to increase expression of neurotrophins, particularly brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), in the hippocampus and to improve cognitive function. Exercise exerts neuroprotective effects in the hippocampus by inducing epigenetic changes, which play crucial roles in aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Specifically, the activity levels of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate histone acetylation and modulate gene transcription. The objective of the present study was to assess the interactive effects of exercise and aging on cognitive function, expression of neurotrophins (BDNF and neurotrophin-4) and their receptors (tyrosine receptor kinase B and p75), and epigenetic regulations, including the activity of HATs and HADCs in the hippocampus...
November 9, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127316/exercise-induced-changes-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-mirnas-in-gulf-war-illness-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-and-sedentary-control-subjects
#10
James N Baraniuk, Narayan Shivapurkar
Gulf War Illness (GWI) and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) have similar profiles of pain, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction and exertional exhaustion. Post-exertional malaise suggests exercise alters central nervous system functions. Lumbar punctures were performed in GWI, CFS and control subjects after (i) overnight rest (nonexercise) or (ii) submaximal bicycle exercise. Exercise induced postural tachycardia in one third of GWI subjects (Stress Test Activated Reversible Tachycardia, START). The remainder were Stress Test Originated Phantom Perception (STOPP) subjects...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126339/the-force-velocity-relationship-in-older-people-reliability-and-validity-of-a-systematic-procedure
#11
Julian Alcazar, Carlos Rodriguez-Lopez, Ignacio Ara, Ana Alfaro-Acha, Asier Mañas-Bote, Amelia Guadalupe-Grau, Francisco Jose García-García, Luis M Alegre
This study compared the reliability and validity of different protocols evaluating the force-velocity (F-V) relationship and muscle power in older adults. Thirty-one older men and women (75.8±4.7 years) underwent two F-V tests by collecting the mean and peak force and velocity data exerted against increasing loads until one repetition maximum (1RM) was achieved in the leg press exercise. Two attempts per load were performed, with a third attempt when F-V points deviated from the linear F-V regression equation...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126337/factors-predicting-lower-leg-chronic-exertional-compartment-syndrome-in-a-large-population
#12
Johan A de Bruijn, Aniek P M van Zantvoort, David van Klaveren, Michiel B Winkes, Marike van der Cruijsen-Raaijmakers, Adwin R Hoogeveen, Joep A W Teijink, Marc R Scheltinga
Knowledge about lower leg chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is largely obtained from highly selected populations. Patient characteristics may therefore not be appropriate for the general population. Our purpose was to describe a heterogeneous population of individuals suspected of lower leg CECS and to identify predictors of CECS. Charts of individuals who were analyzed for exercise-induced lower leg pain in a referral center between 2001 and 2013 were retrospectively studied. Patients were included if history and physical examination were suggestive of CECS and if they had undergone a dynamic intracompartmental pressure measurement...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125056/monosodium-glutamate-and-treadmill-exercise-anxiety-like-behavior-and-spreading-depression-features-in-young-adult-rats
#13
Suênia Marcele Vitor-de-Lima, Larissa de Brito Medeiros, Regina de Deus Lira Benevides, Catarina Nicácio Dos Santos, Nahara Oliveira Lima da Silva, Rubem Carlos Araújo Guedes
OBJECTIVES: The route of administration is an important factor in determining the action of some drugs. We previously demonstrated that subcutaneous monosodium glutamate (MSG) accelerated cortical spreading depression (CSD) in the rat and that treadmill exercise attenuated this effect. This study evaluated whether other routes of administration exert the same action by testing orogastric (gavage) and topical cortical MSG administration in treadmill-exercised and sedentary rats. Additionally, in the orogastric treatment we tested anxiety-like behavior...
November 10, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124115/study-protocol-of-the-intense-physical-activity-and-cognition-study-the-effect-of-high-intensity-exercise-training-on-cognitive-function-in-older-adults
#14
Belinda M Brown, Stephanie R Rainey-Smith, Natalie Castalanelli, Nicole Gordon, Shaun Markovic, Hamid R Sohrabi, Michael Weinborn, Simon M Laws, James Doecke, Kaikai Shen, Ralph N Martins, Jeremiah J Peiffer
Introduction: Inconsistent results from previous studies of exercise and cognitive function suggest that rigorously designed randomized controlled trials are urgently needed. Here, we describe the design of the Intense Physical Activity and Cognition (IPAC) study, which will assess the impact of a 6-month high-intensity exercise intervention on cognitive function and biomarkers of dementia risk, compared with a 6-month moderate-intensity exercise intervention and control group (no study-related exercise)...
November 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123488/wearing-compression-tights-on-the-thigh-during-prolonged-running-attenuated-exercise-induced-increase-in-muscle-damage-marker-in-blood
#15
Sahiro Mizuno, Mari Arai, Fumihiko Todoko, Eri Yamada, Kazushige Goto
Purpose: To examine the effects of wearing a lower-body compression garment with different body coverage areas during prolonged running on exercise performance and muscle damage. Methods: Thirty male subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) wearing a compression tights with 15 mmHg to thigh [n = 10, CT group], (2) wearing a compression socks with 15 mmHg to calf [n = 10, CS group], and (3) wearing a lower-body garment with < 5 mmHg to thigh and calf [n = 10, CON group]. The exercise consisted of 120 min of uphill running at 55% of [Formula: see text]O2max...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123172/transcriptomic-and-epigenetic-responses-to-short-term-nutrient-exercise-stress-in-humans
#16
R C Laker, C Garde, D M Camera, W J Smiles, J R Zierath, J A Hawley, R Barrès
High fat feeding impairs skeletal muscle metabolic flexibility and induces insulin resistance, whereas exercise training exerts positive effects on substrate handling and improves insulin sensitivity. To identify the genomic mechanisms by which exercise ameliorates some of the deleterious effects of high fat feeding, we investigated the transcriptional and epigenetic response of human skeletal muscle to 9 days of a high-fat diet (HFD) alone (Sed-HFD) or in combination with resistance exercise (Ex-HFD), using genome-wide profiling of gene expression and DNA methylation...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120986/acute-capsaicin-supplementation-improves-1500-m-running-time-trial-performance-and-rate-of-perceived-exertion-in-physically-active-adults
#17
Marcelo Conrado de Freitas, Jason M Cholewa, Luis A Gobbo, João Vitor N S de Oliveira, Fabio S Lira, Fabrício E Rossi
The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effect of capsaicin supplementation on performance, rate of perceived exertion and blood lactate concentrations during short duration running in physically active adults. Ten physically active men (age= 23.5±1.9 yrs, weight= 78.3±12.4 kg, height= 177.9±5.9 cm) completed two randomized, double-blind trials: Capsaicin condition (12 mg) or a placebo condition. Forty five minutes after supplement consumption, the participants performed a 1500 meter running time trial...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120981/biomechanical-methods-to-quantify-muscle-effort-during-resistance-exercise
#18
Loren Z F Chiu
Muscle hypertrophy and strength adaptations elicited by resistance training dependent on the force exerted by active muscles. As an exercise may use many muscles, determining force for individual muscles or muscle groupings is important to understand the relation between an exercise and these adaptations. Muscle effort - the amount of force or a surrogate measure related to the amount of force exerted during a task - can be quantified using biomechanical methods. The purpose of this review was to summarize the biomechanical methods used to estimate muscle effort in movements, particularly resistance training exercises...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118320/nicotinamide-mononucleotide-nmn-supplementation-ameliorates-the-impact-of-maternal-obesity-in-mice-comparison-with-exercise
#19
Golam Mezbah Uddin, Neil A Youngson, Bronte M Doyle, David A Sinclair, Margaret J Morris
Maternal overnutrition increases the risk of long-term metabolic dysfunction in offspring. Exercise improves metabolism partly by upregulating mitochondrial biogenesis or function, via increased levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)). We have shown that the NAD(+) precursor, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) can reverse some of the negative consequences of high fat diet (HFD) consumption. To investigate whether NMN can impact developmentally-set metabolic deficits, we compared treadmill exercise and NMN injection in offspring of obese mothers...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117073/metabolic-and-performance-effects-of-yerba-mate-on-well-trained-cyclists
#20
Jose L Areta, Ingvild Austarheim, Helle Wangensteen, Carlo Capelli
INTRODUCTION: Yerba Mate (YM) is a South-American plant, rich in polyphenols, saponins and xanthines, of growing scientific interest due to its metabolic effects. YM has been shown to increase fat utilization during exercise in untrained humans, but its effects on well-trained individuals during exercise are unknown. METHODS: We characterized metabolic and physical performance effects of YM in eleven well-trained male cyclists. In a double-blind crossover design, participants ingested 5 g of YM or placebo (PL; maltodextrin) daily for 5 days, and 1 h prior to experimental trials...
November 7, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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